The SPRU Electronic Working Paper Series aims to accelerate the public availability of the research undertaken by SPRU-associated people of all categories, and exceptionally, other research that is of considerable interest within SPRU. It presents research results that in whole or part are suitable for submission to a refereed journal, to a sponsor, to a major conference or to the editor of a book. Our intention is to provide a way for our friends and colleagues to receive early copies of SPRU research that is beginning the journey to journal and book publication.
Papers are listed in order from the most recent; click on a heading below to view working papers from that year.
Business Experience and Start-up Size: Buying More Lottery Tickets Next Time Around?
Alex Coad (SPRU), Julian S. Frankish (Barclay’s Bank), Paul Nightingale (SPRU), Richard G. Roberts (Barclay’s Bank), David J. Storey (Business and Management)
This paper explores the determinants of start-up size by focusing on a cohort of 6247 businesses that started trading in 2004, using a unique dataset on customer records at Barclays Bank. In our theoretical model, post-entry growth is treated as a random walk, and start-up size is positively related to survival. In this view, business experience does not have any impact on post-entry growth (since growth is random), but is associated with higher survival if entrepreneurs with prior business experience have a larger start-up size. Quantile regressions show that prior business experience is significantly related with start-up size, as are a number of other variables such as age, education and bank account activity. Quantile treatment effects (QTE) estimates show that business experience leads to a higher start-up size, with the effect of business experience on (log) start-up size being roughly constant across the quantiles. Prior personal business experience leads to an increase in expected start-up size of about 48%. IVQTE estimates are even higher.
Download SEWP203 [PDF 582.18KB]
New Venture Survival and Growth: When does the fog lift?
Alex Coad (SPRU) , Julian S Frankish (Barclays Bank), Richard G Roberts (Barclays Bank), David J Storey (SPRU)
Does our ability to predict the performance of new ventures improve in the years after startup? We investigate the growth and survival of 6247 new ventures that are tracked through the customer records at Barclays Bank. We develop the concept of Gamblers Ruin as a valid approach to understanding new venture growth and survival. The Nagelkerke R2 obtained from growth rate regressions decreases significantly in the years after start-up, which suggests that the fog gets thicker with respect to growth. However, the Nagelkerke R2 of survival regressions increases in the years after start-up. Interestingly, a blip in year five suggests that macro-economic factors may have a strong effect on the amount of ‘fog.’ Our results offer little support for Strategic Entrepreneurship theory.
Download SEWP202 [PDF 961.53KB]
Two's Company: Human Capital Composition and Performance of Entrepreneurial Pairs
Alex Coad (SPRU) Bram Timmermans (Aalborg University)
We study the effects of diverse team composition on the survival and growth of new ventures using the Danish Linked Employer-Employee database. To get cleaner measures of diverse team composition, we focus on entrepreneurial dyads, and also investigate the asymmetric effects of team composition by distinguishing between the `primary' and the `secondary' founder. We complement existing work by showing that heterogeneity in team composition is affected by the asymmetric hierarchical structure within the team, and that a uni-dimensional diversity indicator (which is usually applied) fails to capture a number of performance effects of heterogeneous team composition. Ventures with a STEM-educated primary founder and a Business-educated secondary founder have high employment growth, while the opposite combination (Business first, STEM second) has low employment growth. Pairs of younger individuals have lower survival chances but higher employment growth. Family firms have lower employment growth, especially when formed with your mother.
Download SEWP201 [PDF 674.31KB]
"I'm afraid I have bad news for you…" Estimating the impact of different health impairments on subjective well-being
Martin Binder (SPRU) and Alex Coad (Max Planck Institute of Economics/SPRU)
Bad health can severely disrupt a person's life. We apply matching estimators to examine how changes in subjective health status as well as different (objective) conditions of bad health affect subjective well-being. The strongest effect is in the category alcohol and drug abuse, followed by anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses, stroke and cancer. Adaptation to health impairments depends strongly on the health impairment examined. There is a puzzling asymmetry: strong adverse reactions to deteriorations in health are observed alongside weak increases in well-being after health improvements.
Download SEWP200 [PDF 680.23KB]
The Role of Multi-Level Regulation in the Transition towards Cleaner Production and a Circular Economy in China: The Case of Bao'an District, Shenzhen Under the 11th Five Year Plan
Adrian Ely (SPRU), Li Ping (Tsinghua University, Shenzen), Fruzsina Kemenes (University of York) and Wang Pusheng (Tsinghua University, Shenzhen)
The “circular economy” first emerged as a movement in China in 2003, when Chinese leaders began embarking upon a series of legislative initiatives that sought to address the country’s worsening environmental problems. Led by the National Development and Reform Commission, in cooperation with the State Environmental Protection Agency (now Ministry) and other related ministries, the move towards a circular economy in China is being promoted at provincial and sub-provincial levels through policies focussing on firms, eco-parks and industrial areas. This particular paper looks at Bao’an District in Shenzhen, a rapidly developing industrial city in the Southern province of Guangdong, that is one of ten cities that were selected for pilot “circular economy” projects nationwide within the country’s 11th Five Year Plan (2006-2010). Based on interview data and documentary analysis from 2007 and 2008, the paper provides case studies of ways in which industry actors are contributing to the transition towards cleaner production and a circular economy in Bao’an District. It also investigates the role of municipal regulations in facilitating and incentivising these changes, and contrasts these with other motivations for investment in cleaner technologies. The paper identifies cost-saving as the primary motivation for investments in cleaner production technologies, and discusses technological upgrading as one of the strategies that has led not only to environmental benefits and cost-saving, but also enhanced long-term competitiveness. Avoiding formal censure through government-enforced fines was less commonly cited as a motivation, raising questions as to the role of such formal regulations in cleaner technology governance in Shenzhen. The paper also highlights less important motivations that are nevertheless of interest - attraction of government subsidies for cleaner technology projects, cultivation of good relationships with government and brand recognition/ public image. The resulting insights provide a better understanding of the decision-making context of Shenzhen’s firms (including the role of regulation within this), and point to implications for further government efforts towards encouraging cleaner production and the development of a circular economy.
Download SEWP199 [PDF 789.26KB]
Science Policy, Complex Innovation Systems and Performance Measures
Sylvan Katz (SPRU, U of Saskatchewan, Science-Metrix)
The design of effective science and innovation policy is partially predicated on the notion that decision makers have reliable evidence-based performance measures. The study of science systems has shown they are complex, adaptive systems with emergent properties frequently characterized by power law distributions and functions. These properties are rarely used to prepare measures that inform policy makers. A difficulty with traditional measures such as national wealth (GDP per capita), R&D intensity (GERD/GDP) and scientific impact (citations/paper) is that they are based on measures of wealth and impact (i.e. citations) that have power law distributions. Performance measures based on population averages derived from these distributions may have large or indefinable error limits making comparisons across groups misleading or uninformative. This article illustrates how a scaling model of a science system constructed from 1984-2007 Web of Science (WoS) data can be used to prepare measures with error limits that provide insight into the evolution and performance of a complex science system and answer policy relevant questions.
Download SEWP198 [PDF 418.40KB]
Intermediaries and Capability Building in an Emerging Resource based Cluster
Ian Clarke (Greenwich Business School, University of Greenwich) and Matias Ramirez (SPRU)
This paper evaluates and analyses the role played by intermediary organisations in consolidating the position of an emerging resource-based cluster in exports markets. Through a purpose-built typology, the argument is made that organisations undertaking important intermediary functions act not only to facilitate the transfer and diffusion of knowledge, as previous literature has emphasized, but that in emerging clusters, their scope of activities, extending into leading joint actions by producers, coordinating new investment and enabling new knowledge, places intermediaries at the centre of the network of organisations. The implications of this for the governance of the cluster, including inclusion of diverse producers is discussed.
Download SEWP197 [PDF 1.62MB]
Do entrepreneurs really learn? Or do they just tell us that they do?
