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Harvard style

The Harvard referencing style guidance below has been cited from: Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 10th edBasingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find exact information about how to cite a particular source in Harvard style.

In-text citations

The Harvard style of referencing requires you to include the name of the author(s) and the year of publication within the text. If you have used a direct quotation, you also need to include the page number(s). If you are summarising a large section of the book, you do not need to include page numbers.

References, whenever possible, should be placed at the end of a sentence (before the concluding punctuation).

Example:

...as one writer put it 'the darkest days were still ahead' (Weston, 1988, p. 45).

Alternatively, the author's surname may be integrated into the text, followed immediately by the year of publication in brackets.

Example:

Scholtz (1990, p. 564) has argued that... 

 

Works with more than one author

The number of authors there are for any given piece of work determines how the authors' names are formatted for in-text citations. The following rules apply: 

 

  • 1-3 authors: list all authors names in every citation, for example:

Goddard and Barrett (2007) suggested...

  • 4+ authors: list the first author's name followed by et al. in italics, for example:

...as the report suggested (Edwards et al., 2004).  

 

More than one reference by an author in the same year

If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year they are generally labelled in order of publication with a lower case letter.

 

Example: 

...outlined by Smith (2009a, p. 45) and developed further in his report (2009b, p. 23).

 

Unknown Author(s)

If the author's name is unknown, you should list the title of the article, book or webpage in italics.

 

Example: 

...the worst election loss in the party's history (The Age, 1968, p. 2).

 

Referring to works quoted within other works

You may want to refer to a work that you haven't actually read, but which has been summarised or discussed in somebody else's work. Use the format: [author's surname], [year], [cited in author's surname], [year], [p. X] 

 

Example: 

There was further evidence to support researchers' views on genetic abnormalities in crops (White, 2001, cited in Murray, 2007, p. 82).

*Note: only include references where you read the original work, in the list of references at the end of your work; you cannot include details about original studies if you have not read them.

Creating your bibliography/list of references

The bibliography is a list of all the sources that you have used; the following rules should be adhered when putting together your Harvard bibliography:

  • references are arranged in alphabetical order by author's surname
  • where there is no author or author is unknown, the title is used instead
  • only the first letter of the first word of a title is capitalised; second and subsequent words' first letters are not capitalised 
  • titles of books are in italics
  • only include edition numbers if the edition is not the first or revised edition

Sample bibliography

Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books, pp. 83-95.

Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012). 

Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

National Academies (2012) 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' Twitter, 8 March. Available at: http://twitter.com (Accessed: 10 March 2012).

Book

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication - placed in round brackets] [Book title. - placed in italics] [Place of publication: publisher,] [pp. X-X for page numbers.]

Example:

Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. London: Collins Books, pp. 83-95.

 

 

Translated Works

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of translated publication - placed in round brackets] [Book title. - placed in itialics] [translated by First Name Surname.] [Place of publication: publisher,] [pp. X-X for page numbers.]

Example:

Walsh, A.W. (2012) The treatment of children. Translated by David Matthews. London: collins books, pp. 83-95.

Citing Asian Names

In Western naming culture, generally a person's surname is often listed as the last name, e.g. John Smith. However, in Asian culture, a person's surname is generally listed first, i.e. Smith John. This applies to Chinese, Malay, and Indian naming conventions. Therefore referencing format should be as follows:

In-text citations

The book The security environment in the Asia-Pacific by Cheng Tun-jen would be formated in-text as:

...as one writer noted the darkest days were still ahead. (Cheng, 2000, p.45).

Bibliography

The book The security environment in the Asia-Pacific by Cheng Tun-jen would be formated in bibligraphy: 

Cheng, T.-jen., 2000. The security environment in the Asia-Pacific, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.

Exceptions

Some Asian naming conventions only include a first name, and not a surname; in those cases use the first name provided in place of the surname. 

Chapters / sections in edited books

When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within a book written by someone other than the author or editor listed on the cover page of the book, use the format below:

Citation order & format

[Author of the section / chapter - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication - in round brackets] [chapter title - in single quotation marks] [in] followed by the book's author / editor surname, first name.] [Title of book - in italics.] [Place of publication: Publisher.] [pp. XX].

Example:

Smith, C. (2006) 'Feminism in Jane Eyre', in Brennan, Z. Brontë's Jane Eyre a reader's guide. London: Continuum International Pub. Group. pp.12-16.

