Department of Anthropology

photo of Lyndsay Mclean Hilker

Dr Lyndsay Mclean Hilker

Post:Lecturer in Anthropology and International Development (Anthropology, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, International Development)
Location:ARTS C C303
Email:L.C.Mclean-Hilker@sussex.ac.uk

Telephone numbers
Internal:8378
UK:01273 678378
International:+44 1273 678378

Research expertise:
download vCarddownload vCard to your mobile

Biography

Lyndsay McLean Hilker is a part-time Lecturer in Anthropology and International Development and an independent consultant in international development, working mainly on gender, gender violence, children and youth, conflict, violence and reconcilition. She completed her DPhil in Development Studies at the University of Sussex in 2009, which looked at identity and reconciliation among Rwandan youth in Kigali a decade after the 1994 genocide. In 2010-2011, she held an ESRC Postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Anthropology. 

Lyndsay previously worked for the UK's Department for International Development (DFID) in a number of policy and programme positions as well as for the European Council as political assistant to a peace envoy. She also has over 20 years consultancy experience working for a variety of international organisations, donors and NGOs. She has recently been technical director of the DFID-funded Helpdesk on Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) as well as on the core team of the DFID-funded 'What Works to Prevent VAWG' programme.

Community and Business

2017: Senior Consultant, La Pépinière: DFID DRC’s programme for the Economic Empowerment of Adolescent Girls. Writing the final learning synthesis on the situation of adolescent girls and young women and what works to empower them based on different pieces of quantitative and qualitative research conducted under this programmes since 2015.

2017: Senior Advisor, Mid-Term Review of Great Lakes Emergency Sexual and Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health Project, World Bank Providing advice to the World Bank on the priorities for the Mid-Term Review of the two programmes in Eastern DRC and Rwanda.

2015-17: Team Leader / Research Lead, La Pépinière: DFID DRC’s programme for the Economic Empowerment of Adolescent Girls. Team Leader for the inception phase of this £2.8 million 2.5 year innovative programme in Kinshasa, DRC which aims to economically empower adolescent girls and improve the wider status of women and girls in DRC. Involves research, capacity building and innovation components. I coordinated a consortium of three partner organisations and managed a team of over 20 consultants plus 30+ field researchers including a team of 16 girl researchers we trained in girl peer-to-peer research. In late 2015, I handed over the team leader role to a new Kinshasa-based consultant and continue as Research lead to manage the quantitative survey and online in-depth qualitative and girl-led studies.

2013-2017: Core Team, Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Research and Innovative Fund (RIF) – Component 1: “What works to prevent VAWG?” Member of the core team for this 5-year DFID-funded research and innovation fund, which aims to improve the evidence base on ‘what works’ to prevent VAWG. It involves secondary research to establish best practice; supporting operational research and impact evaluations of VAWG programmes and managing a fund to accord grants for innovative programming in this area. I have co-authored an evidence paper on response mechanisms to VAWG and how they can support secondary prevention. I give technical support to the DRC project and am a lead researcher on the Rwanda project.

2013-2017: Technical Team Leader, Violence Against Women and Girls Helpdesk, DFID, UK: Role includes technical oversight of helpdesk queries, support and advice on VAWG to DFID; oversight and inputs into guidance materials on VAWG (recent guidance notes on VAWG and social norms, economic development, health, education, security and justice); direct provision of strategic policy and programme advice to DFID HQ and country offices on VAWG – including country visits as needed.  

2016-2017 Senior Advisor, Design of GBV Prevention and Response Programme, World Bank Uganda. Providing advice on the design of a new Government of Uganda programme to prevent and respond to GBV. Developing a community-based model to address GBV against adolescent girls and women with components on economic empowerment and gender transformative training for women, girls, men and boys and community mobilisation to address harmful social norms.

2016: Team Leader, GBV Diagnostic Uganda, World BankLed a four-person team to produce a summary of evidence on GBV and GBV programming in Uganda to inform the development of a new World Bank project. Included: Levels, types, causes and consequences of GBV; policy, legal and institutional analysis; mapping of international and Uganda evidence on GBV prevention and response programmes; recommendations for the World Bank’s programme.