Julian S. Frankish (Barclays Bank plc), Richard G. Roberts (Barclays Bank plc), Alex Coad (SPRU), Taylor C. Spears (SPRU), David J. Storey (University of Sussex)
This paper examines the theory and evidence in support of entrepreneurial leaning (EL). Under this theory entrepreneurial performance is argued to be enhanced by EL which itself is enhanced by business experience. However, if business performance is strongly influenced by chance then evidence of EL will be difficult to identify. We test for EL using a large scale data set comprising 6671 new firms. We choose business survival over three years as our performance measure and then formulate three tests for EL. None of the three tests provide compelling evidence in support of EL.
Download SEWP196 [PDF 532.96KB]
Growth Paths and Survival Chances
Alex Coad (SPRU), Julian Frankish (Barclay’s Bank, UK), Richard G. Roberts (Barclay’s Bank, UK), David J. Storey (University of Sussex)
We investigate the growth and survival of nascent businesses by analyzing their bank records. We do not find strong evidence in favour of a taxonomy of growth paths, because we observe that every possible growth path seems to occur with roughly equal probability. However, we observe that survival depends on the business' growth path. Controlling for lagged size, we observe that longer lags of growth, and even start-up size, have significant effects on survival.
Download SEWP195 [PDF 685.12KB]
Life satisfaction and self-employment: A matching approach
Martin Binder (Max Planck Institute of Economics) and Alex Coad (Max Planck Institute of Economics and SPRU)
Despite lower incomes, the self-employed consistently report higher satisfaction with their jobs. But are self-employed individuals also happier, more satisfied with their lives as a whole? High job satisfaction might cause them to neglect other important domains of life, such that the fulfiling job crowds out other pleasures, leaving the individual on the whole not happier than others. Moreover, self-employment is often chosen to escape unemployment, not for the associated autonomy that seems to account for the high job satisfaction. We apply matching estimators that allow us to better take into account the above-mentioned considerations and construct an appropriate control group. Using the BHPS data set that comprises a large nationally representative sample of the British populace, we find that individuals who move from regular employment into self-employment experience an increase in life satisfaction (up to two years later), while individuals moving from unemployment to self-employment are not more satisfied than their counterparts moving from unemployment to regular employment. We argue that these groups correspond to “opportunity" and “necessity" entrepreneurship, respectively. These findings are robust with regard to different measures of subjective well-being as well as choice of matching variables, and also robustness exercises involving “simulated confounders".
Download SEWP194 [PDF 674.80KB]
The Determinants of Regional Specialisation in Business Services: Agglomeration Economies, Vertical Linkages and Innovation
Valentina Meliciani (University of Teramo) and Maria Savona (SPRU)
The paper accounts for the determinants of sectoral specialisation in business services across the EU-27 regions as determined by: (1) agglomeration economies (2) the region-specific structure of intermediate linkages (3) technological innovation and knowledge intensity and (4) the presence of these factors in neighbouring regions. The empirical analysis draws upon the REGIO panel database over the period 1999-2003. By estimating a Spatial Durbin Model, we find that urbanisation economies, intermediate linkages and innovation, in particular Information and Communication Technologies, are important determinants of specialisation in business services. We also find significant spatial effects in explaining regional specialisation in business services, which supports the argument of the literature on agglomeration economies.
Download SEWP193 [PDF 971.38KB]
Management and Organisation of Knowledge Creation in Emerging Markets: a Perspective from subsidiaries of EU MNEs
Vandana Ujjual(SPRU), Parimal Patel(SPRU), Rishikesha T. Krishnan(IIM, Bangalore), Srivardhini Keshavamurthy (IIM, Bangalore), RueyLin Hsiao(National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei) and Frank Yan Zhao (Shanghai University, China)
A key emerging trend in the globalization of innovation is that an increasing share of R&D is being undertaken in Emerging Markets, especially in India and China. This paper focuses on the involvement EU MNEs in this process. It is based on 22 interviews conducted with managers of R&D centres of 15 EU-based companies located in India and China. These companies are amongst the leading R&D spenders in 3 industries: ICT, Automobiles and Pharmaceuticals.
The declared aim of all the surveyed companies is to increase their R&D in Emerging Markets, especially India and China. The two main driving forces for this process are firstly the large market potential of these countries and the availability of a large pool of well-qualified scientists and engineers. A great deal of the activities in India and China are concerned with adapting products and processes to the local market. At the same time a number of companies are devising low cost products specifically for these markets. Another explanation for the growing volume of R&D in Emerging markets is that some of the long established R&D and engineering centres of EU firms have evolved from providing low-cost, low-level support for peripheral activities to becoming global centres for excellence providing support to the R&D carried out in the rest of the company. This is especially the case for design and development of software in the ICT companies in India. It is also important for both software and engineering services for the Automobile companies.
Download SEWPS 192 [PDF 308.99KB]
Performance Characteristics of Large Firms at the Forefront of Globalization of Technology
Vandana Ujjual and Parimal Patel
The aim of this paper is to analyse the performance characteristics of large firms that are at the forefront of globalization of their knowledge creating activities. This we do by making a comparison with firms that are much more concentrated in terms of their knowledge creation. Our analysis is based on around 500 of the world’s largest technologically active companies, with their headquarters in the EU, Japan and the US. These companies account for a large proportion of both corporate R&D spending worldwide and total EPO patenting. We examine performance according to size, volume and intensity of innovation and various measures of profitability (such as Tobin’s q and operating margin).
The results for the sample as a whole show that firms that are geographically dispersed in their technology creation are, on average, considerably larger, have a higher volume of innovative activities, and have superior economic performance. However in terms of innovation intensity the difference between the two sets of firms is negligible, i.e. they both devote very similar proportions of their total resources to innovation. The analysis also shows that there are considerable differences across sectors in the degree to which these results hold.
Download SEWPS191 [PDF 370.40KB]
Location of Innovative Activities of EU Large Firms
This paper focuses on the main stylized facts emerging from a systematic analysis of the geographic location of knowledge-creating activities of the world’s largest technologically active firms. Together these firms accounted for more than 85% of all corporate R&D in 2006 and 70% of all EPO patent applications in the period 2001-06. Thus the decisions made by these firms in terms of location of their technology facilities have important implications for both their home countries and for the host countries. Our results show that a very high share of European firms are technologically active outside their home countries. However in terms of volume, foreign sources account for a small share of the overall technology creation amongst these firms. Moreover the degree of internationalisation of technology varies greatly according to the nationality of firms and according to their main industry of activity. The most important foreign locations of EU firms are within the EU-15, and a majority of them are active in at least one other EU-15 country. In general the most preferred location of EU firms outside Europe is the US. This is especially the case for Chemicals,Pharmaceuticals and ICT firms. Emerging countries such as India and China account for a very small but increasing proportion of these companies’ activities. Our results are consistent with those derived from the latest firm-level surveys such as that undertaken by the European Commission (IPTS).
Download SEWPS 190 [PDF 214.71KB]
Stem Cells as a Driver of the Knowledge Economy:Progress and Challenges Facing Scotland
Regional science and innovation policies have diffused rapidly through OECD countries and regions, partly stimulated by evolutionary theories of learning and innovation, which hold that the regional institutional environment can play a role in stimulating innovation. The concept that became known as regional systems of innovation has received attention from both theorists and policy makers. This paper evaluates this concept using Scotland as a case study. The Scottish experience supports critics’ views against those of theorists of regional innovation systems for two reasons. First, the systems of innovation are bounded by knowledge and technology, but less by geography. Second, markets tend to limit the potential of regional-driven knowledge to foster local development. The Scottish case highlights the difficulties of pursuing regional science and innovation policies in the era of globalization.
