Skills Hub

Chicago style

The Chicago referencing style (17th edition) guidance below has been cited from: Pears, Richard, and Graham J Shields. Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide. London: Red Globe Press; Macmillan International Higher Education, 2019. See http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/chicago-turabian/quick-guide/ for more guidance. Please note your school may have specific referencing requirements; to ensure you are using the preferred referencing style please check with your school office.

 

Important to note:  

Due to the formatting constraints of this website, the exact formatting of Chicago is not reflected in the examples below. See the Chicago Manual of Style (17th Edition) or Cite them Right (11th Edition) for examples.

 

Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find information about how to cite a particular source in a Chicago style.

Footnotes

Chicago (17th edition) uses footnotes at the bottom of the page; the numbers are linked to the full reference in the footnotes or endnotes appearing the order they were cited (check with your tutor whether footnotes or endnotes are preferred)

  • Use title case
  • Use commas to separate elements of the reference in the footnote.
  • Provide specific page number of information you have used in a source after the publication details.
  • Place of publication, publisher and year are enclosed in round brackets.
  • Editors are referred to as ‘ed.’
  • Only include date accessed if no pub date.
  • Date Format: Month, day year
  • If there are 4 or more authors, give the name of the first author followed by et al

Ibid or short citation (check with your tutor which is preferred)

Ibid.

The first time you cite something always use the full source information, but if a reference is used consecutively from the same source use ibid.

¹ Matthew K Gold and Lauren F Klein, Debates in the Digital Humanities (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2019), 22.

² Ibid., 34.

³ Ibid., 77.

Short citations 

The first time you cite something always use the full source information, but if a reference is used consecutively from the same source shorten to Surname, first few words of the title (short title) and page numbers (if referring to a specific part). 

¹ Jennifer Platt, “The History of the Interview,” in The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft, ed. Jaber Gubrium et al. (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2012), 24.

² Platt, The History of the Interview, 10.

Bibliography

The bibliography should list the works in alphabetical order by Surname, Forename. Subsequent authors/editors should follow rule forename Surname. If there is no author then list by title. End with full stop. (As well as footnotes or endnotes, you should list all your sources, including those you have read but not cited, in the bibliography

  • Use title case
  • Use commas or full stops to separate the elements of the reference in the bibliography (all major elements are separated by full stops.)
  • Provide the span of pages of the whole chapter or section you have used in an edited book. before the publication details. 
  • Don't enclose place of publication, publisher and year in round brackets.
  • Use ‘edited by' in the bibliography.
  • Only include date accessed if no pub date.
  • Date Format: Month, day year
  • If there are more than 10 authors, list up to seven in the bibliography followed by et al. First author format surname, forename; subsequent authors forename surname.

Referencing Sources

Direct quotations/pharaphrased sentences

If you have used a direct quotation or paraphrase a short section of text, you also need to include the page number(s).

Summarising a large proportion of a text

If you are summarising a large section of the book you do not need to include page numbers. Additionally, you do not need to pinpoint the specific minute(s) if you are citing a film. However, if it helps your argument to have a sense of when a certain event or scene takes place in the film, do include this information earlier on in the sentence of your in-text citation.

Direct Quotations

  • Quotes fewer than 8 lines: Put in double quotation marks within the text.

Bergson states that “[e]very number is a collection of units, as we have said, and on the other hand every number is itself a unit, in so far as it is a synthesis of the units which compose it.” ¹ However, Kant argues…

¹ Henri Bergson, Time and Free Will, (London: Dover Publications, 2012), 96.

  • Quotes greater than 8 lines: indent 1.3cm, don’t use quotation marks.

How could we divide the unit, if it were here that ultimate unity which characterizes a simple act of the mind ? How could we split it up into fractions whilst affirming its unity, if we did not regard it implicitly as an extended object, one in intuition but multiple in space ? You will never get out of an idea which you have formed anything which you have not put into it; and if the unity by means of which you make up your number is the unity of an act and not of an object, no effort of analysis will bring out of it anything but unity pure and simple. ²

² Henri Bergson, Time and Free Will, (London: Dover Publications, 2012), 97.