Ebook

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication- placed in round brackets] [Title. - in italics] [E-book collection. - in italics] [Online - placed in square brackets]. [Available at: URL] [Downloaded: X date- placed in round brackets.]

Example: 

Corrie, M. (2009) A concise companion to Middle English literature. NetLibrary [Online]. Available at: http://www.netlibrary.com (Downloaded: 21 June 2011).

e-book reader

Citation order & format

 

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication- placed in round brackets] [Title. - in italics] [Name of download website. - in italics] [e-book reader - placed in square brackets]. [Available at: URL] [Downloaded: date month year.- placed in round brackets].

Example: 

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhikker's guide to the galaxy. Ebooks.com [e-book reader]. Available at: http://www.ebooks.com/ebooks/book_display.asp?IID=161294 (Downloaded: 29 January 2010).

Journals

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication- placed in round brackets] [Title of article, - placed in single quotation marks] [Title of journal, - in italics and capitalise the first letter of each word except for conjunctions] [Volume] [Issue, - placed in round brackets] [pp. X-X for pages.]

Example: 

Newton, K. (2006) 'May the weak force be with you: The power of mass media in modern politics', European Journal of Political Research, 45(2), pp. 209-234.

eJournals

If you have accessed the journal article using an online source such as JSTOR or SCOPUS, you need to include this in your reference. You also need to include the URL of the collection or the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier). 

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, Initials.] [Year of publication- placed in round brackets] [Title of article, - placed in single quotation marks] [Title of journal, - in italics and capitalise the first letter of each word except for conjunctions] [Volume] [Issue, - placed in round brackets] [pp. X-X. for pages] [DOI: or Available at: url] [Accessed: followed by date]

Examples: 

Bakand, S., Hayes, A. and Dechsakulthorn, F. (2012) 'Nanoparticles: A review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure', Inhalation Toxicology, 24(2), pp.125-135. DOI: 10.3109/08958378.2010.642021 (Accessed: 14 February 2012).

Dunham, R.H. (1976) 'Silas Marner and the Wordsworthian Child', Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 16(4), pp. 645-665, JSTOR . Available at: www.jstor.org (Accessed: 10 Feb 2012).

Website

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, initals.] [Year that the site was published/last updated - placed in round brackets] [Title of web page. - in italics] [Available at: URL] [Accessed: date month year.- placed in round brackets]

Example:  

Film / Television / YouTube / iPlayers

Film

Citation order & format

[Title - in italics] [Year of release - in round brackets] [Directed by: Director's Forename Surname] [Film.] [Place of distribution: Distribution company.]

Example: 

Macbeth (1948) Directed by Orson Wells [Film]. USA: Republic Pictures.

Films on DVD

Citation order & format

[Title - in italics] [Year of release - placed in round brackets] [Directed by: Director's Forename Surname] [DVD or Blu-ray] [reissued date (if applicable)] [Place of distribution: distribution company.]

Example: 

The English patient (1996) Directed by Anthony Minghella [DVD]. USA: Buena Vista Home Video.

Television

Citation order & format

[Title of programme - in italics] [Year of broadcast - in round brackets] [Name of channel] [Date of Broadcast - day/month.]

Example: 

The Nuclear Age (2009) ITV Television, 16 June.

 

iPlayers or Broadcast box

Citation order & format

[Title of episode - placed in italics] [Year of transmission - placed in round brackets] [Title of series, - italics] [Series X, episode X,] [Channel,] [Date of broadcast.] [Available at: url] [Accessed: date placed in round brackets.]

Example: 

'Time & Entropy' (2011) Wonders of the Universe - Destiny, Series 1, episode 4, BBC Two Television, 6 March. Available at: http://bobnational.net/programme.php?archive=70745&view=metadata (Accessed 15 October 2011).

YouTube

Citation order & format

[Name of person posting video] [Year video posted - in round brackets] [Title of video. - in italics] [Available at: url] [Accessed: date - placed in round brackets.]

Example: 

Shakespeareanimated (2008) BBC Shakespeare Animated Tales - A Midsummer Night's Dream - Part 2. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zr1gk9nwTYY (Accessed: 12 May 2011).

Advertisements

Television

Citation order & format

[Company advertising] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title - in italics] [Medium and channel on which advertisement appeared. - placed in square brackets] [Date viewed.]

