Centre for International Education (CIE)

Tanzania

Main features of teacher education

In Tanzania, teacher training is divided into two categories:

1.  Pre-service training.  Prepares a person for a teaching career. The training enables future teachers to comprehend educational theories, education philosophy, teaching methodologies and educational ethics whilst gaining social skills, knowledge and skills in different subjects with which to start a successful teaching career. A teacher is expected to master his or her area of specialisation to be in the best position to help learners.

Teacher training is currently offered through three clusters:

  • Grade A teachers.  Teachers who are trained to teach pre-primary and primary school students. Normally, teachers who are eligible are supposed to form four graduates (ordinary level secondary education certificate). Training lasts for two years and emphasises teaching methodologies.
  • Diploma teachers.  Training for teaching in secondary schools, although most will also teach in primary schools. Normally, employment will follow completion of a teacher training college course from which six graduates are formed (advanced level secondary education certificate). The Diploma in Education training lasts for two years. Due to the existing shortage of teachers in the country, however, diploma trainees are currently studying theories of education in college for one year only with the remaining year spent in schools as part of Block tTaching practice. Teacher trainees' curriculums at this level emphasise teaching methodologies and ethics.
  • Degree teachers.  The highest level of teacher education. Normally, degree holders are trained in order to teach in secondary schools and teacher training colleges. Training should take three to four years, but the demand for teachers means that training is currently a maximum of three years. Teacher training at this level varies in specialisations: teachers training as college tutors specialising in teaching methodologies and education psychology and teachers training to teach in secondary schools learning many academic subjects but relatively fewer teaching methodologies.

Following liberalisation policies in 1994, individuals and private agencies were encouraged to invest in education to complement government efforts. A number of private education institutions and colleges have been established in the country at all levels of the education system, but with limited enrolment capacity. Teacher training is therefore offered in both government and non-government colleges.
Tables 2 and 3 below show enrolment in the two types of colleges for the years 2006 - 2009:

Table 2: Enrolment in Government Teacher Training Colleges 2006-2009

FIRST YEAR

 

2006

2007

2008

2009

Diploma

2560

1277

3837

2735

1140

3875

2940

1844

4784

3165

1592

4757

Grade A

3588

4047

7635

1753

1901

3654

2590

2641

5231

3139

3135

6274

 

Diploma

2243

1340

3583

1480

604

2084

1182

773

1955

2153

1462

3615

Grade A

4262

3262

7524

2321

3582

5903

1812

1841

3853

2478

2425

4903

 

Table 3: Enrolment in Non-government Teacher Training Colleges 2006-2009 

FIRST YEAR

 

2006

2007

2008

2009

Diploma

199

95

294

164

116

280

116

92

208

199

354

553

Grade A

611

984

1595

1152

1773

2925

1076

1608

2684

3084

3872

6956

SECOND YEAR

Diploma

129

120

249

15

30

81

50

62

112

129

234

363

Grade A

218

384

602

146

291

437

977

1188

2165

2377

3365

5742

 

Source: Basic Education Statistics, 2009

 

2.  In-service training.  This training is given to teachers who are already working. It is supposed to be provided constantly and consistently and differ in approaches. The aim of in-service teacher training is to improve the quality of teaching among teachers, as well as acclimatising new teachers so that they can carry out effective teaching and learning. Without this training, teachers will be outdated, are unlikely to cope well with changes and lose their ability to work effectively and efficiently. Most of the time, in-service training is offered through short courses, seminars, workshops, meetings and other special training. The training is offered by the government and other education stakeholders within or outside the country.

 

Challenges

Teacher Preparation is faced with a number of challenges. One of the major challenges is changes in the training duration and the subsequent dilemma as to whether the focus of the curriculum should be on the subject matter (content) or pedagogy (methodology) or both.

 In Tanzania initial training has traditionally consisted of two years study in a Teacher Training College, with relatively little time given to teaching practice in schools, but the capacity of colleges to effectively supervise teaching practice has often been limited due to funding constraints. This situation was exacerbated by the rapidly increasing demand for new teachers after the expansion of pupil enrolment as a result of PEDP and SEDP. More recently, there has been an attempt to increase throughput and minimize costs by making the second year of teacher training school based (actual teaching in schools). However, this presents a major challenge in terms of the effectiveness of the supervision of the school-based component in the second year and suggests the need for more flexible approaches to pre-service training.

Research team

Lead Researcher:

Researchers:

  • Dr Rebecca Sima
  • Dr Martha Qorro
  • Dr Joviter Katabaro
  • Ms Magreth Matonya
  • Mr Jonas Tiboroha
  • Mr Ibrahim Nzima