Harvard style

The Harvard referencing style guidance below has been cited from: Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Please note your school may have specific referencing requirements; to ensure you are using the preferred referencing style please check with your school office.

n.b., There are many different version of Harvard. If you have using Reference mananagment software or a citation generator, like Zoterobib, then you need to select Cite Them Right 11th edition - Harvard.

How to reference a particular source in Harvard style

Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find information about how to reference a particular source in Harvard style.

 

  • In-text citations

    Page numbers

    The Harvard style of referencing requires you to include the name of the author(s) and the year of publication within the text.

    Direct quotations/paraphrased sentences

    If you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

    Summarising a large proportion of a text

    If you are summarising a large section of the book you do not need to include page numbers. Additionally, you do not need to pinpoint the specific minute(s) if you are citing a film. However, if it helps your argument to have a sense of when a certain event or scene takes place in the film, do include this information earlier on in the sentence of your in-text citation.

    Placement of references for in-text citations

    References, whenever possible, should be placed at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation).

    Example:

    ...as one writer put it 'the darkest days were still ahead' (Weston, 1988, p. 45).

    Alternatively, the author's surname may be integrated into the text, followed immediately by the year of publication in brackets.

    Example:

    Scholtz (1990, p. 564) has argued that...

    Works with more than one author

    The number of authors there are for any given piece of work determines how the authors' names are formatted for in-text citations. The following rules apply:

    • 1-3 authors: list all author names in every citation, for example:

    Goddard and Barrett (2007) suggested...

    • 4+ authors: list the first author's name followed by et al in italics, for example:

    ...as the report suggested (Edwards et al. 2004).

    More than one reference by an author in the same year

    If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year they are generally labelled in order of publication with a lower case letter.

    Example:

    ...outlined by Smith (2009a, p. 45) and developed further in his report (2009b, p. 23).

    Unknown Author(s)

    If the author's name is unknown, you should list the title of the article, book or webpage in italics.

    Example:

    ...the worst election loss in the party's history (The Age, 1968, p. 2).

    Referring to works quoted within other works

    You may want to refer to a work that you haven't actually read, but which has been summarised or discussed in somebody else's work. Use the format: Author's Surname, year, cited in Author's Surname, year, p. X.

    Example:

    There was further evidence to support researchers' views on genetic abnormalities in crops (White, 2001, cited in Murray, 2007, p. 82).

    If you are citing an author whose work you haven’t read directly, but is referenced in a chapter of an edited book, where the chapter authors are different to the book’s authors, the format is the same as the example above. For your reference list, see the chapters/sections in an edited book section.

    *Note: only include references where you read the original work, in the list of references at the end of your work; you cannot include details about original studies if you have not read them.

  • Creating your bibliography/list of references

    The bibliography is a list of all the sources that you have used. The following rules should be followed when putting together your Harvard bibliography:

    • references are arranged in alphabetical order by author's
    • where there is no author or author is unknown, the title of the resource is used instead
    • only the first letter of the first word of a title is capitalised; second and subsequent words' first letters are not capitalised
    • titles of books are in italics
    • only include edition numbers if the edition is not the first or revised edition
    • If you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

    Sample bibliography

    Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

    National Academies (2012) 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' Twitter, 8 March. Available at: http://twitter.com (Accessed: 10 March 2012).

    Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

    Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books, pp. 83-95.

  • Journal article (print)

    Citation order and format

    Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) 'Article title', Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), pp. [page range].

    Example:

    Byrne, M. (2016) 'Children and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy', Journal of Psychology, 4(2), pp. 45-48.

  • Journal article (online)

    Citation order and format

    Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) 'Article title', Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), p. (if available). doi: doi number (if one is available).

    Example:

    Byrne, M. (2016) 'Children and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy', Journal of Psychology, 4(2), pp. 45-48. doi:10.1080/02619761003602246.

    Online articles with no doi number

    Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) 'Article title', Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), p. (if available). Available at: website address (Accessed: day month year).

    Example:

    Byrne, M. (2016) 'Children and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy', Journal of Psychology, 4(2), pp. 45-48. Available at: https://taylorandfrancisonline.com/154365476121 (Accessed: 23 April 2018).

