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Mass-Observation Archive: Topic Collections

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TC 25: 19 boxes


In sorting this group of material, I have arranged items according to three principles:-

  1. The original position in which I found items-to preserve as far as possible any significance in the juxtaposition of papers
  2. The chronological order-in general, earlier material precedes later material within both files and boxes
  3. The subject matter-where appropriate material relating to similar subjects has been grouped together

In practice, the position in the files of any one item depends upon a combination of the three principles.

This Topic Collection does not by any means contain all material collected by M-O about political attitudes and behaviour. Excluded from this group are the following:

  1. All material from the volunteer observers (directive replies and diaries)
  2. All material relating to specific elections. See TC 64: By-elections and TC 76: General elections
  3. Most material collected in Bolton 1937-40. See Worktown Collection
  4. Further material on industry, industrial relations, strikes and trade unions. See TC 75: Industry
  5. Other Topic collections in relation to specific topics (eg TC 1: Housing, TC 2: Reconstruction and so on)


June 1980


25/1/A: Aliens: cases 1939-40

News cuttings from press

25/1/B: Fifth Column, April 1940

Six questions about the Fifth Column, internment and refugees. 16 replies collected by HN, LE and BA

Questionnaire about the Fifth Column (probably produced by MoI); MoI Home Press Summaries information: Review of the Sunday papers, 21.4.40 including section on the Fifth Column and Enemy Aliens

25/1/C: Reactions to Refugee Booklet, May 1940

Booklet with photographs: Some Victims of the Nazi Terror published by the Kitchiner Camp Committee (2 copies)

Pencil notes by TH of reactions of Mass-Observation team (NM, SS, BW, PF, BP, HN)

Interviews about reactions to Booklet by HP, NM, BW, SS, PF, BP and LE "Direct" and "Indirect' opinions including letter from Dr R A McDonald enclosing his own opinion and a report from observer LE

25/1/D: Refugees situation in Britain 1939-40

Report from Observer DB-L based on her experience of helping refugees in North Kensington, 23.5.40 (2 copies)

Report from J Shawcross: "The Refugees' reaction to the war", based on experience at the Jewish Refugees Committee, Bloomsbury House, London, 21.4.40

Note on "Spanish Relief Committees", 28.8.40

Circular: "Czech Refugee Trust Fund" 8.10.40 (in German)

Booklet: The Present Position of the Refugees published by the Christian Council for Refugees

Booklet (duplicated): Neue Post aus England Stimmen der Britischen Presse, April 1940

Opinions of refugees sent in by a Panel Observer (London), November 1939

Interviews in a London hostel with refugees by CF, June 1940: opinions on the course of the war and reactions to the news-some in German

Notes on anti-enemy feeling; lists of books on propaganda

25/1/E: The experience and organisation of internment

Extract from a letter written by anonymous internee in Liverpool: describes conditions and hardships of internment, 5.4.40

Report of an arrest of a Hungarian writer in Oxford and his subsequent internment: told to Observer SS by Hungarian Baroness, personal friend of writer, 1.8.40

Observations on internment from two groups of Austrian refugees collected by BW, 1.7.40; attitudes of aliens towards internment, 1.8.40 (BW)

Letter from H G Wells to TH (very brief), 27.8.40

Copy of letter about an interned member of Stepney Tenants Defence League to Home Office, 6.8.40 (NM)

Letter to TH from Warden of Toynbee Hall on Internment Policy, 27.8.40

Notes from Worcester about efforts to release Austrian internee, 29.8.40 (JA)

Correspondence relating to a French soldier held in Winchester Gaol between TH and solicitors, including letter from solicitors to Home Office, September 1940

Article: "Life in the Internment Camps" by Leo Leipmann in The Friend, 29.11.40

Report: Release of Lady Pearson, member of the British Union of Fascists, detained under Section 18B of the Defence Regulations. Reactions among the people of Hollingbourne where she lives

25/1/F: Anti-Internment Leaflet, August 1940

Copies of leaflet reprinting an article by Michael Foot in The Evening Standard

Letter from Toynbee Hall

Reactions to leaflet: interviews carried out in Notting Hill (DH) Worcester (JA) (JS) Streatham (LE) Stepney (NM)

Reactions to Priestley

25/1/G: Anti-alien feeling, May-August 1940

Reports, interviews and observations on people's attitudes to aliens including observations made in Soho when Italy declared war

Analysis of replies to October Directive to Panel on attitudes to other nationalities

25/1/H: Attitudes to aliens, May 1941

Informal interviews collected by DH on aliens in Britain, including references to Hess

25/1/I: Survey: attitudes to aliens, March 1943

Interviews, questionnaires, tabulations of results and notes on study of attitudes towards aliens. (JF, VT, GST, NW, MS, EG)


Replies from Manchester and Bolton


Replies from London areas

File L:

Replies from Leamington Spa


25/2/A: South Africa

Reports from an M-O contact in Durban, December 1940. News cuttings

Day Surveys written by a clerk (male) and a doctor's receptionist (female) for 11.11.39

25/2/B: Germany

Report: 'Morale in Germany 1914-18 written by CF based on the reminiscences of a Viennese woman, aged about 40, and a Viennese man aged 36, 18.6.40. Various other interviews on the same theme

25/2/C: Finland

Overheards on Russia's invasion of Finland (AFC) London 1.12.39

Interviews and overheard comments on the news from Finland, 14.3.40. Collected by LE, MD, JC and SS in Fulham

25/2/D: Norway

Tabulations of results of survey on people's reaction to events in Norway. Typed report and handwritten manuscript (JF): "Norway: Reaction to news 8-14 April 1940" (8-14.4.40)