Download: SEWP189 [PDF 612.83KB]
Managing Intellectual Property in Universities: Patents and the Protection Failure Problem
Puay Tang, Dagmara Weckowska, André Campos, Michael Hobday
This project investigated the entrepreneurial activities of UK universities through in-depth interviews with the key university actors in a representative sample of 40 universities across the country. The project assessed the scale and extent of the ‘patent protection failure’ problem, which revolves around the issue of universities withdrawing and abandoning patent applications. It found that TTOs are becoming more selective in their patenting process. Our findings also shed new light on university commercialisation models, the “verdict” on TTOs performance, the role of metrics in accounting for HEI performance in IP commercialisation and the impact of academic entrepreneurialism on the behaviour of researchers. Our findings also contribute to the recent discussion about the utility of a regional grouping of TTOs and a “matchmaking” forum for unexploited university IP. The report concludes with policy recommendations for Government to consider. This study was sponsored by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation.
Download: SEWP188 [PDF 719.27KB]
A review of the influence of long-term patterns in research and technological development (R&D) formalisation on university-industry links
André Luiz de Campos CENTRIM, University of Brighton & SPRU
There has been growing interest in the study of the role played by university-industry links in the development and strengthening of economic systems. It is commonly agreed that university-industry links play a crucial role in the economy and many studies have examined the factors that influence their occurrence. Two sets of factors can be identified from these studies: demand-side factors (i.e. relating to industry) and supply-side factors (i.e. relating to universities). This paper reviews this literature. It concentrates on the influence of long-term patterns in R&D formalisation on university-industry links. This is done for selected advanced and late industrialising countries. The literature reviewed indicated that, in advanced countries, university-industry links become more varied as R&D becomes formalised. In late industrialising countries, university-industry links become more intense as R&D becomes formalised.
Download: SEWP187 [PDF 313.49KB]
A demand side perspective on multinational corporations’ (MNC) university-industry links: the case of Unilever
André Luiz de Campos CENTRIM, University of Brighton and SPRU
This paper considers university-industry links from the perspective of industry rather than from the usual university-centred perspective. While the literature has shown that the characteristics of business firms influence the composition and intensity of university-industry links, little is known about whether university-industry links are similar or different across the technical activities of firms; for example between research and technological development activities (R&D) or during efforts at manufacturing improvement. The paper analyses the composition and intensity of university-industry links in a disaggregate fashion, to observe them across these various activities. While these links are often treated under the common heading of 'absorptive capacity', this paper argues that the composition and intensity of the university links varies substantially across these activities. Based on a comparative embedded case study design, it examines empirical evidence from a large company’s (Unilever) technological activities related to two product groups (deodorants and margarine) in the United Kingdom (UK). We find that dramatic changes in the composition and intensity of university-industry links occur when the firm moves from research to technological development.
Download: SEWP186 [PDF 413.94KB]
Energy, growth and sustainability: five propositions
This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: a) the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; b) the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; c) the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficifency; d) sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and e) a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a debt-based monetary system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a ‘blind spot’ or ‘taboo subject’ that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.
Download: SEWP185 [PDF 238.36KB]
Dynamics and deliberations: comparing heuristics for low carbon innovation policy
J. Ivan Scrase, Adrian Smith, Florian Kern
Low carbon innovation policy is in flux. The neo-classical economic paradigm that has dominated energy policy in recent decades is loosening its grip under the challenges decarbonisation present to energy systems. Other frameworks for interpreting and responding to those challenges are available. We can see this plurality evident in the UK Low Carbon Transition Plan, where neo-classical approaches sit alongside more interventionist industrial strategy and initiatives for engaging civil society in energy restructuring. Amongst the issues that implementation of the plan will involve, we highlight four as especially critical. These are: negotiating technological priorities and portfolios; long-term signals and adaptable policy; social innovation and technology fixes; and the roles of incumbents and outsiders in energy system transformation. We focus on two heuristics for interpreting these issues – the multi-level perspective in socio-technical transitions theory, and grid-group cultural theory. Both indicate how the framing of any issue has important consequences for subsequent policy actions.
Our analysis does not advocate one heuristic over the other. We should be wary of any framework that claims to definitively and comprehensively incorporate all dimensions to the LTCP. Rather, we suggest a more reflexive and thereby constructive dialogue over LCIP is possible when the underlying heuristics informing different perspectives are made more transparent. Reflecting upon these heuristics might improve the inevitable politics of low carbon transition by enhancing mutual understanding, identifying common ground, respecting differences, and hopefully improving the legitimacy of what are likely to be wide-scale and deep-seated changes to our energy systems and our lives.
Download: SEWP184 [PDF 435.93KB]
The Nature of Collaborative Patenting Activities
Roberto Fontana (Bocconi University) and Aldo Geuna (Universities of Torino and Grenoble)
We investigate the reasons why different governance modes are used in a sample of successful collaborative patenting activities in Europe. First we show that collaboration activities in the patenting process are much more common than one may expect by looking only at information on co-assignment. Indeed, collaborative patenting activity accounts for more than a quarter of all patents in our sample. This figure is about eight times higher than that from co-assignment data (usually considered to assess cooperation in patenting). We then examine the impact of organizational, individual and project determinants on the choice of three possible modes of governance: coassignment, co-invention, collaborative agreement. We find that higher project complexity and technological scope are associated to tighter modes of governance. We also find a significant negative relationship between licensing and co-assignment, thus providing some support to the view that some licensing can be the result of ex-ante legal agreements rather than of the presence of a market for technology. Finally, inventor specific characteristics matter too. In particular, age increases the probability of choosing looser governance modes while better education is associated to tighter modes.
Download: SEWP183 [PDF 376.98KB]
Structural Transformations in Production and Consumption: Long-Run Growth and Income Disparities
Tommaso Ciarli (MPI, Jena, Germany), André Lorentz (MPI, Jena, Germany),Maria Savona (SPRU), Marco Valente(University of L’Aquila, and LEM, Pisa, Italy)
The paper provides a theoretical explanation for the dramatic differences observed in the income growth and distribution across countries and within countries through time. The model we propose provides micro foundations for linking structural change to economic growth. The model formalizes the links between production technology, firm organization, and functional composition of employment on the supply side and the endogenous evolution of income distribution and consumption patterns on the demand side. Wage distribution is the main channel between the organization of firms and the consumption patterns. Firm selectionis the main trigger of capital investment, productivity increase, and cumulative causation growth through demand. We analyze the effect of different structural conditions via numerical simulations. We find that these conditions have a stunning effect on the long run rate of income growth and distribution. For example, product and demand variety have a jointly positive effect on growth when variety cumulates over time. Large jumps in technological change affect the economy in a very heterogeneous way, depending on the complexity of firm organization; the positive effect of complex organizational structures on growth can be hindered by large earning disparities.
Download: SEWP182 [PDF 4.92MB]
Missing links in nanomaterials governance: bringing industrial dynamics and downstream policies into view
Ismael Rafols (SPRU, Univ. Sussex and TPAC, Geogia Tech), Patrick van Zwanenberg (SPRU), Molly Morgan (SPRU), Paul Nightingale (SPRU) and Adrian Smith (SPRU)
In this article we explore some of the analytical and policy implications of widening the focus of nanomaterials governance from risk regulation to the broader issue of the purposeful direction of the innovation process. We focus on the impact of industrial activities on nanotechnology governance, arguing that the specific characteristics of the industrial dynamics of nanomaterials – flexibility in applications and distributed innovation - limit and enable different potential interventions to shape technology. In particular, these characteristics exacerbate the difficulties of attempting to directly influence innovation trajectories. Under these conditions, we argue that policies for nanomaterials governance need to be broadened. The prevailing emphasis in the UK on policy initiatives ‘upstream’ in the R&D process, while commendable, should be complemented with policies aimed further ‘downstream’ at potential users of nanomaterials, such as renewable energy procurement or housing regulations in order to modulate technological development towards socially desirable goals.
Download: SEWP180 [PDF 532.02KB]
Overlay Maps of Science: a New Tool for Research Policy
Ismael Rafols (SPRU, Univ. Sussex and TPAC, Geogia Tech), Alan Porter (TPAC, Georgia Tech) and Loet Leydesdorff (ASCoR, Univ. Amsterdam)
We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help benchmark, explore collaborations, and track temporal changes, using examples of universities, corporations, funding agencies, and research topics. We address conditions of application, with their advantages, downsides and limitations. Overlay maps especially help investigate the increasing number of scientific developments and organisations that do not fit within traditional disciplinary categories. We make these tools accessible to help researchers explore the ongoing socio- cognitive transformation of science and technology systems.
