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TC 85: 22 boxes


A collection of surveys on drinking including pre-war and wartime material on juvenile drinking and women in pubs; the big 1947-48 Guinness survey on drinking (including temperance) ; two surveys on the Courage trademark; a survey on drunkenness; 1950s surveys on soft drinks, wine and whisky; Guinness stout surveys from the later 50s; and the 1961 Double Diamond survey

See also the closely related 1947 survey in TC 80: LEISURE and the pub counts in TC 66: TOWN AND DISTRICT SURVEYS

Box 1: Pre-war and Wartime

85/1/A: Reports 1940-42

Ts report: "Pub attendance in Fulham and Worcester August 1939-September 1940"

MoI intelligence report "Public Opinion and the Drink Question in Scotland" 25.9.40

Ts report: "The Pub in Wartime" 1940

Ts report: "Market Town Pub" 5.3.45 (JR)

Ts report: "Towels for Drying Glasses" 1942

Price lists from Victoria Wines, Autumn 1940

Letter from Express Wine Services on a night wine delivery service for bottle parties. 12.8.40

Letter from JS to TH on a projected chapter on pubs in Worktown, 1.7.41

Ms draft of the chapter

85/1/B: Women in pubs

Ts report: "Women in Pubs" 1943

Ts report on female prisoners in Liverpool, prepared for the Central Control Board of the Liquor Traffic, September 1918

85/1/C: Juvenile Drinking 1943

Correspondence between BW and Herbert Jones of the British Temperance League on the setting up of the survey and the publication of the report, March 1943-Feb 1944

Press cuttings on juvenile drinking 1942-43

"Youth and Drink", programme for public meeting, March 1943

Ts memorandum on juvenile drinking and the law, undated

Ms notes on juvenile drinking and the law, undated

85/1/D: Juvenile Drinking 1943

Ts "Investigation into Drinking among Children" results of a questionnaire given to Dagenham schoolchildren by KGF, 24.4.43

Ms response to a similar questionnaire given to children at the Norwich Training College May 1943

Ms children's essays on drinking, May 1943

Ms reports on children and drinking sent in by teachers April-May 1943

Ms children's essays on drinking, May 1943

Ms reports on children and drinking sent in by teachers, April-May 1943

Ts "Report on Juvenile Drinking" 4.5.43. (BW)

Mass-Observation Report on Juvenile Drinking published by the Livesey-Clegg Youth Club, June 1943

85/1/E: Miscellaneous

Ts questionnaire form on drinking and on attitudes to Christian names and surnames May 1946

Ts suggested type of sample for a pub sign survey, undated

Box 2: The 1947-48 Guinness Survey on Drinking Habits

85/2/A: Introductory Material

Ts correspondence between WE Phillips of Guinness and LE on the setting up of the survey, its later use, and possible publication. 17.1.47-13.5.49

Ts notes on the purpose, scope and cost of the survey by TH 7.2.47

Ts report of conversation between TH and Professor Jewkes, economic advisor to Guinness. 18.3.47

Ts "Main Subjects to be Investigated, May-July 1947"

Ts "Saturday Night", report by BW 21.4.47

Ts correspondence between Townely Searle of the Pub Users Protection Society, JS and LE on the use of the society in the survey. 1.4.47-11.12. 47. Includes copy of qq sent to PUPS members and PUPS publications 1946-47

Ts five copies of a drink "directive": instructions to investigators in Blaina, Bolton and Middlesbrough. 25.6.47

Ts summary of drink conference by JS 4.9.47

Ts undated work-in-progress report on the survey

85/2/B: Press Cuttings

Guardian letters on wartime drinking, brewers and barley

"Are Women Drinking Too Much?" Women's Home Companion (USA) Sept 1946

"How to Drink Yourself to Death" Lilliput 1946

Article on the PUPS Morning Advertiser, 20.1.48

Professor Joad on drinking in open spaces, Sunday Dispatch 29.2.48

Morning Advertiser article attacking M-O drink survey 9.8.48

Items on reintroduction of strong beer, May 1947 Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail and News Chronicle