25/2/E: Belgium


  • "How Leopold News was heard", 3.6.40
  • "How Leopold News was heard", 7.6.40
  • "Belgian Surrender (Cricklewood)" (HN) 28.5.40

Interviews: Poplar, East Ham and Ilford (NM) 28.5.40

Further recorded remarks (PF, CF, BA, SS, LE and BW)

25/2/F: Dunkirk

Overheard comments, Dover (DH) 1.6.40

Report "The BEF", Dover (CP)-comments of members of the Forces after Dunkirk

25/2/G: France

Reactions to the fall of France, 25.6.40. Indirect comments on the assassination of Darlan collected by GST, MH, CG, DH, CM, 25-27.6.40. Handwritten report from a Belgian student (received by M-O in 1942): "Impressions de Belgique et de France occupée". Sent in by person who looked after him after his escape to England. Interviews about the French Navy, 5.7.40, collected in Chalk Farm, Hampstead (CF) and Limehouse (NM). Report on the Free French celebrations, July 1942. Account of procession in London (CM and PL). Hansard, November 1941 extract

25/2/H: Somaliland

Interviews about reaction to news that Somaliland had been evacuated collected in Streatham (LE) and Notting Hill Gate (SS)

25/2/I: Ireland

Opinion about Ireland's role in the war and her refusal to allow the British to use Irish ports. Interviews in London by SS, JS, PW and DH, 8.11.40

25/2/J: Iceland

Report from Mass-Observer CP (in RAF) from Reykjavik; notes on morale of troops, Anglo-American relations, local population, 24.9.41. Copy of newspaper Daily Post, 28.8.41-only newspaper available in English

25/2/K: Czechoslovakia

Typed comments on the Czech people, 20.3.41

25/2/L: Crete

Attitude towards news about troops in Crete collected by CF, DH, JS, NN, VT, GH in London, 30.5.41. Extract from Evening Standard 's article on Crete

25/2/M: Libya

Extracts from the press, May-June 1941. Comparison of press and BBC treatment of Sixth Libyan Campaign prepared for TH by BBC News Division, 26.6.42

25/2/N: Greece

Interviews and indirect comments on situation in Greece, December 1944-January 1945, collected by GST, NA, and MH. Handwritten report on reactions to Greek "rising" (JF) nd. Newspaper: Greece-our Friend produced by CPGB, November 1944

Note: "The Army in Greece," LE, 9.12.44

25/2/O: Foreigners-general

Assorted notes and interviews on attitudes towards foreigners 1942-3 and foreign troops in UK

25/2/P: Poland

Observation at Sikorski's funeral, 14.7.43 (GST)


25/3/A: Attitudes towards Americans 1941

Report of 11 interviews by EL, 12.6.41, carried out by NN, JS and CF

Report: "Co-operation with America after the war" 21.10.41

Article: "The High Powered Yank" by TH nd

Report: "General impression on the visit of W Wilkie", HP, 30.1.41

25/3/B: Attitudes to Americans 1942

Notes and tabulations of result of survey (JF)

Synopsis of report 13.2.42. Questionnaire, 29.1.42. Reports from Investigators on the success of questionnaire (EG, RCC, LB, EA)

25/3/C: Attitudes to Americans-Survey February 1942

Interviews in London and Luton by JS, EA, EG, and RCC

25/3/D: Attitudes to Americans, December 1942-January 1943

1000+ interviews conducted in Bolton, Cheltenham, Roehampton, London, Portsmouth, Bristol, York, Salisbury by EW, VS, CM, MH, DB, MT, FM and GB. 14 questions about Americans including opinion of Roosevelt. Tabulations of results

25/3/E: Attitudes to Americans, June-July 1943

Overheard comments collected by JF in Gloucester and GST in London

25/3/F: American soldiers' attitudes to Britain, June 1943

Comments collected in London by GST and MH

25/3/G: The American Scene

"International Affairs-Politics" by Mrs Ruth Durant 10.1.40, London, typed notes of lecture (HP)


25/4/A: Russia

Reactions to Molotov's speech, 2.8.40: opinions gathered in London by HP

Attitudes towards Russia sent in by Panel observers, 1939-41

Survey on opinions about Russia's role in the war, August 1941

Trends taken from M-O's News Quotas and studies carried out between March 1940-August 1941 (EL)

Summary in chart form of Russo-German war as presented by Daily Telegraph, Daily Express and Daily Herald, June-August 1941

"Overheards" at Paddington Station on Russia, GD, 23.7.41 and MS. "Indirects" collected by DH, JS, CF, MS, RI, October-November 1941

"Indirects" on Russia collected by GB, NP, MH, FHB, 21.11.42

"Indirects" on Stalin's speech, (NN, EL, JS) 4.7.41

Attitudes towards Comintern ("indirects") 23.5.43

Daily Worker cuttings

(For material on Pro-Soviet events and organisations, see 25/8/K)

25/4/B: Attitudes to the war in the Far East

"Indirects", interviews and "overheards" collected by DH, JS, CM, HP, AA, CF, GVH, in London, 8.12.41 and 9.12.41

25/4/C: Reaction to Japanese Aggression

Reports based on opinions expressed at the Hounslow Government Training centre, 8.12.41 and 11-12.12.41 (PG)

Report on Forces reactions, 8.12.41 (HN)

25/4/D & E: Attitudes to war in Far East

"Overheards" and "indirects" collected in London by HP, MS, JS, GVH, VT, AA, DH, CF 10.12.41-18.12.41

