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Harvard style

In-text citations

Page numbers

The Harvard style of referencing requires you to include the name of the author(s) and the year of publication within the text.

Direct quotations/paraphrased sentences

If you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

Summarising a large proportion of a text

If you are summarising a large section of the book you do not need to include page numbers. Additionally, you do not need to pinpoint the specific minute(s) if you are citing a film. However, if it helps your argument to have a sense of when a certain event or scene takes place in the film, do include this information earlier on in the sentence of your in-text citation.

Placement of references for in-text citations

References, whenever possible, should be placed at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation).

Example:

...as one writer put it 'the darkest days were still ahead' (Weston, 1988, p. 45).

Alternatively, the author's surname may be integrated into the text, followed immediately by the year of publication in brackets.

Example:

Scholtz (1990, p. 564) has argued that...

Goddard and Barrett (2007) suggested...

4+ authors: list the first author's name followed by et al in italics, e.g.

...as the report suggested (Edwards et al. 2004).

 

More than one reference by an author in the same year

If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year they are generally labelled in order of publication with a lower case letter.

Example:

...outlined by Smith (2009a, p. 45) and developed further in his report (2009b, p. 23).

 

Unknown Author(s)

If the author's name is unknown, you should list the title of the article, book or webpage in italics.

Example:

...the worst election loss in the party's history (The Age, 1968, p. 2).

 

Referring to works quoted within other works

You may want to refer to a work that you haven't actually read, but which has been summarised or discussed in somebody else's work. Use the format: Author's Surname, year, cited in Author's Surname, year, p. X.

Example:

There was further evidence to support researchers' views on genetic abnormalities in crops (White, 2001, cited in Murray, 2007, p. 82).

If you are citing an author whose work you haven’t read directly, but is referenced in a chapter of an edited book, where the chapter authors are different to the book’s authors, the format is the same as the example above. For your reference list, see the chapters/sections in an edited book section.

 
Only include references where you read the original work, in the list of references at the end of your work; you cannot include details about original studies if you have not read them.

Creating your bibliography/list of references

The bibliography is a list of all the sources that you have used. The following rules should be followed when putting together your Harvard bibliography:

  • references are arranged in alphabetical order by author's
  • where there is no author or author is unknown, the title of the resource is used instead
  • only the first letter of the first word of a title is capitalised; second and subsequent words' first letters are not capitalised
  • titles of books are in italics<
  • only include edition numbers if the edition is not the first or revised edition
  • If you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).
 

Sample bibliography

Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

 

National Academies (2012) 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' Twitter, 8 March. Available at: http://twitter.com (Accessed: 10 March 2012).

 

Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

 

Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books, pp. 83-95.

Book

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Book title. Place of publication: publisher.

Example:

Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books.

 

Direct quotations/pharaphrased sentences: if you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

Chapters / sections in edited books

When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within an edited book, use the format below:

Citation order and format

Author of the section / chapter - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication)  ‘Chapter title’, 'in' followed by the book's author / editor surname, first name. (ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pp.

Example:

Smith, C. (2006) 'Feminism in Jane Eyre', in Brennan, Z. (ed.) Brontèˆ's Jane Eyre a reader's guide. London: Continuum International Pub. Group, pp. 12-16.

 

Veck, W. (2015) 'Arendt, Power and Education', in Kupfer, A. (ed) Power and Education: Contexts of Oppression and Opportunity. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.13-25. 

Ebook

When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

 

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Ebook title. Ebook collection [Online]. Available at: URL (Downloaded: date month year).

Example:

Akers, R.L. and Jensen, G.F. (2011) Social learning theory and the explanation of crime: a guide for the new century. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. 

 

Corrie, M. (2009) A concise companion to Middle English literature. NetLibrary [Online]. Available at: http://www.netlibrary.com (Downloaded: 21 June 2011).

 

Ebook reader

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Ebook title. Downloaded Website Name [ebook reader]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year).

Example:

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhikker's guide to the galaxy. Ebooks.com [ebook reader]. Available at: http://www.ebooks.com/ebooks/book_display.asp?IID=161294 (Accessed: 29 January 2010).

Journals

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of journal,* Volume (Issue), pp.

Example:

Newton, K. (2006) 'May the weak force be with you: The power of mass media in modern politics', European Journal of Political Research, 45(2), pp. 209-234.

*capitalise the first letter of each word except for conjunctions

 

eJournals/journal articles accessed via a database

If you have accessed the journal article using an online database such as JSTOR, you need to provide sufficient information in your reference for your reader to easily locate the information source. You are no longer required to use elements such as [Online] or the name of the database, but if the article is available online only, then you will need to include Available at: URL or doi in your reference. See below for examples.

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of journal,* Volume (Issue), pp. Available at: url or doi: (Accessed: day month year).