Assorted newspaper cuttings April 47-Dec 48

Ts extract from Bevan's speech 9.2.48 (ML)

Ts extract from Advertisers Weekly 12.2.48 on the advertising of drink

85/2/C: Brewing Industry Publications

Nine copies of the Monthly Bulletin Dec 47-Dec 48

The Licensing World April 1947

Ts The Association of Clubs' Breweries Ltd. Annual Report 1947

Leaflet on rebates, The Yorkshire Clubs' Brewery Ltd

Drink? National Co-operative Men's Guild leaflet: "Should the Co-operative Movement enter the liquor trade?"

Bournemouth Working Men's Club, 1945 Annual Report

Postcard advertising Gordon's Wine Bar, Strand, London WC2

85/2/D: Ms Drink Survey Index 1947-48

Ms list of pubs investigated, distinguishing between public and saloon bars

Ms list of pubs and places investigated with dates and methods used, 1948


Cash ledger, partially used to record results of the survey

Box 3: Temperance Material

85/3/A: Methodist Publications

Sixteen assorted temperance pamphlets and booklets, collected Oct-Dec 1947

85/3/B: National British Women's Total Abstinence Union

Nine copies of NBWTAU journal, The White Ribbon Jan 47-Jan 48

Six leaflets on the evils of drink aimed at children, by Margaret Baker

Annual Report 1947. Secretary's Report 1947. Programme for Youth Rally 28.4.48

Programme for Annual Public Meeting 27.4.48

Recruiting leaflet

"A Letter to Boys and Girls on leaving School"

"A Matter of Detail", leaflet on the effect of alcohol on the human cell

85/3/C: Temperance Groups

The Temperance Collegiate Association: two leaflets, one an address by Charles Hill, the "Radio Doctor"

The Temperance Council of Christian Churches: four leaflets with cartoons by Fougasse (two written by Charles Hill); two leaflets on the drink problem in 1946 and 1947 respectively

The National Commercial Temperance League: Science Speaks 1947 booklet and one copy of NCTL Outlook

The United Kingdom Alliance: Alliance News, three leaflets, 1947 Annual Report and booklet To Drink or Not to Drink

The Research Student Service (of the United Kingdom Alliance): five leaflets

85/3/D: Temperance Groups

Band of Hope Union: two Annual Reports (1947 & 1948), four leaflets

Independent Order of Rechabites: three booklets, Rechabite Magazine, application form and leaflet on abstinence in wartime. Collected 1948

The British Temperance League: 1947 copy of The Temperance Advocate, one leaflet

Friends Temperance Union: 1947 copy of Friends Temperance Quarterly

The Livesey-Clegg Youth Club, Sheffield: two pamphlets

The Church of England Temperance Society: Annual Reports 1945, 1947

The National United Temperance Council: leaflet opposing alcohol licenses

The London Diocesan Church of England Temperance Society: Drink. A London Survey Basil Nicholson, 1934

I am an Alcoholic. A Newspaper Drunk tells his Story , Wren Books 1948

85/3/E: Interviews and Correspondence

Ms interview with secretary of NBWTAU 22.10.47. (BS)

Ms interview with Robert Taylor, secretary of the Band of Hope (undated)

Ms interview with Dr Edwards, secretary of the Temperance and Welfare Department of the Methodist Church. 23.10.47. (BS)

Ts letter from John Lawson to his daughter listing temperance societies. 24.1.47

Box 4: Pub Counts 1947-48

Counts of men and women in pubs showing age (40+ or 40- ) and class (B, C or D)


Bolton, April-September 1947 (BL)


Middlesbrough, April-September 1947 (IP)


Blaina, April-November 1947 (JG)

Graphs showing pub attendances throughout a week


Aston, August 1947 (IP)


York, February-March 1948 (DB)


Luccombe, April 1947 (TT)

New Earswick, Maxby and Huntingdon, April 1947 (KB)


Elephant and Castle, June-August 1947 (HPD)

Tottenham, February 1948 (BL)


Fulham, August 1947-February 1948 (BL, RA, DLC?)