25/4/F: Progress of the war, December 1941-42

Index of war events from Pearl Harbour onwards as recorded in M-O's study of attitudes, 8.12.41-.2.42 (PN). Notes, tabulations and summaries of results of surveys, on opinion about the war in the Far East. Comparisons with Russo-German war


25/5/A: Eden Crisis 1938

Material relating to Panel Directive on the Crisis (February-March 1938) and the resignation of Sir Anthony Eden. Includes typed extracts from the Directive Replies (original versions filed with Panel material for 1938)

Typed extracts from Sir Anthony Eden's radio broadcast (TH) 11.9.39

25/5/B: "Democracy" 1938

Article by Professor John Hilton "Economic Opportunity under Democracy" given at the Liberal Summer School, Cambridge, 4.8.38

Replies to a questionnaire about 'democracy', 1938: from Slough (19), Bolton (54) and Ashford (51), completed by people attending WEA classes

Card: note by TH describing Richard Crossman when he delivered his lecture on the Constitution at WEA class, 17.1.38 with syllabus of University Extension Lectures, "Theory and Practice of British Democracy"

25/5/C: Predictions about the future made by politicians before the war

Handwritten notes on press reports of speeches by Attlee, Baldwin, Churchill, Chamberlain, Haldane, Anderson, Lees-Smith

25/5/D: The outbreak of war 1939

Notes by TH about reactions to news that war had been declared. Partial manuscript containing extracts from diaries

25/5/E: Interview with Managing Director of Vickers Armstrong

Report by TH on meeting Sir Charles Craven, principal armaments manufacturer in Britain, 19.10.39

25/5/F: Press Treatment of War

Typed extracts from Sunday Graphic, Time and Tide, (Oct-Nov 1939) and a copy of the Daily Worker, 14.10.39

25/5/G: Politicians, November 1939

Observations made at 10 Downing Street, London by AH, 9.11.39. Correspondence between TH and Sir Richard Acland, MP, and Geoffrey Le Mander, MP, about observing in the House of Commons, August-November 1939. TH offers Acland the services of M-O

Reprints from Hansard, November 1939

Extracts from Hansard, December 1939

Observations in the House of Commons, AH, 9.11.39

25/5/H: Somerset de Chair's Questionnaire, October 1939

Completed questionnaires resulting from a survey of his constituents by Somerset de Chair, (Conservative MP for SW Norfolk). Includes questions on the expected duration of the war, attitudes to Russia, the position of the agricultural worker, opinions on members of the Cabinet, Labour Party activities in the area, evacuation plans, ARP plans and peace terms

Correspondence: TH/Somerset de Chair, November 1939

25/5/I: Mass-Observation War Questionnaire, November 1939

Analysis and draft questionnaire: expectations of the length of the war and extent of hardship, opinion of Government's handling of war, war aims, attitudes to Germany, rationing and attitude to Chamberlain, (6 questions)

25/5/J, K, L

Replies to above questionnaire collected in London by VMD, HN, KB, BA and LE


25/6/A: Chamberlain's Foreign Policy, March 1939

Door-to-door interviews conducted in Fulham

25/6/B: Opinion on Mr Hore-Belisha, January 1940

Short report from SS, 22.1.40. Survey conducted in Fulham by KB, 4.1.40 on whether Hore-Belisha should stay in the Cabinet. Additional questions asked about Oliver Stanley as War Minister, whether people are more interested in Home Affairs or affairs abroad and opinion on the way the war is being run

Replies, analysis and general impression report

"Overheards" collected by JA, 8.1.40

Interviews on Hore-Belisha only, (HN, BA, LE, VMD, HP, PF, HDW, CP) from 8.1.40-20.1.40. Copy of New Statesman and Nation, 20.1.40 with article mentioning Hore-Belisha by RHS Crossman

Article in Sunday Pictorial 14.1.40 about the firing of Hore-Belisha

25/6/C: Chamberlain Questionnaire, January 1940

200 interviews in London conducted by HN, VMD, KB & LE asking 6 questions including one about Chamberlain [also interviews from Liverpool]. No questionnaire

25/6/D: Press cuttings on Chamberlain January-May 1940

25/6/E: Resignation of Chamberlain, May 1940

Notes, tabulations and opinions on Chamberlain including extracts from press

25/6/F: Opinion about Chamberlain, July 1940

Report from HN, JA and PN in Worcestershire on local attitudes to Chamberlain, 3.7.40

Report of opinions from Bolton (BA) and Manchester (GT) 3.7.40

Notes analysing attitude results (CP)

Summary of results

Article in Picture Post "The Great Mystery" by Aneurin Bevan, MP: critique of government, 20.7.40

Letter from TH to Picture Post (draft) 13.7.40

Reaction to the NUR motion condemning the "Men of Munich"-report of people's opinions as published in Daily Mirror, 3.7.40

25/6/G: Funeral of Chamberlain, November 1940

Observation prior to funeral at Westminster Abbey (HP), 13.11.40. Observation of funeral service, 14.11.40 (DH)

25/6/H: Peace Terms Survey, March 1940

Reactions to Hitler's proposals for peace terms and RAF air raids over Sylt (2 questions): replies from London and Bolton collected by PN, HN, CP, BA and AH

Rough notes (TH)

Memo: "Note from TH" 21.3.40: conclusions from investigation

25/6/I: Reaction to Churchill as Prime Minister, May 1940

Report from Suffolk, 10.5.40 (RP)