Examples:

Bakand, S., Hayes, A. and Dechsakulthorn, F. (2012) 'Nanoparticles: A review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure', Inhalation Toxicology, 24(2), pp. 125-135. DOI: 10.3109/08958378.2010.642021 (Accessed: 14 February 2012).

Dunham, R.H. (1976) 'Silas Marner and the wordsworthian child', Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 16(4), pp. 645-665. Available at: www.jstor.org (Accessed: 10 Feb 2012).

Web page

Information should be listed in the following order/format:  

[Author or organisation (if available)], [Title of the web page - in italics] [Place: Publisher, year - placed in round brackets] [url of the web page in < url >]. [accessed date month year] (page).

Example: 

Christel Lane and others, The Future of Professionalised Work: UK and Germany Compared (London: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society, 2003) <http://www.agf.org.uk/pubs/pdfs/1232web.pdf>  [accessed 12 December 2007] (p. 11).

Film / Television / YouTube / iPlayers

Film

Citation order and format

Title (Year of release) Directed by Director's Forename Surname [Feature Film.] Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example:

Macbeth (1948) Directed by Orson Wells [Feature Film]. USA: Republic Pictures.

 

Films on DVD

Citation order and format

Title (Year of release) Directed by Director's Forename Surname [DVD or Blue-ray, catalogue number]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example:

The English patient (1996) Directed by Anthony Minghella [DVD, 657475]. USA: Buena Vista Home Video.

 

Television

Citation order and format

Title of programme (Year of broadcast) Name of channel, Date of Broadcast - day month, time of transmission.

Example:

The Nuclear Age (2009) ITV Television, 16 June, 21:30.

 

iPlayers or Broadcast box episodes

Citation order and format

'Title of episode' (Year of broadcast) Title of series/season, Date of broadcast. Channel Name. Available at: iPlayer name (Accessed: date month year).

Example:

'Time & Entropy' (2011) Wonders of the Universe - Destiny, 6 March. BBC Two. Available at: BBC iPlayer (Accessed: 15 October 2011).

 

YouTube

Citation order and format

Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of video.Date uploaded (if available). Available at: url (Accessed: date month year)

Example:

BBC Teach (2016) Shakespeare in shorts: A Midsummer Night's Dream. 17 March.  Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Inu2A5iHROI (Accessed: 24 March 2022).

 

ThamesTv (2015) Indira Gandhi Interview | TV Eye | 1978. 20 July. Available at: https://youtu.be/q8aETK5pQR4 (Accessed: 24 March 2022). 

n.b., use the same format for vime, TED, Dailymotion 

Netflix

Citation order and format

'Title of episode' (Year of broadcast) Title of series/season, Series number, episode number, Channel. Available at: Netflix url (Accessed: date month year).

Example:

'Time & Entropy' (2011) Wonders of the Universe - Destiny, Series 1, episode 4. Netflix. Available at: http://www.netflix.com/gb/title/80025678 (Accessed 15 October 2011).

Advertisements

Television

Citation order and format

Company advertising (Year) Title [Medium and channel on which advertisement appeared]. Date and Month viewed.

Example:

British Telecom (2008) Office relocation gremlins [Advertisement on ITV1 Television]. 23 June.

 

Newspaper

Citation order and format

Name of newspaper (Year) ‘Title’ [Advertisement]. Date Month, p.

Example:

The Guardian (2007) 'WOMAD festival' [Advertisement]. 14 April, p. 12.

 

Internet

Citation order and format

Company advertising (Year) Title [Advertisement]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month (abbreviated) year).

Example:

Lloyds TSB Bank plc (2008) Selling your house? [Advertisement]. Available at: http://www.hotmail.com (Accessed: 13 February 2010).

Government document

Citation order and format

Government department name (year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (series if applicable) or doi or Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Example:

Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office. (Cm. 4516).

 

Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: https://www.gov.co.uk/dangerousdogsreport2019 (Accessed: 12 June 2019).

 

Many UK government publications may be accessed via https://www.gov.uk but you should use the specific author or department as the author, if given.

 

If you are referencing government publications from more than one country, include the country of origin (in round brackets) after the department name.

Newspaper article

Articles from print newspapers

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Full title of newspaper, (Edition, - if required) day month p. X.

Example:

Old, D. (2008) 'House price gloom', Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p. 25.

 

Articles from online newspapers

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Full title of newspaper, Available at: url (Accessed: date month year).

Example:

Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

 

Unknown author for a newspaper article

Citation order and format

Full title of newspaper, (Year of publication), ‘Title of article’, day month, p. X

Example:

The Guardian, (2012), 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', 8 March, p. 12.

 
 

Capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except conjunctions

 

Blog post

Citation order and format

Author - Surname, initials. (Year blog site was published or last updated) ‘Title of post’, Title of blog site, Day and month of post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year).

Example:

Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

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