Bethnal Green, November-December 1947 (RA)


Ms charts showing totals derived from the counts

Box 5: Drink Timings 1947-48

Charts showing times taken by individual drinkers together with short descriptions of the subjects


Blaina, Oct-Dec 1947 (JG)


Aston, August 1947 (IP)


Middlesbrough, August-December 1947 (IP)


London (Sloane Square, Notting Hill Gate, Putney, Portobello, Kensington), Dec 1947 (DH, KB, BS)


Elephant and Castle, July-August 1947 (HPD, BL)


Fulham, July-Dec 1947 (BL, KB, BS, MLY, AVL, ACH?)

Box 6: Drink Timings 1947-48


Ashford, July-August 1947 (JG)


Bolton, September 1947 (BL)


Bethnal Green, Nov-Dec 1947 (RA)


Analysis of drink timings, June-Dec 1947 (IEW)

Box 7: Pub Observations 1947-48

85/7/A: Bethnal Green

Ts & ms observations in pubs Jan 47-Jan 48 (JG, RA)

Ts report on loan clubs 18.8.47 (JG)

Ms report on loan clubs 20.8.47 (BL)

Ts gambling informals 22.3.47 (IPG)

Ms gambling observations

85/7/B: Aston and Birmingham

Ms report on drinking and gambling, Aston 21.6.47 (JG)

Ts & ms pub observations dealing with various aspects of drinking in Aston and Birmingham: sexual morality, young people, the influence of football, Aston Labour Club (leaflet included)

Ms report on drink in Aston, March 1948 (BL)

85/7/C: York and Preston

Ms pub observations, York 11.7.47, 28.2.48 and 5.4.48 (DN, DB)

Ms pub observations, Preston 2.3.48 (LB)

85/7/D: Middlesbrough

Ms pub observations June-December 1947 (IP)

Ts diagrams of pubs November 1947 (IP)

Two letters from IP to LE, one on cause of drunkenness, one on Bass shortage. May and June 1948

85/7/E: London

Ts report on London Brewers' Planning Exhibition, Olympia 29.11.47 (MLY). Includes printed programme and leaflet The Licensed House.

Ms reports on drinking and gambling 6.8.47 (JG)

Ts and ms observations, indirects, overheards on London drinking, many dealing with Guiness. March 1947-August 1948. (JG, BW, BS, HPD, AIL?, GST, KB, MLY, RL, DH)

85/7/F: Dagenham, Essex

Ts reports and observations on drinking in Dagenham including material on St. Patrick's Night and the Irish, advertising and the Conservative Club (JG)

85/7/G: Ashford, Kent

Letter from JG to BW on the Alfred Arms pub 22.6.46

Ts and ms-a comprehensive survey of the social life of the Alfred Arms, including counts and timings, busking, reading material, leisure clubs, borrowing and darts. July-October 1947 (JG)

Box 8: Pub Observations 1947-48

85/8/A: Fulham

Ts and ms reports, informal and observations of drinking in Fulham, March-August 1947 (BL, RA, DLC?)