Download: SEWP179 [PDF 3.84MB]
Developing an evidence-based approach to environmental policy making: insights from Defra’s Evidence & Innovation Strategy
Louise Shaxson (Delta Partnership), Michael Harrison (Defra), Molly Morgan (SPRU)
Over the past ten years the literature on evidence-based policy making has paid increasing attention to the need to focus not only on what evidence is supplied to the policy process, but also on how it is supplied and the nature of demand for evidence from policy makers. This paper draws on such academic perspectives as well as experiences at the UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) to offer some insights about environmental policy making and evidence processes. We begin by analysing the drivers of change that have come to condition the types of evidence supplied to policy makers, concluding that the composition of the evidence base for environmental policy is broader and more complex than can be delivered by purely research-based approaches. This analysis is supported by the wider shift from the ‘Mode 1’ to the ‘Mode 2’ paradigm of knowledge production. The background sets the context within which we trace the process of developing and conducting Defra’s Evidence & Innovation Strategy; a systematic attempt to realign the Department’s needs for evidence with its business and policy priorities. The insights from this process lead us to propose four principles of environmental evidence-based policy making. These are offered alongside a framework which better reflects the organisational realities of environmental policy making in the UK and lends itself more readily than existing frameworks to tangible implementation in a fast-paced and rapidly changing policy environment. The framework and the principles help articulate the links between the concept of public value and the Mode 2 paradigm; but demonstrate the paucity of the tools that policy makers can use to respond to the Modernising Government agenda.
Download: SEWP181 [PDF 248.61KB]
Simulating Personal Carbon Trading: An Agent-Based Model.
Ruud Kempener (Environment & Energy Programme, SPRU)
Download: SEWP177 [PDF 617.36KB]
Electricity System Diversity in the UK and Japan - a Multicriteria Diversity Analysis.
Go Yoshizawa, Andy Stirling, Tatsujiro Suzuki (Sussex Energy Group)
Download: SEWP176 [PDF 2.20MB]
Will markets deliver low carbon power generation?
John Rhys (Visiting Fellow, Sussex Energy Group)
Download: SEWP175 [PDF 134.31KB]
The Impact of Academic Patenting on University Research and its Transfer
Gustavo Crespi (IDRC, Canada), Pablo D'Este (INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Spain & SPRU), Roberto Fontana (University of Pavia & Bocconi University) & Aldo Geuna (University of Torino, Italy & SPRU)
Download: SEWP178 [PDF 371.57KB]
Learning and sharing in a Chinese high-technology cluster: A study of inter-firm and intra-firm knowledge flows between R&D employees.
Matias Ramirez (SPRU) and Xibao Li (School of Economics & Management, Tsinghua University)
Download: SEWP174 [PDF 129.46KB]
The governance of University knowledge transfer
Aldo Geuna (SPRU & Department of Economics S. Cognetti de Martiis, University of Turin) & Alessandro Muscio (GRIF, Università Luiss Guido Carli)
Download: SEWP173 [PDF 179.89KB]
Standards compliance as an alternative learning opportunity under globalization in Latin America
Isabel Maria Bodas Freitas (Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies (ECIS), Technische Universiteit Eindhoven) & Michiko Iizuka (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht & SPRU)
Download: SEWP172 [PDF 272.12KB]
Industrial clusters and the evolution of their knowledge networks: revisiting a Chilean case.
Elisa Giuliani (DEA Facoltà di Economia, University of Pisa & SPRU) & Martin Bell (SPRU)
Download: SEWP171 [PDF 242.20KB]
What drives the formation of 'valuable' University-Industry linkages? An under-explored question in a hot policy debate.
Elisa Giuliani (Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute) & Valeria Arza (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro de Estudios para la Transformación)
Download: SEWP170 [PDF 209.00KB]
What drives innovative output in emerging clusters? Evidence from the wine industry.
Elisa Giuliani (DEA Facoltà di Economia, University of Pisa & SPRU)
Download: SEWP169 [PDF 204.37KB]
What hampers innovation? Evidence from the UK CIS4
Pablo D'Este (SPRU & School of Management, Cranfield University), Simona Iammarino(SPRU), Maria Savona (SPRU & Faculty of Economics & Social Sciences, University of Science & Technology Lille), Nick von Tunzelmann (SPRU)
Diversity and network coherence as indicators of interdisciplinarity: Case studies in bionanoscience
Ismael Rafols (SPRU) & Martin Meyer (SPRU)
Download: SEWP167 [PDF 279.02KB]
Mapping Technological Trajectories as Patent Citation Networks. An Application to Data Communication Standards
Roberto Fontana (University of Pavia), Alessandro Nuvolari**, Bart Verspagen** (**Eindhoven University of Technology)
Download: SEWP166 [PDF 429.92KB]
Remixing Cinema: the case of the Brighton Swarm of Angels
Irene Cassarino (Polytechnic of Turin) & Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
Download: SEWP165 [PDF 295.21KB]
The determinants of home-base-augmenting and home-base-exploiting Technological activities: some new results on multinationals' locational strategies
Christian Le Bas (LEFI, Institut des Sciences de l'Homme) & Parimal Patel (SPRU)
Download: SEWP164 [PDF 144.80KB]
Incentives and uncertainty: an empirical analysis of the impact of demand on innovation
Roberto Fontana (University of Pavia and Bocconi University) & Marco Guerzoni (Schiller Universitat)
Download: SEWP163 [PDF 253.28KB]
Related variety and regional growth in Italy
Ron Boschma (Utrecht University) & Simona Iammarino (SPRU)
Download: SEWP162 [PDF 285.26KB]
The benefits from publicly funded research
Ben R. Martin & Puay Tang (SPRU)
Download: SEWP161 [PDF 1.58MB]
The transitions discourse in the ecological modernisation of the Netherlands.
Adrian Smith & Florian Kern (SPRU)
Emerging in between: the multi-level govfernance of renewable energy in the English regions.
Adrian Smith (SPRU)
SEWP159 published in Energy Policy, 35 (12), 2007, pp. 6266-6280.
Policy instruments as innovation in governance: the case of emissions trading
Jan-Peter Voß (Öko-Institut, Berlin, and Institute for Governance Studies, University of Twente)
Download: SEWP158 [PDF 517.79KB]
Routines and representations at work - observing the architecture of conceptual design
Mike Hales and Joe Tidd (SPRU)
Download: SEWP157 [PDF 579.22KB]
A General Framework for Analysing Diversity in Science, Technology and Society
Andy Stirling (SPRU)
Global and local knowledge linkages: the case of MNE subsidiaries in Argentina
Anabel Marin and Elisa Giuliani (SPRU)
Download: SEWP155 [PDF 876.50KB]
University IPRs and Knowledge Transfer. Is the IPR ownership model more efficient?