Report on reactions to Churchill's broadcast, 19.5.40

Observations at Downing Street, May-June 1940

Notes: attitudes to Cabinet changes: "overheards" collected by TH, 12.5.40

Analysis of attitudes to Cabinet, JF, 13.5.40

25/6/J: Attitudes to Churchill's speech, July 1940

Small survey conducted in Notting Hill by DH (15.7.40) on reactions to Churchill's speech, expectations of how long the war would last and opinions on tea rationing


25/7/A: Houses of Parliament, and Parliament Square, June 1940; Stepney, July 1940

Observations in the street 12.6.40 (MD)

Observations of soapbox speaker, Stepney (NM), 30.7.40

25/7/B: "Democracy" Survey, November 1940

M-O survey on people's attitudes to politics, to the war, feelings about dictatorships and democracy, war expectations and support for political parties. Replies collected by LE in Streatham, 9/10.11.40

Various questionnaires, not all exactly the same, but asking questions on similar issues and including further questions on Purchase Tax, attitude to Germany and internment. Replies collected by CF, LE, JS, and DH

Analysis charts

25/7/C: "Democratic Imperialism" Survey, November 1940

Reactions to a Government poster about the Commonwealth in Evening Standard, 26.11.40. Reactions to article in Daily Mirror: "Democracy is finished", 11.11.40

25/7/D: Marylebone Survey, November 1940

Questionnaire on reactions to the news, soldiers being used to help after the Blitz, Churchill as leader of the Conservative Party, party politics, the Cunningham-Reid Affair (MP for Marylebone). How the Rich Live, 16pp; ) Communist Party booklet, 1938)

Replies collected by SS, JS and DH

Analysis charts

25/7/E: Political interest and awareness survey, November 1940

Questionnaire on Churchill as leader of the Conservative Party, interest in politics, party politics, the representativeness of the Houses of Parliament, voting in the last election, attitude to Parliament

Replies collected by DH, GH, LE, 12.11.40 in London

Analysis charts

25/7/F: Political interest/knowledge about the Adams/Margesson debate, November 1940

Questionnaire on interest in politics, representativeness of House of Commons, knowledge of own MP and the criticism of Captain Margesson by Vyvyan Adams in the House of Commons

Replies collected in London by GH, 13.11.40

Open-ended interviews on politics, 9.11.40

25/7/G: Politicians' Mail Bag, November 1940

Typed extracts from letters written to Vyvyan Adams, 13.11.40 (MP)

Report on analysis of letters by JA, 1.12.1940

Analysis chart

25/7/H: Continuous assessment of morale, attitudes to the progress of the war and topical issues, November-December 1940

Small surveys conducted in London by OH, LE, HP, CF, GH

Topics covered attitudes to

  • Sleep
  • Shelter Facilities
  • Lord Horder
  • Government advertising
  • Preferred daily paper
  • India
  • Effect of air raids on work
  • Looters
  • Herbert Morrison
  • Russia
  • War dictators
  • Spain
  • Food situation
  • Ministry of Food
  • Shop keepers' attitude
  • Federal Union

Youth QQ: expectations about length of war, how war affects plans, post war hopes, punctuality, attitudes to girls, sex life, spending, quarrels, present government and daily paper


  • Fish Questionnaire
  • Turkey Questionnaire
  • Oranges Questionnaire
  • Reports on morale, rumour and grumbles
  • Gas masks
  • Attitudes to news
  • Christmas shopping
  • Russia
  • Spain
  • India
  • Sleep
  • The news
  • Posters
  • Lemons
  • Coal
  • Binoculars
  • Saving Certificates
  • Lord Halifax
  • Anthony Eden
  • Peace terms
  • Germany

25/7/J: Federal Union Survey, December 1940

Investigation into people's knowledge about the terms "colony", "dominion", "Federal Union", "Statute of Westminster"

25/7/K: Assorted observations, November-December 1940

Includes notes on posters, information bureaux and an account of a performance of the Anglo-Polish Ballet, London (DH)


25/8/A: "Manifesto of the Common Men" and "Unser Kampf"

Advertising leaflets, draft statements, and correspondence between Sir Richard Acland and Mass-Observation relating to the promotion of "Unser Kampf" and the campaign devoted to the "Manifesto". Includes interviews about the wording of the Manifesto carried out by M-O investigators JA and BA for Acland, March-April 1940

25/8/B: The People's Convention 1940

Duplicated circular calling for a regional meeting in Newcastle to discuss the national convention in London on 20.10.40

25/8/C: The People's Convention, January 1941

Observations by CF and GH at the People's Convention, Royal Hotel, Woburn Place, London including account of a dance on 11.1.41 in Holborn Hall arranged in conjunction with the Convention. Details of premises, delegates, speeches, social activities, decorations etc. one short report by HP who was not admitted

25/8/D: The People's Convention: literature January 1941

Programme and literature provided for delegates

25/8/E: The People's Convention: press cuttings and leaflets January 1941

Accounts of the convention in the News Chronicle and Daily Express plus assorted leaflets and booklets associated with the Convention

25/8/F: The People's Convention, February 1941

Account of smaller Convention meeting at Holborn Hall London (2.2.41) at which criticisms were made at press coverage of January Convention by a Napier's Shop Steward representative, a representative from De Havilland Works Committee and a representative of the London Co-operative Society Branch. Notes on other speeches including those of the Chairman and Ivor Montagu

25/8/G: The People's Convention, March 1941

Account of meeting at the Royal Hotel, Woburn Square, 16.3.41, together with delegate's credential and literature on freedom of opinion and the BBC