85/8/B: Luccombe

Ts and ms reports and observations of drinking in Luccombe, April and October 1947 (JG and TT)

85/8/C: New Earswick

Ts observations and informal on drink in New Earswick

Includes material on a boxing match, a youth club and gambling. April 1947 (KB)

85/8/D: The George, London E14

Ms charts of drinking habits in The George pub, May-Dec 1947

Correspondence between LE and proprietor Walter Seeley

85/8/E: Panel Special Job: Pub Observation Sept 47-March 48

Two directives on pub observation to the volunteer Panel. Ts and ms replies and observations. Related correspondence: replies and further queries from LE. Panel members include a vicar from Eltham, an army officer in Chislehurst, a Hastings agricultural labourer, a Welsh nurse, a commercial traveller, an undergraduate, an office manager and two civil servants

85/8/F: Pint drinking vs half pint drinking

Ms analysis sheets

Box 9: The Blaina survey 1947-48 (JG)


Ms and ts reports, observations overheards and informals on a wide range of drink-related topics including: the 'off-licence' chemist; the horses' head custom; ghost story; gambling; unusual drinks; cider drinking; home drinking; distribution, pricing and stouts; 'champion' drinkers; immorality in pubs; books and aids to pubkeepers; effect of cold weather; class factors; bar preferences; women in pubs; pub outings; 'The Experiment' (Guiness drinking); social and living conditions in Blaina; effects of music on drinking; working men's clubs; a 'hot' night club; and the Constitutional Club

Interviews with landlady of the Constitutional Club, superintendent of police and local council chairman


Ms and ts reports, observations, overheards and informals relating to The Red Lion Hotel, Blaina, including: activities in the pub; kitchen and corridor; timings; ordering; groups; regulars; pub diary; overheard conversations

Plans showing positions of customers at different times of day and night


Ms and ts reports, observations, overheards and informals on drinking in Blaina, including: conversation between landlords and brewery representative; after-hours drinking; free houses; The Firemans Arms, The Bush Inn, The Navigation Inn, The Royal Exchange, The Queen's Hotel; the 'Christian Commandos'; interviews with two teetotallers, a 'Rechabite' councillor, the Rev. Hughes and the Rev. Philips; press advertisements for Guinness and Webbs

Box 10: Clubs, Restaurants and Home Drinking 1947-48


Ts off-licence questionnaire

Ts pub observation directive

Ts and ms responses to off-licence qq Fulham, Kensington, Dagenham, Kent. Oct-Nov 1947. (KB, TS, BS, LI)

Ms informals on home drinking, Bolton, Preston, Wigan, Rochdale, Willesden, London


Ts report on passengers drinking on Paddington to Birmingham train. 21.1.48 (JG)

Ts cafe and restaurant drink directive

Ts and ms observations and informals London, Leamington Spa and Marlborough. February 1948

Restaurant and cafe customer drink count forms

85/10/C: Christmas drinking 1947

Ms observations: Notting Hill Gate (DH)

Rochdale and London (KB)

London (LPS)

Danbury, Essex (BS)

London (BL)

85/10/D: Clubs

Ts interview with secretary of British Legion Club, Leamington Spa 16.2.48 (MLY)

Ts report on the Brevet Flying Club, Mayfair. 9.4.48 (JG)

Ts report on Public Schools Club, Piccadilly 27.7.48 (MLY)

Box 11: Miscellaneous Later Material 1948-49

85/11/A: Lola Meichtry's Report 'Drinking', 1948

Ms letter to LE explaining her background re pubs

Ms 49 page report, 'Drinking':

  • Pages 1-11.The treating system. Pub etiquette. The role of women in pubs
  • 12-14.The breakdown of the treating system in wartime
  • 14-21. The aphrodisiac effect of drink
  • 22-25.Prostitution in pubs
  • 25-27.Bohemians. The Duke of York, Bloomsbury
  • 28-29.Homosexuals. The Marquis of Granby, Soho
  • 29-34.Pub migrations
  • 35-49.Drinking clubs
  • 41-43.Bottle parties
  • 45-49.Business conducted in clubs. Arranging an abortion

85/11/B: Correspondence

Ts correspondence between LE and Arthur Seldon of the Advisory and Development Council of the Brewing Industry. April-Sept 49. Includes 'Notes on a Survey of Drinking Habits', 24.5.49, a summary of the 1947-48 surveys