Gustavo Crespi (SPRU), Aldo Geuna (SPRU) and Bart Verspagen (ECIS)
Download: SEWP154 [PDF 1.30MB]
Multi-level governance: Towards an analysis of renewable energy governance in the English regions
Adrian Smith (SPRU)
Download: SEWP153 [PDF 519.23KB]
Knowledge-sourcing strategies for cross-disciplinarity in bionanotechnology
Ismael Rafols and Martin Meyer (SPRU)
Download: SEWP152 [PDF 363.82KB]
Positive Developments and Challenges before Indigenous Software Industries: Looking at Bulgaria, Thinking about CEE
Rossitza Rousseva (SPRU)
Download: SEWP151 [PDF 451.80KB]
Expectations, Network Effects anfd Timing of Technology Adoption: Some Empirical Evidence from a Sample of SMEs in Italy
Nicoletta Corrocher (CESPRI, Bocconi University) and Roberto Fontana (University of Pavia and CESPRI)
Download: SEWP150 [PDF 370.85KB]
Environmentalism and Technology
Adrian Smith (SPRU)
Download: SEWP149 [PDF 514.43KB]
Inside or OutSide? Positioning the Governance of Sociotechnical Systems
Adrian Smith and Andy Stirling (SPRU)
The Productivity of UK Universities
Gustavo Crespi and Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
Download: SEWP147 [PDF 723.34KB]
Improving the Evidence Base for Energy Policy: The Role of Systematic Reviews
Steve Sorrell (SPRU)
Download: SEWP146 [PDF 713.65KB]
Peer Review and the Relevance of Science
Alister Scott (SPRU)
Download: SEWP145 [PDF 677.93KB]
Are Co-Active Researchers on Top of their Cflass? An Exploratory Comparison of Inventor-Authors with their Non-Inventing Peers in Nano-Science and Technology
Martin S. Meyer (SPRU, Helsinki University of Technology and Steunpunt O&O Statistieken)
Download: SEWP144 [PDF 2.14MB]
Exploring the "Value" of Academic Patents: IP Management Practices in UK Universities and their Implications for Third-Stream Indicators
Martin S. Meyer (SPRU, Helsinki University of Technology and Steunpunt O&O Statistieken) and Puay Tang (SPRU)
Download: SEWP143 [PDF 783.47KB]
Labour Mobility of Academic Inventors. Career Decision and Knowledge Transfer.
Gustavo A. Crespi (SPRU and University of Chile), Aldo Geuna (SPRU) and Lionel J. J. Nesta (OFCE)
Download: SEWP139 [PDF 789.51KB]
The Structure and Evolution of Industrial Clusters: Transactions, Technology and Knowledge Spillovers
Simona Iammarino (SPRU and University of Rome) and Philip McCann (University of Reading) December 2005
Download: SEWP138 [PDF 721.39KB]
Biotechnology Alliances in the European Pharmaceutical Industry: Past, Present and Future
Jacqueline Senker (SPRU)
Making Design Rules: A Multi-Domain Perspective
Stefano Brusoni (CESPRI, CRORA and Silvio Tronchetti Provera Foundation) and Andrea Prencipe (SPRU and University G. d'Annunzio)
Speculative and Entrepreneurial Behaviour: A Study of Micro-Economic Sustainability in Argentina During the 1990s
Valeria Arza (SPRU) and Paula Español (EHESS, Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques) October 2005
Download: SEWP135 [PDF 2.40MB]
Indicators for Complex Innovation Systems
Sylvan Katz (SPRU)
Modelling and Measuring Scientific Production: Results for a Panel of OECD Countries
Gustavo Crespi and Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
Download: SEWP133 [PDF 1.12MB]
The Impact of Dual Use Controls on UK Science: Results From a Pilot Study
Caitriona McLeish and Paul Nightingale (SPRU)
Download: SEWP132 [PDF 411.84KB]
To Know is to Be: Three Perspectives on the Codification of Knowledge
Mike Bartholomaei (SPRU)
Download: SEWP131 [PDF 198.81KB]
Intellectual Property and Inter-organizational Collaborative Networks: Navigating the Maze
Puay Tang and Jordi Molas-Gallart (SPRU)
Download: SEWP130 [PDF 118.82KB]
Exploiting the Oil-GDP Effect to Support Renewables Deployment
Shimon Awerbuch and Raphael Sauter (SPRU)
Does internationalisation of technology determine technological diversification in large firms?
Christian Le Bas (Centre Walras, University of Lyon II) and Pari Patel (SPRU)
Download: SEWP128 [PDF 116.83KB]
Labour productivity, ICT and regions: The revival of Italian "dualism"?
Simona Iammarino (SPRU), Cecilia Jona-Lasinio, Susanna Mantegazza (ISTAT, Rome)
Download: SEWP127 [PDF 227.54KB]
Product Entry in a Fast Growing Industry: the LAN Switch Market
Roberto Fontana (CESPRI, Bocconi University) and Lionel Nesta (SPRU)
Technological Capabilities, Invisible Infrastructure & the Un-social Construction of Predictability: The Overlooked Fixed Costs of Useful Research
Paul Nightingale (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP125 [PDF 16.86KB] Published in Research Policy, 33 (9) 2004, 1259- 1284.
Are 'Soft' Policy Instruments Effective? The Link Between Environmental Management Systems and the Environmental Performance of Companies
Julia Hertin (SPRU), Frans Berkhout (SPRU), Marcus Wagner (University of Luneberg), Daniel Tyteca (Universite catholique de Louvain)
Download: SEWP124 [PDF 104.72KB]
The Value and Costs of Modularity: A Cognitive Perspective
Stefano Brusoni (CESPRI and CRORA, Bocconi University), Luigi Marengo (Universita di Teramo), Andrea Prencipe (Universita G. D'Annunzio and SPRU), Marco Valente (Universita dell'Aquila and DRUID, Aalborg University)
Download: SEWP123 [PDF 1.10MB]
A Combinatorial Model of Organizational Innovation: The Case of Pilkington Plc
Anna Grandori (CRORA, Bocconi University) and Andrea Prencipe (University G. D'Annunzio and SPRU)
Download: SEWP122 [PDF 153.76KB]
Sustained Innovation: Career Engineers, Stock Markets, and the Theory of the Innovative Enterprise
William Lazonick (INSEAD and University of Massachusetts Lowell) and Andrea Prencipe (University G. D'Annunzio and SPRU)
Download: SEWP121 [PDF 373.19KB]
Change, Coordination, and Capabilities
Andrea Prencipe (SPRU)
Download: SEWP120 [PDF 100.38KB]
Knowledge and Productivity in the World's Largest Manufacturing Corporations
Lionel Nesta (SPRU) August 2004
Download: SEWP119 [PDF 181.52KB]
Technology Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): an Exploration of the Active Role of MNC Subsidiaries in the Case of Argentina in the 1990s.
A. Marin (SPRU and Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento) and M. Bell (SPRU)
Download: SEWP118 [PDF 1.03MB]
Organisational Memory and Innovation Across Projects: Integrated Service Provision in Engineering Design Firms
Eugenia Cacciatori (CRORA, Bocconi University and SPRU)
Social Networks of Researchers in Business To Business Marketing: A Case Study of the IMP Group 1984-1999
Piera Morlacchi (SPRU), Ian F. Wilkinson (University of New South Wales) and Louise Young (University of Technology Sydney)
(New title: The micro-determinants of meso-level learning and innovation: evidence from a Chilean wine cluster)
When Micro Shapes the Meso: Learning Networks in a Chilean Wine Cluster
Elisa Giuliani and Martin Bell (SPRU)
The Dynamics of Innovation Networks
Lionel Nesta (SPRU) and Vincent Mangematin (INRA, Université Pierre Mendes-France, Grenoble) April 2004
Download: SEWP114 [PDF 201.85KB]
Coherence of the Knowledge Base and Firm Innovative Performance: Evidence from the US Pharmaceutical Industry
Lionel Nesta (SPRU) and Pier Paolo Saviotti (INRA, Université Pierre Mendes-France, Grenoble)
Download abstract: SEWP 113 [PDF 17.02KB] Published in Journal of Industrial Economics, LIII (1) 2005, 123-142.
Committing to Vaccine R&D: A Global Science Policy Priority
Daniele Archibugi and Kim Bizzarri (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Rome)
Download abstract: SEWP112 [PDF 15.16KB] Published in Research Policy, 33 (10) 2004, 1657-1671.
A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo)
Daniele Archibugi (LSE and INRC - Rome) and Alberto Coco (Bank of Italy) January 2004
Download: SEWP111 [PDF 255.79KB]
(New title: How do firms' knowledge bases affect intra-industry heterogeneity? An analysis of the Spanish pharmaceutical industry.)