25/8/H: The Common Wealth Party, 1942

Several accounts of Common Wealth meetings of the Hampstead branch, October-November 1942 (MS)

A report of a meeting of the Cardiff branch of the Common Wealth Party, September 1942 (MT)

25/8/I: Communist Party of Great Britain

Note (KB) on efforts to find CP meetings in Fulham, October 1939. Notes on local branch. Stickers with slogans attached. Account of Communist Crusade meeting in Maidstone with speakers Joe Scott and Tom Mann, 3.4.40

Observation of a Daily Worker seller, 7.1.40

Duplicated leaflet about sales for use of sellers

Note on sales of other papers after ban imposed on Daily Worker, 13.2.41

Leaflet calling for ban on Daily Worker to be lifted, 5.6.42

Selection of CPGB leaflets collected in Stepney and elsewhere, September 1940

CP literature: notes and interviews by BW, February 1940

Information about sales of Community books from Emile Burns, and about sales of leaflets through Left Wing bookshops in London, 22.4.40

Details of sales of Daily Worker, March 1940

Report of Young Communist League weekly meeting (NM), 1.3.40

Reactions to CP leaflet about Air Raid Victims: comments gathered by CF, LE and NM, 1.7.40

Reactions to CP poster: "Red Army" collected by MS in Walham Green, London, 6.8.41

Report of CP meeting, Caxton Hall, London, 5.9.41

Report of Daily Worker Rally, 12.9.42 (?)

Literature 1942 including newspaper: May Day, 1942

Report of Daily Worker conference, 21.3.42

Report of Young Communist League (YCL) "Monster" Meeting, 26.4.42. including literature (EG)

Report on Labour Monthly discussion meetings, August 1942, on India and Ireland (POL)

Reports of two CP meetings at Holborn Hall, London, 14.10.42 and 13.11.42 at which Soviet films are shown with discussion. Includes invitation cards

Report of two weekly meetings of the local CP branch, Beckenham (EG) October-November 1942

Report of CP Rally, Chelsea Palace, 10.12.44

Pamphlet "More and yet more production", 7.1.42 (issued by Daily Worker as part of 'Lift the Ban' campaign)

25/8/J: Second Front Rallies, 1942

Literature and reports of three rallies

25/8/K: Pro-Soviet Organisations and Events, 1939-43

Selection of posters, leaflets, and booklets produced by the Anglo-Soviet Friendship Committee, the Russia Today Society, the Society for Cultural Relations with the USSR etc. Observer reports include accounts of meetings, rallies and exhibitions

25/8/L: May Day celebrations 1941-43

Observer reports of May Day rallies in London

25/8/M: Miscellaneous meetings 1941-43

Reports and leaflets on a variety of public events including the Hendon Rallies, 1941; the Beveridge Bubble meeting, 14.12.42 and public meetings in Hyde Park, 1943

Aid to China meeting, 5.10.42

25/8/N: Miscellaneous meetings 1940


25/9/A: Socialist Party of Great Britain 1940-42

Account of meeting at Wigmore Hall, London, 5.4.42, and printed literature, (FLB)

25/9/B: League of Nations Union 1943

Account of meeting of Beckenham branch, includes ephemera, 27.2.43 (EG)

25/9/C: International Youth Conference, 1942

Account of weekend conference, Westminster, London, 15.11.42 (LB)

25/9/D: Independent Labour Party 1944

Pamphlet: "Socialism can defeat Nazism" and account of May Day Rally, 7.5.44 (LB)

25/9/E: Progessive League and Married Women's Association

Progessive League, 1943

Account of meeting on 'Sex in Wartime', 23.1.43 with advertising leaflet (MS)

Married Women's Association 1943

Account of meeting and discussion, 13.2.42 (VS)

25/9/F: India League, 1942-43

Account of public meeting in Glasgow, 30.1.42, with leaflets (TB)

Accounts of two emergency meetings, Conway Hall, London, 28.4.42 (with booklet and leaflet) and 18.2.43 (EG)

25/9/G: Federal Union 1941

Accounts of the Bath Conference, 11.9.41 Agenda of London conference "Europe after the War" 27.9.41; leaflets enclosed (EG)

25/9/H: Chepstow Left Book Club, 1940

Note book recording meetings of Chepstow Left Book Club from 12.9.39-27.2.40 kept by volunteer Panel observer, Mrs Collins

25/9/I: Labour Party: local branches 1939-40

Literature and reports from meetings from Maidstone, Hammersmith, St Marylebone and Mossley including a letter from ZB to TH enclosing an account of a meeting at Oxford which her husband, RHS Crossman attended in his capacity as Councillor, 10.5.40

25/9/J: Labour Party Annual Conference 1940

Detailed reports by ZB attending conference in Bournemouth

25/9/K: Labour Party Annual Conference 1941

Detailed report by GD attending conference in Westminster, London, June 1940. Literature for delegates included

25/9/L: Labour Party Annual Conference 1942

Reports by CF at Central Hall, Westminster, London, May 1942

25/9/M: Trade Unions 1942-43

National Union of Public Employees: report on national conference at Nottingham, April 1943 (EG)

Association of Scientific Workers: account of meeting at ICI House, London, 3.12.42 by POL. Speakers: Stafford Cripps, JBS Haldane and others. Account of film show 6.11.42 at Holborn Hall (POL). Literature included

Society of Civil Servants: account of meeting organised by Ministry of Aircraft branch, 9.10.42 (POL) London

25/9/N: "Closed Shop" Survey 1946

Indirect interviews and comments on the 'closed shop' policy in trade unionism, gathered by LB, PH, September 1946

25/9/O: Fabian Society 1942-47

Correspondence, articles, notes and reports of meetings relating to Fabian activities, including material on the National Wages policy

25/9/P: Assorted left-wing publications 1936-38

Civil Liberty, No 2 Autumn 1937

Controversy, Vol 2, No 18, 193?