Ts correspondence between LE and George Cooper, owner of a pub and club, on Cooper's notes on pub observation. Feb-April 1948

Ts correspondence between LE and Una M Heler of Rumble, Crowther & Nicholas Ltd, Advertising, on the Drink survey. May-June 1949

Ts letter from LE to Margot Bennett of Lilliput on her article on temperance movements. 24.3.49

Box 12: Licensing Statistics

Ts lists of pubs showing nature of the license (tied house, free house, club etc.) undated


Licensing statistics, Birmingham (Selly Oak, King's Norton). undated


Licensing statistics, Birmingham (Handsworth, Lozells, Aston)


Licensing statistics, Middlesbrough


Licensing statistics, Bolton

Box 13: Courage Surveys 1949

A survey for Courage on the effectiveness of their trademark, and on trademarks in general


Ts correspondence between LE, J Leeson of Courage and Milner Gray of the Design Research Unit. December 1948-October 1949


Ms indirects on the Courage trademark with analysis sheets, London


Ms indirects and analysis continued


Ms analysis sheets

Box 14: Drunkenness Survey 1950-51

85/14/A: Bristol 1950-51

Ts general report on drunkenness in Bristol (who gets drunk, where they drink, pubs vs clubs, police attitudes)

Ms interviews with publicans, policemen, bus drivers and conductors, pubgoers, and people living near pubs

85/14/B: Cardiff 1951

Ts correspondence between LE and the Ministry of Labour including unemployment figures for Cardiff. June 1951

Ts general report on Cardiff (same format as for Bristol)

Ms interviews with policemen, bus conductors, publicans, a barmaid, pubgoers, Salvation Army workers, and people who live near pubs

85/14/C: Leicester 1950

Ts general report

Ms interviews with policemen, publicans, pubgoers and a bus conductress

Police Chief Constable's reports on drunkenness and crime statistics 1946-50

85/14/D: Nottingham 1951

Ts general report

Ms interviews with policemen, pubgoers, shop assistants, housewives etc

Newspaper advert for Clubs Brewery

85/14/E: Salford 1951

Ts general report

Ms interviews with policemen, publicans, Salvation Army workers, bus conductors, pubgoers and people living near pubs

85/14/F: Blackpool

Ts and ms, part of an undated report on pubs and drunkenness in Blackpool

Box 15: 1950s Surveys

85/15/A: Carbonated Drinks 1950

Ts 'Carbonated Drinks: A Proposed Enquiry'. July 1950

Ts drafts of questionnaire form

Ts instructions to investigators and questionnaire forms for adults and children

Ts drafts of code lists (showing possible range of replies to qq)

Ms notes on areas investigated

Ms results in the form of quota sheets

Ts 'Carbonated Drinks. Some Notes on a Pilot Enquiry' August 1950

85/15/B: Fruit Squashes 1951

Two surveys of fruit squash drinking, conducted as door-to-door interviews of housewives

Ts instructions to investigators, June 1951

Ts questionnaire draft and two copies of the completed form

Ts code list showing investigators' range of possible answers with codes

Ts list of fruit squash brand names

Ts and ms quota sheets showing results given by individual investigators together with their itineraries and related correspondence

Percentage sheets showing relation between region, age and income

Ms analysis sheets

Ts instructions to investigators for the second survey, July 1951

Investigation cards showing income

Ts code sheets showing possible answers

Ts and ms quota sheets showing results

85/15/C: Wine Cocktails 1953-54

Ts recommendations for the survey from KC Wright of Everetts Advertising Co, 6.10.53

Ts proposals for the survey, 6.10.53

Ts table of results of survey

Ts two letters to Wright from LE, 24.12.53, 29.1.54

85/15/D: Whisky 1957

A survey of attitudes to Scotch whisky

Ts completed questionnaire forms

Sheets of figures, printed on the Powers Machine?