  • Book

    Citation order and format

    Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Book title. Place of publication: publisher.

    Example:

    Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books.

    Direct quotations/pharaphrased sentences: if you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

  • Translated works

    Citation order and format

    Author/editor Surname, Initials. (Year of translated publication) Book title. Translated by First Name Surname. Place of publication: publisher, pp.

    Example:

    Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. Translated by David Matthews. London: collins books, pp. 83-95.

  • Citing asian names

    In Western naming culture, generally a person's surname is often listed as the last name, e.g. John Smith. However, in Asian culture, a person's surname is generally listed first, i.e. Smith John. This applies to Chinese, Malay, and Indian naming conventions so the referencing format should be as follows:

    In-text citations

    The book The security environment in the Asia-Pacific by Cheng Tun-jen would be formatted in-text as:

    ...as one writer noted the darkest days were still ahead (Cheng, 2000, p. 45).

    Bibliography

    The book The security environment in the Asia-Pacific by Cheng Tun-jen would be formatted in the bibliography as:

    Cheng, T.-jen., 2000. The security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.

    Exceptions

    Some Asian naming conventions only include a first name, and not a surname; in those cases use the first name provided in place of the surname.

  • Chapters/sections in edited books

    When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within an edited book, use the format below:

    Citation order and format

    Author of the section / chapter - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) ‘Chapter title’ followed by the book's author / editor surname, first name. (ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pp.

    Example:

    Smith, C. (2006) 'Feminism in Jane Eyre', in Brennan, Z. (ed.) Brontë's Jane Eyre a reader's guide. London: Continuum International Pub. Group, pp. 12-16.

  • Ebook

    When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Ebook title. Ebook collection [Online]. Available at: URL (Downloaded: date month year).

    Example:

    Corrie, M. (2009) A concise companion to Middle English literature. NetLibrary [Online]. Available at: http://www.netlibrary.com (Downloaded: 21 June 2011).

  • Website

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, Initials. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date Month year).

    Example:

    Woodward, E. (2017) Deliciously Ella. Available at: https://deliciouslyella.com/ (Accessed: 20 March 2017).

    Do not include the website's URL in your in-text citation, unless this is the only piece of information you have. Use the author, date format.

  • Film/television/YouTube/iPlayer

    Film

    Citation order and format

    Title (Year of release) Directed by Director's Forename Surname [Feature Film.] Place of distribution: Distribution company.

    Example:

    Macbeth (1948) Directed by Orson Wells [Feature Film]. USA: Republic Pictures.

    Films on DVD

    Citation order and format

    Title (Year of release) Directed by Director's Forename Surname [DVD or Blue-ray, catalogue number]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

    Example:

    The English patient (1996) Directed by Anthony Minghella [DVD, 657475]. USA: Buena Vista Home Video.

    Television

    Citation order and format

    Title of programme (Year of broadcast) Name of channel, Date of Broadcast - day month, time of transmission.

    Example:

    The Nuclear Age (2009) ITV Television, 16 June, 21:30.

    iPlayers or Broadcast box episodes

    Citation order and format

    'Title of episode' (Year of broadcast) Title of series/season, Date of broadcast. Channel Name. Available at: iPlayer name (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    'Time & Entropy' (2011) Wonders of the Universe - Destiny, 6 March. BBC Two. Available at: BBC iPlayer (Accessed: 15 October 2011).

    YouTube

    Citation order and format

    Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of video.Available at: url (Accessed: date month year)

    Example:

    Shakespeareanimated (2008) BBC Shakespeare Animated Tales - A Midsummer Night's Dream - Part 2. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zr1gk9nwTYY (Accessed: 12 May 2011).

    Netflix

    Citation order and format

    'Title of episode' (Year of broadcast) Title of series/season, Series number, episode number, Channel. Available at: Netflix url (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    'Time & Entropy' (2011) Wonders of the Universe - Destiny, Series 1, episode 4. Netflix. Available at: http://www.netflix.com/gb/title/80025678 (Accessed 15 October 2011).