The Left News, No 26, June 1938

The Labour Organiser, October 1936, February 1938 No 184, October 1936 No 200, February 1938

What Labour has done for London (London Labour Party), December 1938

Holborn Outlook, Vol 4, No 3, February 1938


25/10/A: The British Union of Fascists

Copy of Blackshirt, November 1937

Leaflets received by post and collected from BUF bookshop in London by JA, January-February 1940. Includes advertising material for BUF Newspaper, Action

Two Observer accounts of BUF meetings in Notting Hill Gate (DH) August-September 1947

25/10/B: League for Freedom

Observer account of meeting, Earls Court, October 1947

Two copies of Unity (newspaper) 1947

25/10/C: British Council for Christian Settlement and Militant Christian Patriots

Literature, 1940

25/10/D: British People's Party

Literature and notes, 1940

25/10/E: Imperial Fascist League

Literature, 1940

25/10/F: Reactions to the release of Oswald Mosley, 1943-44

Public reactions to Mosley's release from internment collected in London, November 1943-January 1944 by GST, LB, GB

25/10/G: Anti-Fascist material, 1947

Literature with a description of a Communist anti-fascist meeting in Notting Hill, 27.9.47

On Guard, Peace News, and Anti-Hitler hand-outs, 1939-40

25/10/H: Fascist or anti-semitic and other organisations: general

Interview with Polish Count, 8.11.42 (POL)

Interview by POL with Personal Secretary to an "Armaments King", London, 23.11.42

Description of incident in Lyons Tea Shop, 29.6.42 (MS)

Report on Fascist meeting in Town Hall, Ilford, 28.5.?. Speaker: Oswald Mosley (sent in by volunteer Panel observer)

Account of meeting of League of Ex-Servicemen, 26.10.47

25/10/I: Friends of Europe

Literature 1939-40

25/10/J: Conservative Party

Overheards collected at conference, 16.3.45 Conservative leaflet and report of meeting, 13.9.47, Notting Hill


25/11/A: The Liberal Party Questionnaire 1941-42

Impressions from observers on the reaction to a questionnaire about political parties with special reference to the Liberal Party. Tabulation of results (CF, AA, CM, EG, DH, MS, HP)

Extract from Evening Standard "Londoner's Diary" 1.12.42

25/11/B: Questionnaire, notes and tables of results

25/11/C: Replies collected in Chester, December 1941-January 1942

25/11/D: Replies collected in Luton, December 1941-January 1942

25/11/E: Replies from London area with indirect comments, December 1941-January 1942

25/11/F: Two reports of the Annual Assembly of the Liberal Party, Caxton Hall, Westminster by POL and JA, 5.9.42


25/12/A: Correspondence and book synopses January-April 1941

Letters and notes relating to work on the book between Tom Harrisson and Richard Fitter; some correspondence also with other people concerned with the book including Miss E Loeb

25/12/B: Non-Voting in elections: correspondence, May 1941

Letters from local authorities about voting in local elections in response to request for information from RF

25/12/C: "The Britisher: His Character and Life"

Undated, unsigned typed manuscript. Added notes in ball point pen in BW's handwriting. Various drafts. Probably a post-war project (c.1946)

25/12/D: Sources for "The Public Mind"

Typed extracts and newspaper cuttings: statistical information about the British population

25/12/E: Population, climate and land usage

Draft chapters for "The Public Mind"

25/12/F: Holidays

Draft chapters for "The Public Mind"

25/12/G: The Press

Draft chapters for "The Public Mind"

25/12/H: Housing

25/12/I: Conscientious objectors

25/12/J: Public Houses


25/13/A: Cabinet Changes 1941

Small survey in Kilburn and Fulham, May 1941 (JS, CF)

25/13/B: Postwar Co-operation: political attitudes survey 1941

Four questions about co-operation with the USA and the USSR after the war; attitudes to postwar Germany and expectations about the postwar situation

Survey conducted in Cricklewood (PG), Islington and Kings Cross (CM), Walham Green (MS), Notting Hill (VT), Kilburn (CF), Mill Hill (JS), Euston (NN), Westbourne Grove and Paddington (JA, DH)

Includes Investigators' impressions and tabulation sheets

25/13/C: "Patriotism", August 1941

Women's comments on meaning of 'patriotism' collected informally by MS and JS in connection with recruitment posters for women. General summary included

25/13/D: "Freedom", July 1941

Notes based on a speech by Tom Driberg (William Hickey in the Express) on 'Freedom' given in the Church of St Jude-on-the-Hill, Hampstead Garden Suburb, 13.7.41

25/13/E: War language, July 1941

A glossary of colloquial terms which have come into everyday conversation during wartime. Sent in by a voluntary observer

25/13/F: Attlee's broadcast announcing the Roosevelt-Churchill meeting, August 1941

Reports of people's reactions to Attlee's broadcast and the prospects of America joining the war. Comments collected by NN, MS, CF, JS in various London areas. Summary by RF

25/13/G: Political knowledge survey, September 1941

Draft questionnaires on knowledge and opinions about political leaders and issues

Handwritten report by JF on questionnaire survey results relating to attitudes to Parliament, MPs, postwar reconstruction plans, demobilisation, unemployment