Persistent Knowledge Specialisation and Intra-Industry Heterogeneity: an Analysis of the Spanish Pharmaceutical Industry
Pablo D'Este Cukierman (SPRU)
Technology Frames: The Art of Perspective and Interpretation in Strategy
Virginia Acha (SPRU)
Download: SEWP109 [PDF 90.12KB]
Collaboration between a research university and firms and other institutions
Aldo Geuna, Patrick Llerena*, Mireille Matt* and Maria Savona (SPRU, *:BETA, University of Strasbourg)
Download abstract: SEWP108 [PDF 16.68KB] Published in F. Cesaroni et al. (eds), R&D, Innovation and Competitiveness in the European Chemical Industry; Kluwer Academic, 2004, pp. 145-173.
Reverse Technology Transfer: A Patent Citation Analysis of the European Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sectors
Paola Criscuolo (MERIT, SPRU)
Download: SEWP107 [PDF 154.08KB]
Socio-technical regimes and transition contexts
Frans Berkhout, Adrian Smith and Andy Stirling (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP106 [PDF 22.04KB] Published as 'Socio-technological regimes and transition contexts' in: B. Elzen, F.W. Geels and K. Green (eds), System Innovation and the Transition to Sustainability: Theory, Evidence and Policy; Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 48-75.
The Dynamics of Export Specialisation in the Regions of the Italian Mezzogiorno: Persistence and Change
Paolo Guerrieri and Simona Iammarino (University of Rome / IAI, Rome; SPRU / IAI)
Download: SEWP105 [PDF 305.11KB]
Governing the "New Economy": a 3-Phase Historical Model of Cumulative Gales of Creative Destruction of the United Kingdom Internet Service Providers' Market
Michèle Javary (CENTRIM)
Download: SEWP104 [PDF 155.69KB]
Firm Size and Openness: the Driving Forces of University-Industry Collaboration
Roberto Fontana (CESPRI, Bocconi), Aldo Geuna (SPRU) and Mireille Matt (BETA, Strasbourg)
Download: SEWP103 [PDF 132.78KB] Published in Y. Caloghirou, A. Constantelou and N.S. Vonortas (eds), Knowledge Flows in European Industry: Mechanisms and Policy Implications; London: Routledge, 2006. In addition, an article based on this working paper is published in Research Policy, Vol. 35, 2006, pp. 309-323. (Title: Factors affecting university-industry R&D projects: the importance of searching, screening and signalling.)
A Schumpeterian Renaissance?
Chris Freeman (SPRU)
Download: SEWP102 [PDF 54.79KB]
Authority in the Age of Modularity
Stefano Brusoni (SPRU)
Who Owns the Carbon? Interactions between the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and the UK Renewables Obligation and Energy Efficiency Commitment
Steve Sorrell (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP100 [PDF 16.23KB] Published in Energy and Environment, 14 (5) 2003, 677-703.
University Patenting and its Effects on Academic Research
Aldo Geuna and Lionel Nesta (SPRU)
Policies for Developing New Technologies
Chris Freeman (SPRU)
Download: SEWP98 [PDF 49.89KB] Published as Politicas para el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias. In: Instituto Espanol de Comercio Exterior (ed), Claves de la Economia Mundial; Madrid, IECX, 2003, pp. 71-78.
Future Imperfect: the Response of the Insurance Industry to the Emergence of Predictive Genetic Testing
Stefano Brusoni, Rachel Cutts and Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
Download: SEWP97 [PDF 15.98KB] Published in M. McKelvey, A. Rickne and J. Laage-Hellman (eds),The Economic Dynamics of Biotechnologies, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004, pp. 207-234.
Trade Reforms and Technological Accumulation: the Case of the Industrial Sector in Argentina during the 1990s
Valeria Arza (SPRU)
Download: SEWP96 [PDF 316.23KB] Published in Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, 7 (2-3) 2005, 131-151. (New title: Technological performance, economic performance and behaviour: a study of Argentinian firms during the 1990s)
Specialization and Systems Integration: Where Manufacture and Services Still Meet
Keith Pavitt (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP95 [PDF 19.88KB] Published in A. Prencipe, A. Davies and M. Hobday (eds) The Business of Systems Integration; Oxford: OUP, 2003, pp. 78-91.
Applying the Open Source Development Model to Knowledge Work
Juan Mateos Garcia and W. Edward Steinmueller (SPRU)
Download: SEWP94 [PDF 445.98KB]
Problem solving and the co-ordination of innovative activities
Stefano Brusoni and Keith Pavitt (SPRU)
Download: SEWP93 [PDF 97.96KB]
The Open Source Way of Working: a New Paradigm for the Division of Labour in Software Development?
Juan Mateos Garcia and W. Edward Steinmueller (SPRU)
Download: SEWP92 [PDF 130.02KB]
What are Advances in Knowledge Doing to the Large Industrial Firm in the "New Economy"?
Keith Pavitt (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP91 [PDF 14.84KB] Published in: J.F. Christensen and P. Maskell (eds) The Industrial Dynamics of the New Digital Economy; Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003, pp. 103-120.
The Knowledge Bases of the World's Largest Pharmaceuticals Groups: what do Patent Citations to Non-Patent Literature Reveal?
Stefano Brusoni, Paola Criscuolo and Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
The Process of Innovation
Keith Pavitt (SPRU)
Download: SEWP89 [PDF 161.28KB]
The Impact of an Associative Strategy (the PROFO Program) on Small and Medium Enterprises in Chile
Jose Miguel Benavente (Oxford/Chile) and Gustavo Crespi (SPRU/Chile)
Download abstract: SEWP88 [PDF 146.02KB]
Intangible Assests and Market Value: Evidence from Biotechnology Firms
Lionel Nesta (SPRU) and Pier-Paolo Saviotti (Grenoble)
Download: SEWP87 [PDF 109.93KB]
Transforming Technological Regimes for Sustainable Development: a role for Appropriate Technology niches?
Adrian Smith (SPRU)
Download abstract: SEWP86 [PDF 20.55KB] Published in Science and Public Policy, 30 (2) 2003, 127-135.
Capacity utilisation revisited: software, control & the growth of large technical systems.
Paul Nightingale, Tim Brady, Andrew Davies and Jeremy Hall (SPRU; CENTRIM, University of Brighton; Haskayne Business School, University of Calgary, Canada)
Download abstract: SEWP85 [PDF 16.61KB] Published in Industrial and Corporate Change, 12 (3) June 2003, pp. 477-517.
Transforming the energy system - the evolution of the German technological system for solar cells.
Staffan Jacobsson, Björn A. Andersson, Lennart Bångens (Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg)
Download: SEWP84 [PDF 163.67KB]
Knowledge about knowledge since Nelson & Winter: a mixed record.
Keith Pavitt (SPRU)
Download: SEWP83 [PDF 59.00KB]
The ICT component of technological diversification: is there an underestimation of ICT capabilities among the world's largest companies?
Sandro Mendonca (ISCTE)
Download: SEWP82 [PDF 153.30KB]
Universities and industrial transformation: an interpretive and selective literature study with special emphasis on Sweden.
Staffan Jacobsson (Chalmers University of Technology)
The role of codified sources of knowledge in innovation: empirical evidence from Dutch manufacturing.
Stefano Brusoni (SPRU), Orietta Marsili (ECIS) and Ammon Salter (SPRU)
Search strategy on product innovation process: theory and evidence from the evolution of agrochemical lead discovery process.
Download abstract: SEWP79 [PDF 17.61KB] Published in Industrial and Corporate Change, 12 (2) April 2003, pp. 235-270.
The fruits of intellectual production: economic and scientific specialisation among OECD countries.
Keld Laursen (CEBR and DRUID) and Ammon Salter (SPRU)
Download: SEWP78 [PDF 84.49KB]
Organizing for service innovation: best-practice or configurations?