  • Advertisements

    Television

    Citation order and format

    Company advertising (Year) Title [Medium and channel on which advertisement appeared]. Date and Month viewed.

    Example:

    British Telecom (2008) Office relocation gremlins [Advertisement on ITV1 Television]. 23 June.

    Newspaper

    Citation order and format

    Name of newspaper (Year) ‘Title’ [Advertisement]. Date Month, p.

    Example:

    The Guardian (2007) 'WOMAD festival' [Advertisement]. 14 April, p. 12.

    Internet

    Citation order and format

    Company advertising (Year) Title [Advertisement]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month (abbreviated) year).

    Example:

    Lloyds TSB Bank plc (2008) Selling your house? [Advertisement]. Available at: http://www.hotmail.com (Accessed: 13 February 2010).

  • Government document

    Citation order and format

    Government department name (year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (series if applicable) or doi or Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    Example:

    Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office. (Cm. 4516).

    Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office. Available at: https://www.gov.co.uk/dangerousdogsreport2019 (Accessed: 12 June 2019).

    Many UK government publications may be accessed via https://www.gov.uk but you should use the specific author or department as the author, if given.

    If you are referencing government publications from more than one country, include the country of origin (in round brackets) after the department name.

  • Reports by organisations or individuals

    Citation order and format - printed report

    Author/Organisation name. (Year of publication) Full title of report. Place of publication: Publisher.

    Example: print report

    Bentley. (2006) The power of mass media in advertising. New York: Bentley.

    Citation order and format - e-report/online report

    Author/Organisation name. (Year of publication) Full title of report. Place of publication: Publisher. doi number or Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year).

    Example: online report

    European Commission (2018) European outbreak of Zika 2018. Luxemburg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Available at: www.reutersresearch.ie/zikareport2018 (Accessed: 10 Mar 2018).

  • Newspaper article

    Articles from print newspapers

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Full title of newspaper, (Edition, - if required) day month p. X.

    Example:

    Old, D. (2008) 'House price gloom', Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p. 25.

    Articles from online newspapers

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Full title of newspaper, Available at: url (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

    Unknown author for a newspaper article

    Citation order and format

    Full title of newspaper, (Year of publication), ‘Title of article’, day month, p. X

    Example:

    The Guardian, (2012), 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', 8 March, p. 12.

    Capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except conjunctions

  • Lecture notes

    Citation order and format

    Author or tutor - Surname, initials. (Year) ‘Title of item’ module code: module title. Available at: URL or VLE (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    Smith, I. (2017) 'Week 1: assignment prep.' PSY1001:Psychological Development of Children. Available at: http://psy1001.studydirect.sussex.ac.uk (Accessed: 10 February 2017).

  • PowerPoint presentation

    Citation order and format

    Author or tutor - Surname, initials. (Year) ‘Title of presentation’ [Powerpoint] module code: module title. Available at: URL or VLE (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    Smith, I. (2017) 'Piaget's theory of cognitive learning' [PowerPoint] PSY1001:Psychological Development of Children. Available at: http://psy1001.studydirect.sussex.ac.uk (Accessed: 10 February 2017).

  • Blog post

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, initials. (Year blog site was published or last updated) ‘Title of post’, Title of blog site, Day and month of post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

  • Paintings

    Citation order and format

    Artist - Surname, initials. (Year) Title of work [Medium]. Institution of collection, city.

    Example:

    Kahlo, F. (1931) Frieda and Diego Rivera [Oil on canvas]. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco.

    If accessed online

    Artist - Surname, initials. (Year) Title of work [Medium]. Institution of collection, city. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year).

    Example:

    Kahlo, F. (1931) Frieda and Diego Rivera [Oil on canvas]. Available at: http://www.artstor.org (Accessed 14 May 2011).

  • Podcast

    Citation order and format

    Author/Presenter. (Year site was published or last updated) Title of Podcast [Podcast]. Day and month of podcast airing. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    Verity, A et al. (2012) Retail Sales Figures. [Podcast]. 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/retailsalesfigures (Accessed: 11 April 2019).