2016: Team Leader, Design of Justice and VAWG programme, DFID Malawi. Led a four-person team to develop a programme for DFID on justice, GBV prevention and response. The programme will work with the informal and formal justice sectors to improve access to justice for women and children, and will also support community-based interventions to prevent Gender-Based Violence (GBV) through engaging traditional and elected leaders and community members to address harmful social norms.

2016: Senior Consultant, Design of a Theory of Change on Violence Against Women and Girls, DFID MalawiDevelopment of a cross-cutting strategy and Theory of Change for DFID Malawi’s work to prevent and respond to VAWG through specific VAWG and justice programming and other sectoral programmes.

2015 Women, Peace and Security Expert + Author of DRC Case Study, Evaluation of UK National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security Adviser to the baseline study of this evaluation which looked a progress with implementation of the UK NAP. Study included survey of UK staff overseas and in HQ, consultations in Whitehall, four desk-based country studies and two full country studies. I led the country case study in DRC.

 

2014-15 Technical Advisor/VAWG expert, VAWG Helpdesk: Design of New Violence Against Women and Girls Programme, DFID Ghana. Provided technical written inputs into scoping studt and then the Final Report  on programme design - Strategic Case, Appraisal Case and Management Case, including Theory of Change and M&E framework

2014 Senior Consultant, Evaluation of EU Support to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment – Country Study Democratic Republic of Congo, for ITAD UK: Led a country study to assess EU support to gender equality and women’s empowerment (GEWE) in partner countries through political dialogue, gender mainstreaming and specific GEWE interventions. Includes visit to EC delegation, stakeholders and projects in Kinshasa and Eastern DRC.

2014                          Team Leader, Research study on Community-Based Approaches to Preventing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG), Womankind Worldwide: Led a seven-person team to design and conduct short research studies in there countries – Ethiopia, Ghana and Zambia – where Womankind and its partner organisations are undertaking community-based programming to prevent violence against women. The aim is to examine the interventions retrospectively to understand whether and how they produced change and draw together lessons.

2014                          Participant in UNICEF Research Watch TV debate “Youth, conflict and peace building”: http://www.unicef-irc.org/research-watch/Youth--Conflict-and-Peace-Building/debate.html + commentary: http://www.unicef-irc.org/research-watch/Youth--Conflict-and-Peace-Building/1061/

2014                          Team Leader, Design of GBV Prevention Programme for DFID Rwanda: Led a three-person team to scope, develop and support the start-up phase of a 4-year community-based GBV prevention programme for DFID Rwanda. We are developing a programme based on a review of best practice internationally as well as field visits and review of recent innovative programming in Rwanda using community-based prevention approaches - particularly those focused on behaviour change working with men and boys, women and girls and local leaders. 

2014                          Co-author, Paper on Youth, Peace and Security, UNFPA: Co-authored a position paper for UNFPA on youth, peace and security. The paper looks at the complex roles and experiences of young women and men in violent contexts, and how to support their potential to contribute positively to peacebuilding processes. It also considers the current international policy architecture and whether and how this may be changed to be more responsive to young people’s needs and harness their contributions.

2013 – ongoing      Core Team, Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Research and Innovative Fund (RIF) – Component 1: “What works to prevent VAWG?” Member of the core team for this 5-year research and innovation fund, which aims to improve the evidence base on ‘what works’ to prevent VAWG. It will involve secondary research to establish best practice; supporting operational research and impact evaluations of VAWG programmes and managing a fund to accord grants for innovative programming in this area. I am co-chair of the working looking at response mechanisms to VAWG and how they can support secondary prevention.

2013                          Facilitator, DFID Technical Meeting on Violence Against Women and Girls in Humanitarian Contexts: Supported the preparation of and facilitated a two-day meeting with 20+ donors, UN agencies and NGOs hosted by DFID to discuss and prepare commitments for the November High Level Meeting in response to the Call to Action of the UK’s Secretary of State for International Development.

2013                          Senior Consultant, Redraft of Guidance on Working with the Security and Justice Sector to address Violence Against Women and Girls, DFID: Redraft of guidance note for DFID which pulls together programming guidance, best practice, evidence and case studies including on situation analysis, programme design, monitoring and evaluation – in terms of how to address VAWG through working with the security and justice sector.