References, whenever possible, should be placed at the end of a sentence (after the concluding punctuation).

n.b. Other quotes to offset are poetry, letters or groups of short quotations.

Referring to works quoted within other works

Where possible you should always consult the original source except where the original source is unavailable. If you do need to quote or paraphrase a source referred to within another source. Details of the original source and the secondary source should be cited in your paper.

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, Title, Year, quoted in Author Forename Surname, Title. Edition (if not first edition). (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication). Pages.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename. Title. Year. Quoted in Author Surname, Forename. Title. Edition. Place of publication, year of publication.

n.b. Include the details of the primary source given in the secondary source and the source being referenced; use quoted in.

Example

Footnote

There was further evidence to support Moore’s views on digital humanities. ³

³ Roger Moore, Digital Humanities: A Critique, 2012, quoted in Matthew K Gold and Lauren F Klein, Debates in the Digital Humanities (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2019) 42.

Bibliography

Moore, Roger. Digital Humanities: A Critique. 2012. Quoted in Gold, Matthew K, and Lauren F Klein. Debates in the Digital Humanities. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2019 42-56.

Book

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, Title, Edition. (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), Pages.

Bibliography

Author/editor Surname, Forename. Title. Edition. Place of publication, year of publication.

Example

Footnote

¹ Matthew K Gold and Lauren F Klein, Debates in the Digital Humanities (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019) 42.

² Lucille Alice Suchman, Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 77.

Bibliography

Gold, Matthew K, and Lauren F Klein. Debates in the Digital Humanities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019.

Suchman, Lucille Alice. Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Ebook

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, Title. Edition., [if not first edition] (Place of publication: publisher, Year of publication), Pages, DOI, URL, name of database or media.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename. Title. Edition(only if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI, URL, name of database or media.

Example

Footnotes:

¹ Claire Warwick et al., Digital Humanities in Practice (London: Facet Publishing in association with UCL Centre for Digital Humanities, 2012), 22, https://doi.org /10.29085/9781856049054

n.b. In the footnotes, if there are 4 or more authors, give the name of the first author followed by et al. in the footnotes.

Bibliography

Warwick, Claire, Melissa M Terras, Julianne Nyhan, and Jean Genie. Digital Humanities in Practice. London: Facet Publishing in association with UCL Centre for Digital Humanities, 2012. https://doi.org/10.29085/9781856049054. 

n.b. If there are more than 10 authors, list up to seven in the bibliography followed by et al. First author format surname, forename; subsequent authors forename surname

Book (Translated)

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, Title, Edition [if not first edition], trans. Forename Surname of translator (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Pages.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename. Title, Edition [if not first edition]. Translated by Forename Surname of translator. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

Footnote

¹ Homer, The Odyssey, trans. E. V. Rieu and D. C. H. Rieu (London: Penguin Books, 2003), 33.

² Gilles Deleuze, The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque, trans. Tom Conley, Rev. ed., (London: Continuum, 2006), 49.

Bibliography

Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by E. V. Rieu and D. C. H. Rieu. London: Penguin Books, 2003.

Deleuze, Gilles. The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque. Translated by Tom Conley. Rev. ed. London: Continuum, 2006.

n.b. If a book has multiple places of publication e.g., London; New York use the first place of publication.

Book Sections: Chapter from edited book

Citation order and format

Footnote

Forename Surname, “Title of chapter,” in Title of book, ed. Forename Surname of Editor (Place of publication: publisher, Year of publication), Pages. DOI, URL, name of database. [if online]

Bibliography

Forename, Surname. “Title of chapter.” In Title of book, edited by Forename Surname of Editor, Page range. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. DOI, URL, name of database. [if online]

Example

Footnote

¹ Jennifer Platt, “The History of the Interview,” in The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft, ed. Jaber Gubrium et al. (Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2012), 24. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218403.

Bibliography

Platt, Jennifer. “The History of the Interview.” In The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft, edited by Jaber Gubrium, James Holstein, Amir Marvasti, and Karyn McKinney, 9–26. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2012. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218403.