25/13/H: Postwar Hopes: Survey of soldiers' opinions, July 1942

Analysis and report on results by M-O for the Fabian Society Public Opinon Survey. Three samples

  • members of the Army (April 1942)
  • a random street sample
  • members of the Army and RAF who belong to the Liberal Party (June 1942)

Questions cover: (1) things to be put right after the war (2) expectations about which political party will win next election (3) postwar job preferred and (4) postwar housing

Completed questionnaires and analysis sheets (Forces) Responses from people questioned in the street (various areas of London)

25/13/I: Postwar Government

Incomplete typed manuscript predicting voting trends at next General Election-no date


25/14/A: Government Questionnaire, February 1942

Questionnaire and replies about Parliament, Government changes and improving the war effort, conducted in London by EG, LB, VT, CM, RCC

Analysis charts and unsorted summaries/tables of results

25/14/B: Cabinet Changes Questionnaire, February 1942

Questionnaire about new Cabinet, inclusion of Cripps and exclusion of Beaverbrook. Responses (London) and analysis sheets

25/14/C: Parliament Questionnaire, March 1942

Written report (carbon copy) summarising the Panel's response to question about the value of Parliament, (DB), January 1942

Also other News Quota sheets by DB: March 1942 (on Churchill, Cabinet changes, criticism of Government in Press)

25/14/D: Prestige of Government leaders, April 1942

Typed report: analysis of public opinion on Churchill, the present government, Cripps, Morrison, Bevin, and others as expressed in replies from the Panel of volunteer observers. Notes about Morrison/Daily Mirror included

25/14/E: Churchill Questionnaire, June 1942

Typed summary of results of survey about Winston Churchill conducted in Norwich, Luton, Coventry, Bolton and London (EL)

25/14/F: Prime Minister Questionnaire, July 1942

Typed report: summary of survey about politician most preferred for P.M. after the war. Replies collected in London areas by EG, LB, POL, CM

Analysis sheets

25/14/G: Ministers Questionnaire, September 1942

Responses to questions about who fills various ministerial positions collected in London by CM, POL, EG, LB

25/14/H: Stafford Cripps: Ten Reports on public opinion 1942

Letter from BW to DB re Cripps study (18.7.42)

Number 1: 27.5.42 "Who likes and dislikes Sir Stafford Cripps"

Number 2: 6.8.42 "'First hopes and first suspicions"

Number 3: 20.8.42 "The growth of disappointment"

Number 4: 4.9.42 "What people like and dislike about Cripps"

Number 5: no date "What people know about Cripps"

Number 6: 8.10.42 "Cripps as leader, during & after the war"

Number 7: 20.10.42 "Political trends and Postwar Government'

Number 8: 5.11.42 "Leadership"

Number 9: 15.11.42 "Opinion about Cripps"

Number 10: 2.12.42 "Cripps leaves the War Cabinet"

25/14/I: Stafford Cripps

Pencil notes and analysis sheets-various

25/14/J: Stafford Cripps, M-O Panel comments February-March 1942

Extracts from diaries and directive replies

25/14/K: Stafford Cripps: At Housing Exhibition, June 1942

Observer report (RF) and news cuttings

25/14/L: Stafford Cripps: Broadcast to America, July 1942

Small survey of public reaction to broadcast

25/14/M: Stafford Cripps Questionnaire, July 1942

Four question survey on attitude to Cripps: replies collected by CF, DH, CM, LB in London

Handwritten report summarising results and analysis sheets

25/14/N: Stafford Cripps: Nottingham, August 1942

Observer's report on reaction to Cripps at Youth Rally (LB)

25/14/O: Stafford Cripps: Survey September-October 1942

Replies gathered in London about attitudes to Cripps as a politician by POL, LB, CM, JA (October 42 QQ includes questions on religion)

25/14/P: Stafford Cripps: Leaving War Cabinet, November 1942

Summary of reactions plus 'indirects'

25/14/Q: Political Truce: Panel attitudes to the political parties, November 1943

Typed summary (JF)

25/14/R: Political Personalities 1943-44

Overheard remarks and informal interviews about political figures including Morrison, Lord Woolton, Beaverbrook, Bevin, Cripps, Attlee, Montgomery, Sikorski, Priestley, Eden, Churchill (PV, LB, GB, GST, JB)


25/15/A: Postwar Peace, October 1944

Comments gathered in London by GST about the possibility of a peace settlement

25/15/B: Occupied Holland, 1945

Correspondence, photographs and leaflets describing the German occupation of Holland sent by a Dutch woman to a member of M-O's panel

25/15/C: Atrocity Stories, May 1945

Comments on atrocity stories and reaction to the Daily Express exhibition about German concentration camps. Collected in London by LB

25/15/D: The Atomic bomb/Hiroshima and Nagasaki, August 1945

Comments gathered in Kent and London by GST, LB, NA, CG, GR after the news that the USA had dropped an atomic bomb on Japan. Includes "indirects", "overheards" and replies to questionnaire

25/15/E: Nuremburg Questionnaire, September 1946

Replies to survey about attitudes to the Nuremburg Trials (and also Squatting). Questionnaire and analysis sheets included

25/15/F: British Co-operation with Russia and America, November 1945

Questionnaire and replies on co-operation with Russia

Analysis charts included

25/15/G: Russia 1946

Comments about Russia and British policy towards Russia, May and September 1946

Includes "indirects" and replies to questionnaires

25/15/H: America, 1947-48

Comments about America collected in January 1947 and January 1948 in London; includes "overheards" and "indirects"