2013                          Advisor, Joint UN and Government of Liberia Programme on Gender Equality and Women’s Economic Empowerment, UN Women Liberia: Support to the UN system in Liberia to develop a new “One” Gender Programme, as well as to design two specific programmes: (i) A Gender Sector Support Programme; and (ii) A community-based Women’s Economic Empowerment Programme. Includes conducting stakeholder workshops, supporting design of theory of change, logframe and M&E framework.

 

2013 – ongoing      Senior Adviser, Impact evaluation of Safe Cities programme in Madhya Pradesh for DFID India: A two-year contract to develop a results framework, theory of change and M&E framework for this programme (which seeks to prevent violence in public spaces and the home by working at slum level) and then to implement the impact evaluation – which is an experimental design with surveys, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and participatory approaches. I am leading on the qualitative research components including the integration of participatory techniques

2013                          Lead Evaluator, Joint UN and Government of Liberia Programme on Gender Equality and Women’s Economic Empowerment, UN Women Liberia: Final evaluation of the programme operations, administration, and outcomes in order to identify lessons and good practices. The evaluation included community-level interviews and focus groups and the collection of participatory change stories from programme beneficiaries. The final report assessed the programme planning, management and outcomes and made recommendations on priority areas of focus for the next phase of Liberia’s joint programme on gender.

2013 – ongoing      Technical Team Leader, Violence Against Women and Girls Helpdesk, DFID, UK (with SDDirect): Role includes technical oversight of helpdesk queries, support and advice on VAWG to DFID; oversight and inputs into guidance materials on VAWG; direct provision of strategic policy and programme advice to DFID HQ and country offices on VAWG – including country visits as needed. 

2013                          Specialist Adviser, Violence Against Women and Girls, International Development Committee House of Commons, UK: Specialist adviser to the IDC’s inquiry on Violence Against Women and Girls, which looked at the performance of the UK’s Department for International Development in this area and made recommendations for future policy and programming.

2012-2013               Expert Group, Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls in Security and Justice Programming, Gender and Development Network: Member of expert group providing technical inputs and advice to GADN on the production of practical programming guidance for DFID on tackling violence against women and girls (VAWG) through security and justice (S&J) programming - including a theory of change, examples of best practice and indicators.

2012                          Team leader, Study on International Policy Engagement on Violence Against Women and Girls for DFID  (with Social Development Direct): Political economy analysis of the international policy environment on VAWG, mapping different actors, negotiation fora, channels and strategies for influencing. Included analysis of UN processes, regional processes, national policymaking, women's networks and CSO advocacy, and innovative campaigning approaches. provided recommendations on the specific opportunities and priorities for DFID and the UK government.

2012                          Team leader, Gender Strategy for DFID DRC (with Social Development Direct): Led a team to conduct a gender situation analysis and participatory gender audit for DFID in the Democratic Republic of Congo to develop a gender strategy, theory of change and action plan for DFID DRC to increase the impact of their policies and programmes on women and girls. This includes looking at new programming options in the area of economic empowerment and social protection for women and girls.

2012                          Consultant, Violence Against Women and Girls, Nigeria Stability and Reconciliation Programme (NSRP), DFID (with Social Development Direct and the British Council): Provision of inputs into the development of output 3 of the DFID-funded Nigeria Stability and Reconciliation Programme (NSRP) focused on preventing and responding to violence against women and girls and increasing women’s participation in peacebuilding. The work mainly comprises short evidence papers based on existing research and evaluations.

2011-2012               Expert Group, Violence Against Women and Girls, Gender and Development Network: Member of expert group providing technical inputs and advice to GADN on the production of practical programming guidance for DFID on tackling violence against women and girls (VAWG) comprising a theory of change, a practical guide on programming entry points and approaches and a guide on evaluating impact.

2011                          Senior Consultant, Study on use of surveys and polls on conflict, security and justice, DFID (with Social Development Direct): Led a study to examine how DFID country offices currently use survey and poll data on conflict, security and justice as part of their strategy and programme development, monitoring and measuring results. The study is examining the strengths, limitations and appropriate use of survey and poll data, how to assess their quality and advising on how DFID offices can make better use of these forms of data.