Newspapers and Magazines

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, “Title,” Title of newpaper, Month Day, Year, Section, Pages, URL or name of database [if online]

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename (subsequent authors Forename Surname). “Title.” Title of newpaper. Month Day, Year. Section.URL or name of database [if online]

n.b. Omit articles from newspaper e.g., Guardian, NOT The Guardian. If you need to be clear on which title add the location e.g., Guardian (London)

Example

Footnote

¹ Justin Worland, “America’s Long Overdue Awakening to Systemic Racism,” Time, June 11, 2020, https://time.com/5851855/systemic-racism-america.

² “Not So Bored in the House,” Vanity Fair, July/Aug 2020, sec. Features, 64, Nexis.

³ Paul Cullen, “Scientists Call for Zero-Covid Policy,” Irish Times, August 5, 2020, 2, Nexis.

⁴ Rebecca Smiths and Molly Blackall, “UK Staycation Boom Lifts Sales of Camping Gear,” Guardian, August 6, 2020, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/aug/06/uk-staycation-boom-lifts-sales-of-camping-gear.

Bibliography

Cullen, Paul. “Scientists Call for Zero-Covid Policy.” Irish Times. August 5, 2020. Nexis.

‘Not So Bored in the House.’ Vanity Fair, July/August 2020 / accessed August 6, 2020. sec. Features. Nexis.

Smithers, Rebecca, and Molly Blackall. “UK Staycation Boom Lifts Sales of Camping Gear.” Guardian, 6 August 2020, sec. Travel and Leisure. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/aug/06/uk-staycation-boom- lifts- sales-of-camping-gear.

Worland, Justin. “America’s Long Overdue Awakening to Systemic Racism.” Time. June 11, 2020. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/aug/06/uk- staycation-boom-lifts-sales-of-camping-gear.

See our Newspapers guide for available resources.

Journal Articles (Print)

Citation order and format

Footnote

Forename Surname, “Title,” Title of journal Volume, issue [if available] (Year of publication): Pages.

Bibliography

Surname, Forename. “Title.” Title of journal Volume, issue [if available] (Year of publication): Page span.

Example

Footnote

¹ Chao Wang et al., “Mapping the Structural Evolution in the Global Scrap Copper Trade Network”,  Journal of Cleaner Production 275 (2020): 2.

² Aluisius Hery Pratono and Denni Arli, “Linking Global Consumer Culture and Ethnocentric Consumerism to Global Citizenship: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Cultural Intelligence”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 40, no. 7/8 (2020): 670.

³ Julian Eagles, “Modern Capitalism and the Marginalized in the Post-2008 Era: The ‘Consumer Society’, Mystification and Rebellion,” Critique 47, no. 3 (2019): 444.

Bibliography

Eagles, Julian. “Modern Capitalism and the Marginalized in the Post-2008 Era: The ‘Consumer Society’, Mystification and Rebellion.” Critique 47, no. 3 (2019): 433–56.

Pratono, Aluisius Hery, and Denni Arli. “Linking Global Consumer Culture and Ethnocentric Consumerism to Global Citizenship: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Cultural Intelligence.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 40, no. 7/8 (2020): 659–75.

Wang, Chao, Xia Huang, Ming K. Lim, Ming-Lang Tseng, and Pezhman Ghadimi.“Mapping the Structural Evolution in the Global Scrap Copper Trad Network.” Journal of Cleaner Production 275 (2020): 122934.

Journal Articles (electronic)

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, “Title.” Title of journal Volume, issue [if available] (Year of publication): Pages, DOI, URL, name of database or media.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename. “Title.” Title of journal Volume, issue [if available] (Year of publication): Page span.

n.b., Stable URLs – Avoid using browser’s address bar as this link is not a stable link to a reference. Articles often have a DOI e.g., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122934 or a journal may have a stable URL listed.

Example

Footnote

¹ Chao Wang et al., “Mapping the Structural Evolution in the Global Scrap Copper Trade Network,”  Journal of Cleaner Production 275 (2020): 2, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122934.