Joe Tidd (SPRU) and Frank Hull (Fordham University, New York)
Download: SEWP77 [PDF 123.43KB]
The organization of new service development in the USA and UK
Joe Tidd (SPRU) and Frank Hull (Fordham University, New York)
Download: SEWP76 [PDF 85.49KB]
Policy transfer in the development of UK climate policy for business
Download abstract: SEWP75 [PDF 11.58KB] Published as 'Policy transfer in the development of UK climate policy' in Policy & Politics, 32 (1) 2004, 79-93.
Sources of Ideas for Innovation in Engineering Design
Ammon Salter and David Gann
Download: SEWP74 [PDF 91.49KB]
Does Proximity Matter for Knowledge Transfer from Public Institutes and Universities to Firms?
Anthony Arundel (MERIT, University of Maastricht) & Aldo Geuna (SPRU)
Download: SEWP73 [PDF 171.06KB] (A related paper has been published as: Proximity and the use of public science by innovative European firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 13 (6) Sept 2004, 559-580)
Ecological modernisation and EU environmental policy integration
Julia Hertin and Frans Berkhout
Download abstract: SEWP72 [PDF 16.39KB] Published as 'Analysing Institutional Strategies for Environmental Policy Integration' in Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 5 (1) 2003, 39-56
University Research Evaluation and Funding: An International Comparison
Aldo Geuna and Ben R. Martin
Download abstract: SEWP71 [PDF 14.26KB] Published in Minerva, 41, 2003, 277-304.
Challenges in the Implementation of CWC Export Controls
Download abstract: SEWP70 [PDF 14.61KB] Published as 'Challenges in the implementation of export controls under the Chemical Weapons Convention' in: Yepes-Enríquez and L. Tabassi (eds), Treaty Enforcement and international Cooperation in Criminal Matters; The Hague: OPCW, 2002, pp. 331-343.
The Key Characteristics of Sectoral Knowledge Bases: An International Comparison
Stefano Brusoni and Aldo Geuna
Download abstract: SEWP69 [PDF 16.24KB] Published as 'An international comparison of sectoral knowledge bases: persistence and integration in the pharmaceutical industry' in Research Policy, 32, 2003, 1897-1912.
Can the Large Penrosian Firm cope with the Dynamics of Technology?
Download: SEWP68 [PDF 56.50KB]
Making the Link: Climate Policy and the Reform of the UK Construction Industry
Download abstract: SEWP67 [PDF 17.25KB] Published in Energy Policy, 31 (9), 2003, pp. 865-878.
Design Performance Measurement in the Construction Sector: A Pilot Study
Richard Torbett, Ammon Salter, David Gann, Mike Hobday
Download: SEWP66 [PDF 134.89KB]
The Intensification of Innovation
Mark Dodgson, David M Gann and Ammon J Salter
Download abstract: SEWP65 [PDF 19.56KB] Published in International Journal of Innovation Management, 6 (1) March 2002, pp. 53-83
Constructing Success in the Electric Power Industry: Flexibility and the Gas Turbine
Download: SEWP64 [PDF 114.82KB]
The Power of Ideas: Effective Research for Environmental Decision-Making
Download abstract: SEWP63 [PDF 25.21KB] Paper withdrawn
Export Controls, Chemical Trade and the Chemical Weapons Convention
Download abstract: SEWP62 [PDF 19.86KB] Published in J. Tucker (ed) The Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation Challenges and Solutions; San Francisco: Monterey Institute of International Studies, 2001, 45-51. Available at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/reports/tuckcwc.htm.
The Meaning of BATNEEC: Interpreting Excessive Costs in UK Industrial Pollution Regulation
Download abstract: SEWP61 [PDF 17.23KB] Published in Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 4, 2002, 23-40.
Matching Societal Needs and Technological Capabilities: Research Foresight and the Implications for Social Sciences
Ben R Martin
Download abstract: SEWP60 [PDF 16.75KB] Published in Social Sciences and Innovation, OECD Proceedings; Paris: Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development, 2001, Chapter 11, 105-115.
The Origin and Evolution of the University Species
Ben R Martin and Henry Etzkowitz
Download abstract: SEWP59 [PDF 18.72KB] Published in Journal for Science and Technology Studies (Tidskrift för Vetenskaps- och Teknikstudier, VEST), 13 (3-4) 2000, 9-34.
The Role of Middle Range Publications in the Development of Engineering Knowledge
Ammon J Salter and David M Gann
Download: SEWP58 [PDF 90.90KB]
A Hard Landing for the 'New Economy'? Information Technology and the United States National System of Innovation
Download abstract: SEWP57 [PDF 20.98KB] Published in Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 12(2), July 2001, 115-139.
Knowledge Exchange and Learning Through International Joint Ventures: An Anglo-Japanese Experience
Joseph Tidd and Yasuhiko Izumimoto
Download abstract: SEWP56 [PDF 18.16KB] Published in Technovation, 22, 2002, 137-145.
Innovation Management in Context: Environment, Organization & Performance
Download abstract: SEWP55 [PDF 15.99KB] Published in International Journal of Management Reviews, 3 (3), Sept 2001, 169-183.
The Effects of Project Novelty on the New Product Development Process
Joe Tidd and Kirsten Bodley
Download abstract: SEWP54 [PDF 16.35KB] Published as 'The influence of project novelty on the new product development process', in R&D Management, 32 (2) 2002, 127-138.
Public Policies to Support Basic Research: What Can the Rest of the World Learn from US Theory and Practice? (And what they should not learn)
Download abstract: SEWP53 [PDF 20.16KB] Published in Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (3) 2001, 761-779.
The Political and Economic Context of European Defence R&D
Download: SEWP52 [PDF 2.56KB]
The Evolution of Specialisation: Public Research in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries
Download abstract: SEWP51 [PDF 21.53KB] Published in Research Evaluation, 10(1) April 2001, 67-79.
Crafting the Virtual Prototype: How Firms Integrate Knowledge and Capabilities Across Organisational Boundaries
SEWP 50 Published in Research Policy, 30 (9) Dec 2001, 1409-1424.
Technological Risk, Scientific Advice and Public 'Education': Groping for an Adequate Language in the Case of GM Foods
Download abstract: SEWP49 [PDF 17.31KB] Published in Environmental Education Research, 7 (2) 2001, 129-139.
Diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies and Changes in Skills
Download abstract: SEWP48 [PDF 13.13KB] Published as 'Information and communication technologies and changes in skills' International Journal of Manpower, 24 (1) 2003, 60-82.
Government Defence Research Establishments: The Uncertain Outcome of Institutional Change
Download abstract: SEWP47 [PDF 13.24KB] Published in Defence and Peace Economics, 12, 2001, 417-437.
Knowledge Specialisation and the Boundaries of the Firm: Why Do Firms Know More Than they Do?
Stefano Brusoni, Andrea Prencipe and Keith Pavitt
Download abstract: SEWP46 [PDF 14.56KB] Published as 'Knowledge specialisation, organizational coupling and the boundaries of the firm: why do firms know more than they make?' Administrative Science Quarterly, 46 (4) 2001, 597-621.
Innovating Routines in the Business Firm: What Matters, What's Staying the Same, and What's Changing?
Download abstract: SEWP45 [PDF 14.98KB] Published as 'Innovating routines in the business firm: what corporate tasks should they be accomplishing?' Industrial and Corporate Change, 11 (1) 2002, 117-133.
International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences: 3 Papers
Research and Development, Keith Pavitt
Economics of Science, Ed Steinmueller
Science Funding: Europe, Jane Calvert and Ben Martin
Academic Research in Europe
Download abstract: SEWP43 [PDF 14.75KB] Published as 'Why European Union funding of academic resaerch should be increased: a radical proposal' in Science and Public Policy, 27 (6), December 2000, 455-460.
Globalisation and Inequality: The Effects of Trade Liberalisation on Developing Countries
Download abstract: SEWP42 [PDF 11.57KB] Published in Studi Economici, 80, 2003
Scale-independent Indicators and Research Evaluation
J Sylvan Katz
Download abstract: SEWP41 [PDF 18.62KB] Published in Science and Public Policy, 27 (1) February 2000 23-36.
