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Publication Type J
Authors Saddhe, A. A., M. R. Malvankar and K. Kumar
Title Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in halophytic plant Rhizophora apiculata
Source Peerj
Author Keywords Reference gene Rhizophora apiculata Quantitative RT-PCR Mangrove Salt stress rt-pcr drought stress normalization expression mangrove salt origin
Abstract Rhizophora apiculata is a halophytic, small mangrove tree distributed along the coastal regions of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. They are natural genetic reservoirs of salt adaptation genes and offer a unique system to explore adaptive mechanisms under salinity stress. However, there are no reliable studies available on selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in R. apiculata physiological tissues and in salt stress conditions. The selection of appropriate candidate reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data is a crucial step towards relative analysis of gene expression. In the current study, seven genes such as elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha), Ubiquitin (UBQ), beta-tubulin (beta-TUB), Actin (ACT), Ribulose1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL), Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and 18S rRNA (18S) were selected and analyzed for their expression stability. Physiological tissues such as leaf, root, stem, and flower along with salt stress leaf samples were used for selection of candidate reference genes. The high-quality expression data was obtained from biological replicates and further analyzed using five different programs such as geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta Ct and RefFinder. All algorithms comprehensively ranked EF1 alpha followed by ACT as the most stable candidate reference genes in R. apiculata physiological tissues. Moreover, beta-TUB and 18S were ranked as moderately stable candidate reference genes, while GAPDH and rbcL were least stable reference genes. Under salt stress, EF1 alpha was comprehensively recommended top-ranked candidate reference gene followed by ACT and 18S. In order to validate the identified most stable candidate reference genes, EF1 alpha, ACT, 18S and UBQ were used for relative gene expression level of sodium/proton antiporter (NHX) gene under salt stress. The expression level of NHX varied according to the internal control which showed the importance of selection of appropriate reference gene. Taken together, this is the first ever systematic attempt of selection and validation of reference gene for qRT-PCR in R. apiculata physiological tissues and in salt stress. This study would promote gene expression profiling of salt stress tolerance related genes in R. apiculata.
Author Address [Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Malvankar, Manali Ramakant; Kumar, Kundan] Birla Inst Technol & Sci Pilani, Dept Biol Sci, KK Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, India. Kumar, K (reprint author), Birla Inst Technol & Sci Pilani, Dept Biol Sci, KK Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, India. kundan@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in
ISSN 2167-8359
ISBN 2167-8359
29-Character Source Abbreviation PeerJ
Publication Date Jul
Year Published 2018
Volume 6
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.7717/pearj.5226
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000438444500007
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