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Vancouver style

The Vancouver referencing style guidance below has been cited from: Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 10th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find exact information about how to cite a particular source in this style. Please note your School may have specific referencing requirements; to ensure you are using the preferred referencing style please check with your School office.


In-text citations

Vancouver style uses a numeric citations in-text, using numbers in brackets (1) or superscript numbers linked to full citations in footnotes. 


There are a number of conventions to follow when using Vancouver referencing style:



  • The same citation number is used whenever a source is cited in your text.
  • In-text numbers are matched to full, numbered references for each pblication in a reference list. 
  • The reference list gives publications in the order they appeared in the text, not alphabetically. 
  • well-established abbreviations are used in place of full journal titles. 
  • If you have multiple cutitations in a section of text, separate the reference numbers by commas. e.g. "(3, 12, 21) have shown that"
  • There is no comma between the surname and initials, nor any period (full stop) after the initials or spaces between initials of authors names. 
  • Romanise all author names.
  • Remove accents and diacritics from letters in authors' names. 
  • Names of organisations are spelt out in full, not abbreviated. 
  • six authors or fewer - list all separating with a comma. For more than six, cite the first six followed by et al. 
  • Edition is abbreviated to ed. 
  • Dates are formatted as follows: year, month (abbreviated) day.
  • Titles - only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns or acronyms are capitalised, and titles are not in italics. 
  • Non-english titles should be followed by a translation of the title placed around square brackets. 


Chapter in a book

When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within a book written by someone other than the author or editor listed on the cover page of the book, use the format below:

Citation order & format

Author of the section / chapter - Surname, Initials. ‘chapter title’ in followed by the book's author / editor surname, first name. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. X p.


Smith, C. 'Feminism in Jane Eyre', in Brennan, Z. Brontë's Jane Eyre a reader's guide. London: Continuum International Pub. Group; 2006. 12-16 pp.

Edit this Undo last edit

Web page

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Title of Internet site. [Internet]. Year that the cite was published / last updated. [cited year month day]; [number of screens or pages] Available from: URL

Example: [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16]; [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

Journal article

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Article title. Title of Journal. Date of publication: year month day; volume (issue) X p.



Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al. Vitamin e and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18; 292(7): 828-36.

Government document

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initial. Title of document. Place of publication: publisher; year of publication. X p.


NHS Executive. Clinical governance: quality in the new NHS. London: Department of Health; 1999. 23 p.

Newspaper article

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Article title. Newspaper title. (Edition) if applicable. Date of publication year month day. Section. page and column.



Charter D. Patients die after wrong transplant. The Times. 2001 Sep 13. 12 (col. 2).

*for column number

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