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Vancouver style

The Vancouver referencing style guidance below has been cited from: Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 10th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find exact information about how to cite a particular source in this style. Please note your School may have specific referencing requirements; to ensure you are using the preferred referencing style please check with your School office.


 

In-text citations

Vancouver style uses a numeric citations in-text, using numbers in brackets (1) or superscript numbers linked to full citations in footnotes. 

 

There are a number of conventions to follow when using Vancouver referencing style:

 

 

  • The same citation number is used whenever a source is cited in your text.
  • In-text numbers are matched to full, numbered references for each pblication in a reference list. 
  • The reference list gives publications in the order they appeared in the text, not alphabetically. 
  • well-established abbreviations are used in place of full journal titles. 
  • If you have multiple cutitations in a section of text, separate the reference numbers by commas. e.g. "(3, 12, 21) have shown that"
  • There is no comma between the surname and initials, nor any period (full stop) after the initials or spaces between initials of authors names. 
  • Romanise all author names.
  • Remove accents and diacritics from letters in authors' names. 
  • Names of organisations are spelt out in full, not abbreviated. 
  • six authors or fewer - list all separating with a comma. For more than six, cite the first six followed by et al. 
  • Edition is abbreviated to ed. 
  • Dates are formatted as follows: year, month (abbreviated) day.
  • Titles - only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns or acronyms are capitalised, and titles are not in italics. 
  • Non-english titles should be followed by a translation of the title placed around square brackets. 

 

Chapter in a book

When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within a book written by someone other than the author or editor listed on the cover page of the book, use the format below:

Citation order & format

Author of the section / chapter - Surname, Initials. ‘chapter title’ in followed by the book's author / editor surname, first name. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. X p.

Example:

Smith, C. 'Feminism in Jane Eyre', in Brennan, Z. Brontë's Jane Eyre a reader's guide. London: Continuum International Pub. Group; 2006. 12-16 pp.

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Web page

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Title of Internet site. [Internet]. Year that the cite was published / last updated. [cited year month day]; [number of screens or pages] Available from: URL

Example:

Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16]; [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/


Journal article

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Article title. Title of Journal. Date of publication: year month day; volume (issue) X p.

 

Example:

Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, Dallal GE, Keusch GT, Singh MF, et al. Vitamin e and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Aug 18; 292(7): 828-36.


Government document

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initial. Title of document. Place of publication: publisher; year of publication. X p.

Example:

NHS Executive. Clinical governance: quality in the new NHS. London: Department of Health; 1999. 23 p.


Newspaper article

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Initials. Article title. Newspaper title. (Edition) if applicable. Date of publication year month day. Section. page and column.

 

Example:

Charter D. Patients die after wrong transplant. The Times. 2001 Sep 13. 12 (col. 2).

*for column number



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