Prospects for Internet Telephony: Toy for Multimedia Hobbyists or Next-Generation Technology?
Download: SEWP40 [PDF 344.32KB]
Project-System Interfaces in Reorganised European Railway Networks: The Management of Large-Scale Railway Projects in the UK and Germany
Download abstract: SEWP39 [PDF 20.60KB] Published as A. Geyer and A. Davies 'Managing project-system interfaces: case studies of railway projects in restructured UK and German markets', Research Policy, 29 (7-8), Aug 2000, 991-1013.
Technology in Corporate Strategy: Change, Continuity, and the Information Revolution
K Pavitt & W E Steinmueller
Download abstract: SEWP38 [PDF 33.40KB] Published in A. Pettigrew, H. Thomas and R. Whittington (eds), Handbook of Strategy and Management, London: Sage, 2001, 344-372.
Science-Technology Linkages in an Emerging Research Platform: The Case of Combinatorial Chemistry and Biology
S Malo & A Geuna
Download abstract: SEWP37 [PDF 14.68KB] Published in Scientometrics, 47(2), 2000, 303-321.
Building the Knowledge-Based Economy in Countries in Transition - From Concepts to Policies
D Dyker & S Radosevic
Download abstract: SEWP36 [PDF 17.82KB] Published in Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 12 (1) 2000.
Patterns of Innovative Activities in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe: An Analysis Based on Comparison of Innovation Surveys
Download: SEWP35 [PDF 206.37KB]
The Economic Benefits of Publicly Funded Basic Research: A Critical review
A J Salter & B R Martin
Download abstract: SEWP34 [PDF 16.68KB] Published in Research Policy, 30 (3), 2001, 509-532.
The Changing Rationale for European University Research Funding: Are there Negative Unintended Consequences?
Download abstract: SEWP33 [PDF 35.64KB] Published in Journal of Economic Issues, XXXV (3) Sept 2001, 607-632.
An Examination of Technology Strategies for the Integration of Bioinformatics in Pharmaceutical R&D Processes
Download: SEWP32 [PDF 246.86KB]
Twinning Networks: Co-Evolution and Competition of System Component Technologies in the Local Area Network Industry
Download: SEWP31 [PDF 284.39KB]
Does science push technology? Patents citing scientific literature
Download abstract: SEWP30 [PDF 15.47KB] Published in Research Policy, 29 (3), 2000, 409-434.
Policy Networks and Advocacy Coalitions: Explaining Policy Change and Continuity in UK Industrial Pollution Policy?
Download abstract: SEWP29 [PDF 19.39KB] Published in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18, 2000, 95-114
On the Economics and Analysis of Diversity
Download: SEWP28 [PDF 1.08MB]
Interaction between environmental policy instruments: Carbon emissions trading and Integrated Pollution Prevention Control
A Smith, S Sorell
Download abstract: SEWP27 [PDF 15.42KB] Published in International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 15 (1) 2001, 22-41
The Emerging Patterns of Change and Learning
S Radosevic, U Hotopp
Download abstract: SEWP26 [PDF 18.83KB] Published as 'The product structure of Central and Eastern European trade: the emerging patterns of change and learning.' MOCT-MOST, 9, 1999, 171-199
A Case of Electronic Commerce: The On-line Music Industry - Content, Regulation and Barriers to Development
E Janson, R Mansell
Download: SEWP25 [PDF 161.27KB]
Towards 'Digital Intermediation' in the European Information Society
R Hawkins, R Mansell, W E Steinmueller
Download abstract: SEWP24 [PDF 17.25KB] Published in the Journal of Economic Issues, 33 (2), June 1999, 383-391
Electronic Cash and the Innovation Process: A User Paradigm
L Srivastava, R Mansell
National systems of innovation under strain: the internationalisation of corporate R & D
P Patel, K Pavitt
Download abstract: SEWP22 [PDF 18.03KB] Published in R Barrell, G Mason and M O'Mahony (eds) Productivity, Innovation and Economic Performance; Cambridge UP, 2000, 217-235.
Measures of Participation in the Digital Techno-structure: Internet Access
Download: SEWP21 [PDF 162.09KB]
ICTs and Dematerialisation: Some Implications for Status Differentiation in Advanced Market Societies
Download: SEWP20 [PDF 251.50KB]
Why sulphur trading failed in the UK
Download abstract: SEWP19 [PDF 17.49KB] Published in S Sorrell and J Skea (eds) Pollution for Sale: Emissions Trading and Joint Implementation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1999, 170-207
A changing sense of place: are integrated IT systems reshaping the home?
J Barlow & D Gann
Download: SEWP18 [PDF 101.39KB]
Aligning internal and external networks: Taiwan's specialization in IT
S Kim & N von Tunzelmann
Download: SEWP17 [PDF 111.26KB]
Patterns of restructuring in research, development and innovation activities in Central and Eastern European countries: analysis based on S&T indicators
S Radosevic & L Auriol
Download abstract: SEWP16 [PDF 17.76KB] Published in Research Policy, 28(4) April 1999, 351-376
A Study of the R&D/Marketing Interface Using SAPPHO Methodology
Q Wang & N von Tunzelmann
Download abstract: SEWP15 [PDF 15.82KB] Published in R Oakey and W During (eds) New Technology-Based Firms in the 1990s. Vol V; London: Paul Chapman, 1998, 152-168
Technology foresight for wiring up the national innovation system: experiences in Britain, Australia and New Zealand
Ben Martin & Ron Johnston
Download abstract: SEWP14 [PDF 13.10KB] Published in Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 60(1) January 1999, 37-54
Aggregate resource efficiency: a review of evidence
Download abstract: SEWP13 [PDF 10.06KB] Published in P Vellinga, F Berkhout and J Gupta (eds) Managing a Material World: Perspectives in Industrial Ecology. London: Kluwer Academic, 1998, 165-189
Construction skills training for the next millennium
David Gann & Peter Senker, Apr 1998
Download abstract: SEWP12 [PDF 16.71KB] Published in Construction Management and Economics, 16(5) September 1998, 569-580
A Cognitive Model of Innovation
Paul Nightingale, Apr 1998
Download abstract: SEWP11 [PDF 17.42KB] Published in Research Policy, 27(7) November 1998, 689-709
Key National Factors in the Emergence of Computational Chemistry Firms
Surya Mahdi and Keith Pavitt
Download abstract: SEWP10 [PDF 26.47KB] Published in the International Journal of Innovation Management, 1(4) December 1997, 355-386
Transformation of Science & Technology Systems into Systems of Innovation in Central and Eastern Europe: The Emerging Patterns of Recombination, Path-Dependency and Change
Download abstract: SEWP09 [PDF 22.22KB] Published in Structural-Change-and-Economic-Dynamics, 10(3-4) December 1999, 277-320
Patterns of Internationalisation of Corporate Technology: Location versus Home Country Advantages
Pari Patel and Modesto Vega
Download abstract: SEWP08 [PDF 21.81KB] Published in Research Policy, 28(2-3) March 1999, 145-155
Technological Learning and Innovation in Industrial Clusters in the South
Download: SEWP07 [PDF 376.54KB]
Do Patents Reflect the Useful Research Output of Universities?
Download abstract: SEWP06 [PDF 13.04KB] Published in Research Evaluation, 7(2) August 1998, 105-112
The Social Shaping of the National Science Base
Download abstract: SEWP05 [PDF 13.67KB] Published in Research Policy, 27(8) December 1998, 793-805
Technological Diversity and Industrial Networks: An Analysis of the Modus Operandi of Co-Operative Arrangements
Download: SEWP04 [PDF 205.62KB]
Plutonium: Storage, Disposal or Utilisation?
Download abstract: SEWP03 [PDF 13.60KB] Published in F Barker (ed) Management of Radioactive Wastes. London: Thomas Telford, 1998, 129- 140
Identifying Research Priorities in Public-Sector Funding Agencies: Mapping Science Outputs onto User Needs
Marlie MacLean, Joe Anderson and Ben R Martin