Tabulation sheets showing survey results

85/15/E: Shop Audit Survey 1957

A survey of soft drinks, mustard, baby food and budgerigar seed for the Central Market Research Agency. Only the instructions have been kept

Ts instructions for investigators, Nov 1957

Ts special instructions for investigators

Ts additional instructions

85/15/F: Products Survey 1963

A survey of attitudes to Beechams, Robinsons, Colmans, Gales and Corona

Ts qq forms, Jan-Feb 1963

Box 16: Guinness Surveys 1952-63

85/16/A: Scottish Stout Survey, March-July 1952

A survey of Scottish stout drinking which involved interviewing 1000 Scots. Only the background correspondence and the results have been kept

Ts corresp. between GL Murray and WE Phillips of Guinness and LE, 27.2.52-29.7.52. Includes the following items

  • Draft questionnaires for first survey
  • List of towns to be investigated
  • Table of attitudes to the 'heaviness' of Guinness
  • Results of the first survey, 24.4.52
  • Tables showing reasons for preferring particular stouts, unpopular qualities of stout etc
  • Draft qqs for second survey, May 1952
  • Results of a similar survey of Yorkshire and Merseyside, 23.6.52
  • Draft notes on comparison between M-O and Bensons survey on Scottish Guinness

National Stout Surveys, 1952-53: Following the Scottish survey Guinness employed M-O to use the same methods nationally. 2000 people were interviewed in two surveys

85/16/B: First National Stout Survey, Oct 1952-Feb 53

Ts correspondence between GL Murray of Guinness and LE, 5.9.52-24.3.52. Includes the following items

  • Individual comments on relative merits of stouts, 8.10.52,
  • Draft questionnaires, instructions, notes on coding and classifications of stouts
  • List of towns where interviews were carried out
  • Frequency of drinking of stout drinkers over 70
  • Results of the first survey, 2.2.53

85/16/C: Second National Stout Survey, March-June 1953

Ts corresp. between LE and Guinness, includes

  • Drafts for second survey questionnaire with codings, March 1953
  • Comparison between the Scottish survey and the first national survey, 17.3.53
  • List of unclassified brands, 13.4.53
  • Guinness label tests, 6.5.53
  • Notes on special sampling in Yorkshire, May 1953

The 1955 Guinness Survey: Between July and August 1955, M-O held a series of group meetings in which volunteers were asked to take part in blind tasting of different beers, and were then asked their opinions on different beer advertisements


Ts correspondence between MT and the volunteers setting up the meetings, and between MT and various off-licenses ordering the beer, August-July 1955

Ts report explaining the object and method of the survey and summarising the meeting of 9.8.55


Ts transcriptions, taken from tape recordings, of the meetings of 19.7.55 and 26.7.55


Ts transcriptions of the meetings of 9.8.55, 16.8.55 and 23.8.55

Ms notes from the meetings

85/16/G: The 1958 Guinness Survey

Ts questionnaire coding sheets

Completed questionnaire forms


Data from the survey in the form of early computer printouts and punch cards

85/16/I: The 1963 National Stout Survey

Ts code sheets and questionnaire forms on stout and 'Black and Tan' drinking

Box 17: Guinness Advertising Ephemera

Booklet, 'A Good Score-Twenty Years of Guinness Advertising', c.1938-49, 12pp. (1949?)

Four stand-up display cards:

  • 'Guinness for Strength'-Stonehenge cartoon
  • 'My Goodness-My Guinness'-zookeeper and kinkajou (two copies)
  • Zookeeper holding animals above head in crowd

One laminated card: 'Guinness and Oysters are Good for You'

Two cards advertising Mackeson's stout

One card advertising Jubilee stout

One card advertising McEwan's

One card advertising Dutton's

Boxes 18-22: The Double Diamond Survey 1961

A survey of lager and bottled beer drinking for Double Diamond. This consists of five boxes of completed questionnaire forms

Mass-Observation Studies 1937-55

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