² Aluisius Hery Pratono and Denni Arli, “Linking Global Consumer Culture and Ethnocentric Consumerism to Global Citizenship: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Cultural Intelligence,” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 40, no. 7/8 (2020): 670, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-10-2019-0212.

³ Julian Eagles, “Modern Capitalism and the Marginalized in the Post-2008 Era: The ‘Consumer Society’, Mystification and Rebellion,” Critique 47, no. 3 (2019): 444, https://doi.org/10.1080/03017605.2019.1642988.

Bibliography

Eagles, Julian. “Modern Capitalism and the Marginalized in the Post-2008 Era: The ‘Consumer Society’, Mystification and Rebellion.” Critique 47, no. 3 (2019): 433–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/03017605.2019.1642988.

Pratono, Aluisius Hery, and Denni Arli. “Linking Global Consumer Culture and Ethnocentric Consumerism to Global Citizenship: Exploring the Mediating Effect of Cultural Intelligence.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 40, no. 7/8 (1 January 2020): 659–75. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP- 10-2019-0212.

Wang, Chao, Xia Huang, Ming K. Lim, Ming-Lang Tseng, and Pezhman Ghadimi. “Mapping the Structural Evolution in the Global Scrap Copper Trade Network.” Journal of Cleaner Production 275 (2020): 122934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122934.

Website: Personal/Organisation

Citation order and format

Footnote

“Title of webpage,” Author Forename Surname/organisation, accessed Month Day, Year or date last modified, URL.

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename/organisation .“Title of webpage.” Accessed Month Day, Year or date last modified, URL.

Example

Footnote

¹ “About Food and Mood,” Mind, accessed August 6, 2020, https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/food-and-mood/about-food-and-mood.

² “Social Policy,” UNICEF, accessed July 21, 2020, https://www.unicef.org/social-policy.

³ “Referencing and Academic Integrity : Skills Hub: University of Sussex,” accessed August 6, 2020, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/skillshub/?id=251.

⁴ “The Discovery of Witches,” British Library, accessed August 1, 2020, https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-discovery-of-witches.

Bibliography

British Library. “The Discovery of Witches.” Accessed August 1, 2020. https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-discovery-of-witches.

Mind. “About Food and Mood.” Accessed August, 62020. https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday- living/food-and-mood/about-food-and-mood.

“Referencing and Academic Integrity : Skills Hub: University of Sussex.” Accessed August 6, 2020. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/skillshub/?id=251.

UNICEF. “Social Policy.” Accessed July 21, 2020. https://www.unicef.org/social- policy.

n.b. You can also include the details of a website in text without need for a footnote/bibliography. E.g., The discussion on the discovery of witches was published on the British Library website on  August 1, 2020.

Film

Citation order and format

Title of film, directed by Forename Surname (Year released; place: Distributor, year (if re-released), medium/URL.

Bibliography

Director Surname, Forename, dir. Title of film. Year released; Place: Distributor, year (if re-released). Medium/URL.

Example

Footnote

¹ La dolce vita, directed by Federico Fellini (1960; London: Nouveaux Pictures, 2004), DVD.

Bibliography

Fellini, Federico, dir. La dolce vita. 1960; London: Nouveaux Pictures, 2004. DVD.

n.b. you can find all the refencing information on library search or IMDB; you may also need to look for the location of the studio.

YouTube videos/Podcasts

Citation order and format

Footnote

Creator Forename Surname, “Title,” Date of posting Month day, Year, in Title of series, [if available] Format [e.g., video/podcast], Length of recording [00:00], URL.

Bibliography

Creator Surname, Forename, “Title.” Date of posting Month day, Year. in Title of series. [if available] Format [e.g., Video/Podcast]. Length of recording [00:00:00], URL.

Example

Footnote

¹ ReelinInTheYears66, “Tom Waits - Interview 1979 [Reelin’ In The Years Archives],” December 12, 2018, in  ReelinInTheYears66, video, 12:11, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uW0-qJPbHDA.

