We have determined how a quantum computer could break the encryption of Bitcoin and simulate the FeMo-co molecule, a crucial molecule for Nitrogen fixation. We show that in certain situations, architectures with considerably slower code cycle times will still be able to reach desirable run times, provided enough physical qubits are available. Four years ago, we estimated that a trapped ion quantum computer would need a billion physical qubits to break RSA encryption equating to a size 100m2. With innovations across the board, the size of such a quantum computer would now just need to be 2.5m2.

The paper was published on 25 Jan 2022 in AVS Quantum Science.

Manuscript: The Impact of Hardware Specifications on Reaching Quantum Advantage in the Fault Tolerant Regime

Press release: Sussex Scientists Reveal how Quantum Computing can Break Bitcoin and Help Tackle World Hunger