  • Radio programmes

    Citation order and format

    Title of Programme (year of airing) Name of channel, Date of airing, time of airing.

    Example:

    Woman's Hour (2019) BBC Radio 4, 28 June, 10:00.

    Online radio programmes

    Title of Programme (year of airing) Name of channel, Date and time of original airing (if possible). Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    Example:

    Woman's Hour (2019) BBC Radio 4, 28 June, 10:00. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/play/b0bbp9q9 (Accessed: 8 August 2019).

  • Graphs and scientific datasets

    Graphs

    Citation order and format

    Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Page number or figure number for graph, graph.

    Example:

    Verity, A et al. (2012) Retail Sales Figures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.42, graph.

    Scientific datasets

    Citation order and format if online

    Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of data'. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    Example:

    Verity, A et al. (2012) 'HEQ level holdings'. Available at: http://physics.nist.gov/a543d3 (Accessed: 2 August 2019).

  • Tweet

    Citation order and format

    Author - Surname, Initials. (Year) ‘Title of tweet’ Twitter, Date of post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year).

    Example:

    National Academies (2012) 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' Twitter, 8 March. Available at: http://twitter.com (Accessed: 10 March 2012).

  • International legal resources

    United Nations Resolutions

    Citation order and format

    Organisation (year of publication) Title. Resolution number. DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    General Assembly (reference number A/RES)

    As discussed in the report on Atomic Energy (United Nations General Assembly, 2019)…

    United Nations General Assembly (2019) Report of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Resolution A/RES/74/8. Available at: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/74/8 (Accessed: 25 November 2019).

    Security Council (reference number S/RES)

    The resolution to ensure compliance (United Nations Security Council, 2019)…

    United Nations Security Council (2019) The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Resolution S/RES/2496. Available at: http://undocs.org/S/RES/2496(2019) (Accessed: 25 November 2019).

    International treaties, conventions and accords

    Citation order and format

    Title of treaty (year of publication) Treaty number. Publication title. Volume and page numbers. If accessed online DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    Example:

    Convention to prevent and punish the acts of terrorism taking the form of crimes against persons and related extortion that are of international significance. (1973) Treaty no. 24381. United Nations Treaty Series, 1438, p. 191. Available at: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/showDetails.aspx?objid=08000002800d031f (Accessed: 25 November 2019).

    You will be able to find details of treaties in the United Nations Treaty Series.

    EU directives, decisions and regulations

    Citation order and format

    ‘Legislation type Number and title’ (year of publication) Official journal series, issue, page numbers. If accessed online DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

    Example:

    ‘Directive 2001/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 May 2001 on the admission of securities to official stock exchange listing and on information to be published on those securities' (2001) Official Journal L184, pp. 1–66. Available at: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2001/34/oj

    ‘Regulation (EU) No 236/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2012 on short selling and certain aspects of credit default swaps Text with EEA relevance’ (2012) Official Journal L86, pp. 1–24. Available at: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2012/236/oj

    See EUR-Lex for EU law and Official Journal. EU Official Publications Guide here.

    Judgements of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and General Court (GC)

    Citation order and format

    ‘Name of Case’ (year of publication) Case number; European Case Law Identifier. Publication title, Section, Pages numbers.

    Example:

    ‘Commission of the European Communities v Salzgitter AG’ (2008) C-408/04P; ECLI:EU:C:2008:236. European Court Reports, I, 02767.

  • Online photographs

    Citation order and format

    Photographer Surname, Initials. (Year of publication if known) Title of photograph (if there is no title, briefly describe). Available at: website address (Accessed: day month year).

    Example:

    Kiser, K. (no date) Photograph of car. Available at: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/skillshub/?id=371 (Accessed: 10 April 2020).

  • Online conference proceedings

    Citation order and format

    Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference, location and date of conference. Available at: website address (Accessed: day month year).

    Example:

    Shi, J. (2013) ‘Developing research presentation skills for international conferences’, Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Advanced Mechatronic Systems, Luoyang, China, 25-27 September. doi: 10.1109/ICAMechS.2013.6681817.

    If there is a doi, this can used to replace the final two Available at/Accessed elements (as example above).