2011                          Consultant, Reconciliation Audit for DFID Rwanda: Conducted ‘reconciliation audit’ of DFID Rwanda’s policies and programmes. This has entailed conducting workshops and interviews with DFID Rwanda staff and undertaking a full review of their Rwanda strategy and programme portfolio to examine whether and how DFID is supporting reconciliation and social cohesion in Rwanda and how they might achieve greater positive impact through existing or future programmes.

2011                          Team Leader, Youth, Livelihoods and Education in Fragile Contexts: State of the Funding Field, International Rescue Committee, US: Led a review of donor priorities, strategies and funding in the youth sector in conflict- and disaster-affected countries, with a particular focus on youth livelihoods, gender, formal and informal education. This is to inform implementation of IRC’s Child and Youth Protection and Development strategic plan.

2010-2011               Team Leader, Baseline study for UN Women Programme: From Communities to Global Security Institutions: Engaging Women in Building Peace and Security: Haiti, Liberia, Timor Leste, Uganda (with SDDirect):Led a nine-person team and over 30 research assistants to conduct a four-country baseline study for this UN Women programme working to address violence against women and engage women in peacebuilding in Haiti, Liberia, Timor Leste and Uganda. This included design of the methodology including household surveys, focus groups, key informant interviews and documentary review. Directly responsible for the implementation of the East Timor study including a 2-week pilot phase in East Timor; overseeing the data analysis; and writing up the baseline reports.

2010-2011               Team Leader, Conflict Audit for DFID Ethiopia (with SDDirect): Leading an internal/external DFID team to conduct a conflict/’do no harm’ audit of a number of DFID programmes to contribute to the appraisal process for a new Peace and Development Programme, which will target Ethiopia’s peripheral regions as part of an integrated peacebuilding and statebuilding programme.

2010-2011               Consultant, DFID Programming Module on Empowerment and Accountability (with SDDirect): Designed the structure, wrote and edited content for a new web-based programming resource for DFID advisers and programme managers on “Enhancing empowerment and accountability” through DFID’s country programmes.

2010                          Team leader, Good Practice Note on Empowering Poor People in Fragile States, OECD, Paris (with SDDirect):Led a three-person team to develop a good practice note on how to empower poor people to contribute to pro-poor growth in fragile states. The practice notes looks at different strategies for economic, social and political empowerment across contexts characterised by different types of state and societal fragility.

2010                          Senior technical adviser, Knowledge module on working with the security sector to eliminate violence against women, UNIFEM, New York (with SDDirect): Substantive technical and editorial inputs into a 9-month project to develop an online knowledge module on working with the security sector to prevent violence against women, which forms a key section of UNIFEM’s virtual knowledge centre on ending violence against women (www.endvawnow.org). The module summarises existing knowledge, practice and case studies across a number of strategic areas of intervention: (i) Using security sector reform processes; (ii) Establishing gender-responsive oversight and accountability of the security sector; (ii) Policies, protocols and standard operating procedures for security sector institutions; (iv) Training and capacity building for security sector personnel; (v) Improving service delivery to survivors; (vi) Strengthening community outreach and engagement. It covers guiding principles, programme design, analysis, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

2010                          Senior Consultant, Technical and Conceptual Development of indicators on Women Peace and Security, UNIFEM, New York(with SDDirect):Follow-up work to produce technical and conceptual background notes on the 26 indicators proposed in the March 2010 UN Secretary General’s report to track progress with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security in the areas of conflict and SGBV prevention, protection, participation, relief and recovery.

2010                          Team Leader / Senior Consultant, Evidence Paper on the Drivers of Radicalisation and Violent Extremism, DFID, UK (with SDDirect): Led a two-person team to update a DFID paper on the drivers of radicalisation and violent extremism in developing countries. This involved a review of academic, grey and policy literature from both terrorism studies and conflict and peace studies across a variety of countries The paper provided a summary of the nature and robustness of existing evidence across key areas including: political inclusion and repression, poverty and relative deprivation, governance and civil society, employment, education, youth, identity and faith, organisational and ideological dynamics and gender. It also highlighted implications for DFID's policy and programme work.

2010                          Consultant, “The role of education in driving conflict and building peace: The case of Rwanda” UNESCO, Paris: I was commissioned by UNESCO to produce a short background paper for the Global Monitoring Report on Education For All 2011, which will be on the theme of education, conflict and peacebuilding. The paper was based on an assessment of the academic, policy and grey literature in three key areas: (i) the role of the education system in past conflict and genocide in Rwanda; (ii) the impact of the war and genocide on the education system; and (iii) the role of post-1994 educational reforms in building peace in Rwanda. It looked at issues of inequality and exclusion on the basis of ethnic, class-based and other identities, curricular reforms, teaching methods and practice.