² Doug Metzger, “White Flowers Die,” in Literature and History, podcast, 01:50:00, https://literatureandhistory.com.

Bibliography

Metzger, Doug. “White Flowers Die.” in Literature and History. Podcast. 01:50:00. https://literatureandhistory.com.

ReelinInTheYears66. “Tom Waits - Interview 1979 [Reelin’ In The Years Archives].” December 12, 2018. Video. 12:11. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=uW0-qJPbHDA.

Television / Radio broadcasts

Citation order and format

Footnote

“Episode title,” (if available) Programme/series title, Name of broadcaster/channel, Month day, Year.

Bibliography

“Episode title.” (if available) Programme/series title. Name of broadcaster/channel. Month day, Year.

Example

Footnote

¹ “Birth of the Cinema,” The Story of Film: An Odyssey, More4, September 3, 2011.

² “Paul Dirac,” In Our Time, BBC Radio 4, March 5, 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000fw0p.

Bibliography

“Birth of the Cinema.” The Story of Film: An Odyssey. More4. September 3, 2011. https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/01F47FB5 bcast=69954162.

“Paul Dirac.” In Our Time. BBC Radio 4. March 5, 2020. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000fw0p.

Theses and Dissertations

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname, “Title of thesis” (Degree level, University, year), pages. URL, DOI or name of database [if accessed online] (Accessed: 17 December 2018)

Bibliography

Author Surname, Forename. “Title of thesis.” Degree level, University, year. URL, DOI or name of database [if accessed online] (Accessed: 17 December 2018)

Example

Footnote

¹ Christopher Joseph Loughnane, “Body, Environment, Technics : An Ethological Approach to Information” (PhD diss., University of Glasgow, 2020), 15, http://theses.gla.ac.uk/81298/. (Accessed: 10 August 2020)

² Laura Hart, “Challenging Violence with Creativity: El Movimiento Hip Hop and the Alternative Youth Gangs of Guatemala City”, (MA diss., University of Sussex, 2016), 33.

Bibliography

Hart, Laura. “Challenging Violence with Creativity: El Movimiento Hip Hop and the Alternative Youth Gangs of Guatemala City.” MA diss., University of Sussex, 2016.

Loughnane, Christopher Joseph. “Body, Environment, Technics : An Ethological Approach to Information.” PhD diss., University of Glasgow, 2020. http://theses.gla.ac.uk/81298/. (Accessed: 10 August 2020)

See the library guide on Theses and dissertations for available resources. For UK PhD theses see EThOS.

Twitter

Citation order and format

Footnote

Author Forename Surname or organisation [real name] (Screen name), “Text of post,” Twitter, Month day, year, time, URL.

Bibliography

Author Forename Surname or organisation [real name] (Screen name). “Text of post.” Twitter, Month day, year, time. URL.

Example

Footnote

¹ Neil Gaiman (@neilhimself), “ You have my blanket permission for any of my stories Levar,” Twitter, March 25, 2020, 1.58 a.m., https://twitter.com/neilhimself/status/1242631908598611968?s=20.

² British Library (@britishlibrary), “ Isn't every day #WorldBookDay? Or is that just us...?,” Twitter, March 5, 2020, 9.26 a.m., https://twitter.com/britishlibrary/status/1235492763724111873?s=20.

Bibliography

British Library (@britishlibrary). “ Isn't every day #WorldBookDay? Or is that just us...?.” Twitter. March 5, 2020, 9.26 a.m. https://twitter.com/britishlibrary/status/1235492763724111873?s=20.

Neil Gaiman (@neilhimself). “ You have my blanket permission for any of my stories Levar.” Twitter. March 25, 2020, 1.58 a.m. https://twitter.com/neilhimself/status/1242631908598611968?s=20.

n.b. You can also include the tweet in-text. For example, In his Twitter post of March 25, 2020, Neil Gaiman (@neilhimself) said, ‘You have my blanket permission for any of my stories Levar.’

To find the full time/date information hover of the short date e.g., 25 Mar. Click on the share icon to find the URL.

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