Example: 

British Telecom (2008) Office relocation gremlins [Advertisement on ITV1 Television]. 23 June.

Newspaper

Citation order & format

[Name of newspaper] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title - placed in single quotation marks] [Advertisement. - placed in square brackets] [date, p. X. for page number]

Example: 

The Guardian (2007) 'WOMAD festival' [Advertisement]. 14 April, p.12.

Internet

Citation order & format

[Company advertising] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title - in italics] [Advertisement. - placed in square brackets] [Available at: URL] [Accessed: date month (abbreviated) year. - placed in round brackets]

Example: 

Lloyds TSB Bank plc (2008) Selling your house? [Advertisement]. Available at: http://www.hotmail.com (Accessed: 13 February 2010). 

Government document

Citation order & format

[government department name] [year of publication - placed in round brackets] [Title. - in italics] [Place of publication: publisher.] [series. - placed in round brackets] 

Example: 

Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office. (Cm. 4516).

Newspaper article

Articles from print newspapers

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, initals.] [Year of publication - placed in round brackets] [Title of article, - placed in single quotation marks] [Full title of newspaper, - in itialics and capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except conjunctions] [Edition, - if required, placed in round brackets] [day and month] [p. X. for page number]

Example: 

Old, D. (2008) 'House price gloom', Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p. 25.

Articles from online newspapers 

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, initals.] [Year of publication - placed in round brackets] [Title of article, - placed in single quotation marks] [Full title of newspaper, - in itialics and capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except conjunctions] [Available at: url] [Accessed: date - placed in round brackets.]

Example: 

Brown, M. (2012) 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', The Guardian, 8 March. Available at: www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2012/mar/08/gilbert-and-george-white-cube-exhibition (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

 

Unknown author for a newspaper article

Citation order & format

[Full title of newspaper, - in itialics and capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except conjunctions] [Year of publication - placed in round brackets] [Title of article, - placed in single quotation marks] [day and month,] [p. X for page number.]

Example: 

The Guardian, (2012), 'Read all about it: how Gilbert & George stole the headlines and made art', 8 March, p. 12.

 

 

Lecture notes

Citation order & format

[Author or tutor - Surname, initals.] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title of item - placed in single quotation marks] [module code: module title - in itialics] [Available at: URL or VLE] [Accessed: date month (in full) year. - placed in round brackets]

Example: 

Smith, I. (2017) 'Week 1: assignment prep.' PSY1001:Psychological Development of Children. Available at:http://psy1001.studydirect.sussex.ac.uk (Accessed: 10 February 2017).

PowerPoint presentations

Citation order & format

[Author or tutor - Surname, initals.] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title of presentation - placed in single quotation marks] [PowerPoint] [module code: module title - in itialics] [Available at: URL or VLE] [Accessed: date month (in full) year - placed in round brackets].

Example:

Smith, I. (2017) 'Piaget's theory of cognitive learning' [PowerPointPSY1001:Psychological Development of Children. Available at:http://psy1001.studydirect.sussex.ac.uk (Accessed 10 February 2017).

Blog post

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, initials.] [Year blog site was published or last updated - placed in round brackets] [Title of post, - placed in single quotation marks] [Title of blog site, - placed in italics] [Day and month. of post] [available at: URL] [Accessed: date month year. - placed in round brackets]

Example: 

Robinson, N. (2008) 'Cameron Direct', Nick Robinson's newslog, 4 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/ (Accessed: 11 April 2010).

Paintings

Citation order & format

[Artist - Surname, initals.] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title of work - in italics] [Medium - in square brackets]. [Institution of collection, city.]

Example: 

Kahlo, F. (1931) Frieda and Diego Rivera [Oil on canvas]. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco.

 

If accessed online

[Artist - Surname, initals.] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title of work - in italics] [Medium - in square brackets]. [Institution of collection, city.]

Example: 

Kahlo, F. (1931) Frieda and Diego Rivera [Oil on canvas]. Available at: http://www.artstor.org (Accessed 14 May 2011).

Tweet

Citation order & format

[Author - Surname, initals.] [Year - placed in round brackets] [Title of Tweet - placed in single quotation marks] [Twitter, - in itialics] [Date of post.] [Available at: URL] [Accessed: date month year. - placed in round brackets]

Example: 

National Academies (2012) 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' Twitter, 8 March. Available at: http://twitter.com (Accessed: 10 March 2012). 

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