2010                          Senior Consultant, Evidence Paper on the Impacts of Social Exclusion, DFID, UK (with SDDirect): Overseeing and contributing to a brief paper to review the available quantitative and qualitative evidence on the impacts of social exclusion of development outcomes in four key areas: (i) The MDGs – poverty, education, health and HIV/AIDS; (ii) Growth, employment and social protection (iii) Violence and insecurity; (iv) Empowerment, voice and agency. The paper also set out implication for further DFID policy and programme work in this area.

2009 - 2010             Senior Technical Adviser, Programming Note on Youth Armed Violence, Chemonics International / USAID, Washington, US: Provision of technical advice to support the development of a new OECD programming note on youth armed violence, covering political and criminal violence and “violent extremism” and looking at entry points and best practice for programming.

2009 - 2010             Consultant, Development of a Monitoring Mechanism and indicators on Women Peace and Security, UNIFEM, New York:Provision of technical advice to develop a monitoring mechanism and a set of indicators to track progress with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security in the areas of conflict and SGBV prevention, protection, participation, relief and recovery. Including the development of a results framework for 1325, the mapping of existing indicators, consultation with over 20 UN agencies, the production of a shortlist of proposed indicators and draft sections of the UN Secretary-General’s report.

2009 - 2010             Consultant, Citizenship DRC, Institute of Development Studies (IDS)(UK): Provision of ongoing advice to the Citizenship Development Research Centre (DRC), led by IDS to help them communicate and disseminate effectively their research findings on violence, community security, citizenship and accountability to policy, practitioner and academic audiences.

2009                          Team Leader / Evaluator, Review of UNIFEM Programme: Supporting Women’s Engagement in Peacebuilding and Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict, DFID UK (UK, Haiti, Rwanda) (with SDDirect): Led a two-person team to complete a review and project completion report (PCR) on this UNIFEM programme to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 globally and in six countries (Afghanistan, Haiti, Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda, Timor Leste). Included fieldwork in Haiti and Rwanda.

2009                          Team Leader, Scoping Study for Developing a Research Agenda on the Drivers of  Radicalisation and Violent Extremism, DFID (UK) (with SDDirect): Team leader for this study to establish the scope of and demand for a new DFID-funded research agenda on radicalisation and violent extremism. This study includes a mapping of current and existing research activities, a literature review and a broad consultation process in order to propose the themes and modalities of a new research agenda.

2009                          Consultant, Support to White Paper thematic work on conflict/fragility and peace building, DFID (UK) (with SDDirect): Consultancy support to DFID’s Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department (CHASE) on conflict and fragility issues. Includes providing advice and writing cases studies for an integrated paper on state building and peace building and well as for key sections of the planned fourth white paper to be published later in 2009.

2009                          Team leader, Youth exclusion, violence, conflict and fragile states, Department for International Development (DFID) (UK) (with SDDirect): This study examined the evidence on linkages between youth exclusion and violence in conflict and fragile states, looked at the implications for DFID and the achievement of its objectives on poverty reduction and conflict prevention, and advised DFID on policy and programming options in this area.

2008-09                    Consultant and Facilitator, Workshop onConflict and Fragile States, DFID (UK) (with SDDirect):Organiser and facilitator of a 1-day workshop in March 2009 for DFID Heads of Profession and advisers on how to deliver DFID’s Ministerial commitment on conflict and fragile states. Includes programme design; detailed session design including content and group work; liaison with high-level speakers; facilitation of workshop; writing short report.

2008-09                    Consultant and Facilitator, Workshop onConflict Sensitive Development,                 DFID (with SDDirect): Organiser and facilitator of a 2-day workshop on conflict-sensitive development for DFID’s conflict advisers to take place in February 2009. Includes programme design; design of content and format of theoretical and working sessions; identifying and liaising with key experts / contributors; facilitating workshop; drawing together outputs to contribute to a DFID practice note on ‘How to do conflict sensitive development’.