25/15/I: America 1947-48: newspaper cuttings from British Press

Press coverage of American news including 1948 election

25/15/J: Diary of an american soldier in Livorno, Italy, April 1947

Correspondence, diary and photograph sent from Italy to M-O by Private Lobstein (born Bavaria, in England 1938-46) and drafted into the US Army in June 1946 four weeks after arriving in USA

25/15/K: "Greetings to Poland" 1947

Correspondence between M-O and the Central Office of Information about the collection of letters (Greetings to Poland) to be printed in Glas Anglii, a Polish publication. Includes the actual "greetings" collected by M-O from an assortment of English people wishing to send fraternal Christmas messages to Polish people

25/15/L: Hamburg Project 1946

Typed Ms about administrative problems in postwar Germany including crimes committed by Poles and other semi-legal activities. Sent in by BHD Beresford who was working in Hanover in 1946


25/16/A: Survey Plans, July 1947

Draft questionnaire (duplicated)

Copies of political pamphlets: The Industrial Charter, a statement of Conservative Industrial Policy (popular edition), also official edition ("A" in Survey)

Copy of The Battle for Output 1947 (full text of the White Paper, Economic Survey for 1947, COI) ("B" in Survey)

Copy of Cards on the Table. An interpretation of Labour Foreign Policy ("C'' in Survey)

Pilot and final questionnaire for "News Quota", interviews plus various instructions to investigators

Copy of June Directive on political parties sent to M-O Panel

25/16/B: Political Pamphlets QQ July-August 1947

Replies to 10 questionsLondon areas (approx 100) Questionnaires enclosed (LB, BS, MM, RL)

25/16/C: Political Pamphlets QQ August-September 1947

Replies to 12 questions on political attitudes gathered by HPD, BS, AL, in London areas. (Approx 100). Note by HPD on impressions

25/16/D: Reactions to The Industrial Charter July-August 1947

Notes and open-ended interviews conducted by HPD (Ealing) and DH (Notting Hill Gate) CTVL

25/16/E & F: Political Pamphlets July 1947

Foolscap duplicated questionnaire completed by M-O investigators, MM, BS, RL, HG, based on 200+ interviews in London area. Reactions to pamphlets, voting preferences, attitudes to elections, readership of daily papers

25/16/G: Tables of results

Assorted material summarising results of surveys


25/17/A: Farmers: Political opinions, August 1947

Interviews conducted in Betteshanger, Kent, and Surrey, with farmers and agricultural labourers, 29.8.47. Conducted by LB based on political pamphlets survey

25/17/B: Small Shop Keepers: political opinions, July 1947

Reactions to Conservative Party policy: informal interviews conducted in Croydon by RL 29.7.47

25/17/C: Miners: political opinions, July 1947

Interviews and observations conducted at Betteshanger Colliery, Kent by LB. Includes notes on village and account of meeting, 29.7.47

25/17/D: Political Pamphlets Survey 1947

Further Survey material: chiefly tabulation of results

25/17/E: Road Transport Strike & Princess Elizabeth's Engagement-January 1947

Tabulation of results of survey of opinion

25/17/F: Eden and Attlee: Speeches, March 1947

Collection of informal reactions to broadcasts

25/17/G: Conservative Party Exhibition: "Trust the People" June 1947

Souvenir Guide

Observer's account 9.6.47 (DH)

Assorted publications

Observation of visitors to Exhibition (Dorland Hall, London)

Page from Picture Post about Bessie Braddock's visit to Conservative Exhibition 28.6.47

25/17/H: Churchill: Speech 16.8.47

Comments collected during informal interviews by RL in Croydon, 23.8.47

25/17/I: Crisis, September 1947

Comments on current political situation, July 1947 including reactions to speech by Attlee, economic crisis (MT, WLN, DH)

25/17/J: Press cuttings: Politics 1947-48

25/17/K: Empire Survey, 1948

Tabulations and notes about public opinion on the British Empire

Newspaper articles reprinted from Daily Graphic (2.11.48) summarising results of M-O survey

25/17/L: M-O Political studies 1946-48

Handwritten notes by EG summarising some of M-O's investigations into political opinions and activities between 1946 and 1948


25/18/A: Budget: April 1940

Letter from TH to CM 30.4.40 about Budget Study comments collected by BA, JA, EB, PF, CF, PN, (Ipswich), NM (Romford) HN (Cricklewood), HP, CP, BW, AH and GT (Bolton), JT (Hounslow) JC, JT, KT, BAP in London (unless otherwise stated)

25/18/B: Budget: July 1940

Reactions to July Budget collected by AH (Manchester), PN (Ipswich), HN (Worcester), CF, DH (London), and RP (Suffolk)

25/18/C: Budget: April 1943

Comments collected by GST, PB, LB, VT, EG, MS and GB (mostly London)

Typed reports summarising study

Questionnaire and replies to 7 questions included

25/18/D: Comparison: Budgets 1945 and 1946

Comments collected for both years GST, LB, EG (London 1945) and ML, TT, JMK, GST and CB (London 1946)

25/18/E: Budget: April 1947

Few 'indirect' comments (LB, JG, MT)


25/19/A: Churchill's resignation; Newspaper Strike 1955

Survey of attitudes, questionnaire, instructions to investigators

25/19/B & C: War Questionnaire, November 1956

Completed questionnaires, likelihood of war, political allegiances, UNO, Hungary

25/19/D: Miscellaneous papers relating to study of political behaviour

See also Small Collection 38: "WW2 Publications" (mostly HMSO publications, plus 'official' histories of the armed services, military campaigns, wartime organisations)

Mass-Observation Studies 1937-55

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