2008 - 2009             Consultant Conflict Expert, Review of Conflict Topic Guide, GSDRC (UK) (with
SDDirect): Provision of expert advice to scope and peer review the format and content of this conflict “topic guide”, commissioned by DFID and to be published by the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC)(www.gsdrc.org). The topic guide covers understanding conflict, conflict prevention and conflict sensitive development, and the response to conflict (peacemaking, peacekeeping, stabilisation and peacebuilding).

2008                          Team leader, Scoping Study for a research programme on conflict, state fragility and social cohesion, DFID (UK) (with SDDirect): Team leader for this study to scope a new DFID-funded research programme on conflict, state fragility and social cohesion. Study included a mapping of current and existing research activities, a literature review and broad consultation process. Gave strategic direction to team, conducted key consultation interviews, developed conceptual framework and research themes and wrote final report.

2008                          Consultant, Survey of DFID offices conflict prevention activities, Conflict,
Humanitarian and Security Department (CHASE), DFID (UK)
(with SDDirect): To better understand DFID’s work on conflict prevention, conducted a survey of DFID’s conflict prevention activities. Designed a survey to determine the amount DFID is spending on conflict prevention activities from its bilateral funds and the type and nature of these activities. Analysed findings of the survey to inform DFID’s Top Management Group and Public Service Delivery Board.

2008                          Consultant, Governance, Conflict and Humanitarian Retreat, Department for International Development (DFID) (UK) (with SDDirect): Co-organiser and facilitator of this Retreat for 170 advisers in October 2008. Responsible for developing the intellectual content, format and contributors for sessions on conflict and security issues for the conflict cadre. Organising sessions on “state building and peace building”, “climate change, governance and conflict”, “radicalisation”, “popular violence”, “stabilisation, early recovery and the humanitarian space”, “rule of law and access to justice”, “transitional justice” and “working on conflict across Whitehall”.

2007-2008              Consultant, Global Consortium on Security Transformation, Institute for Development Studies (IDS) (UK). Supported the development of a new DFID and IDRC-funded Global Consortium on Security Transformation. Elaborated an inclusive, southern-led governance structure; designed participatory working methods for the Consortium including civil society engagement; supported development of the Consortium’s research agenda on “security from below”; co-organized the Consortium’s first Colloquium in Sri Lanka in September 2007; co-established a working group on identity politics and violence; contributed an article on “Why Identity Politics Matters for Security and What Follows for Research and Policy”, which was published by IDS.

2004                          Social Development Consultant, Study on the Causes of Separation of Children in Rwanda, Save the Children UK (Rwanda). Undertook literature review; developed research design; trained local civil society actors in data collection and fieldwork methods; piloted methodology with children; contributed to data analysis and final report; received training in child protection and participation.

2003-2004               Consultant, Migration and Pro-Poor Policies in Africa, University of Sussex and DFID London (UK). Wrote two papers on migration issues in Rwanda and Uganda to contribute to overarching study on pro-poor policies and migration, as part of DRC Migration, Poverty and Globalisation,

2002-2004               Policy consultant, Policy Coherence for Development, OECD, Paris (France, UK). Over 3 years, undertook a series of studies on policy coherence for development for the Development Cooperation Directorate of the OECD to examine institutional mechanisms for coherence and policies in the areas of trade, agriculture, fisheries, investment, food security and arms exports; facilitated a number of OECD workshops; wrote three chapters of OECD publication on policy coherence for development.

2002                          Consultant, Study on Governance and Conflict for DFID’s Africa Policy Department (UK). Co-authored a report and put together a framework for analysing the policy links between governance and conflict issues in Africa

2002                          Team Leader, Study on ‘PRSPs in Conflict-Affected Countries in Africa´ for Africa Policy Department, DFID/ODI (UK, Rwanda and Sierra Leone). Team leader for this study, which looked at how Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) might be designed and developed in countries in conflict or emerging from conflict in Africa. The study included case studies of and visits to Rwanda and Sierra Leone and looked at the policies of the World Bank, IMF and other donors. It drew together a set of recommendations and guidelines for DFID policy and action. 

2001                          Consultant, ICTs and Development (UK). Contributed a number of short research and policy papers for this study on ”The role of ICTs in development and poverty alleviation” for Policy Studies Unit, DFID.