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Publication Type J
Authors Morzaria-Luna, HN; Zedler, JB
Author Full Name Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Zedler, Joy B.
Title Does seed availability limit plant establishment during salt marsh restoration?
Source ESTUARIES AND COASTS
Language English
Document Type Article
Keywords Plus FRESH-WATER MARSH; SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA; TIJUANA-ESTUARY; DISPERSAL; BANK; VEGETATION; GERMINATION; COMMUNITIES; DYNAMICS; WETLAND
Abstract Patterns of seed dispersal and seed bank accumulation need to be known to predict the species that will recruit into restoration sites versus those that must be introduced. We assessed the temporal and spatial patterns of seed availability and seed accumulation on the salt marsh plain of an 8-ha restoration site, based on seedlings that emerged from tidal material, wrack, rabbit pellets, and soil samples (in controlled experiments). We compared results from the first 3 yr of restoration (2000-2002) with results from a 5-yr-old restoration and an extant marsh, all within Tijuana Estuary, California. Seed dispersal was limited for most marsh plain species. Tidal dispersal occurred mainly in winter; seedling density and richness were highest with high spring tides and after fruiting of the dominant species, Sarcocornia pacifica (> 90% of emergent seedlings). S. pacifica was also common in the seedlings that emerged from soil seed banks (up to 63%) and wrack (60%), while other species common in the vegetation were present at much lower densities. Seed bank accumulation in restored sites was low and few species were abundant. Seedlings that emerged from soil samples from the youngest restoration were mostly invasive exotics (64%), those of the 5-yr restoration were mostly S. pacifica (63%), and those from the nearby extant marsh were mostly Triglochin concinna (70%), despite more diverse vegetation. No salt marsh seedlings emerged from rabbit pellets; all were invasives (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Carpobrotus edulis). Emerging seedlings were much sparser in soil from the younger restoration than from the 5-yr restoration and the extant site (32.9 +/- 5.7 < 4642.2 +/- 1131.5 and 4689.3 +/- 359.3 seedlings m(-2), respectively). Because dispersal is limited for most species, restoring diverse vegetation will require seeding or planting. Natural recruitment could be facilitated by completing restoration by early winter, when seeds of native plants have maximum tidal dispersal.
Author Address Univ Wisconsin, Dept Bot, Madison, WI 53706 USA
Reprint Address Morzaria-Luna, HN (reprint author), Ctr Intercultural Estudios Desiertos & Oceanos, AC Apartado Postal 53, Puerto Penasco 83550, Sonora, Mexico.
E-mail Address hmorzarialuna@gmail.com
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Cited Reference Count 71
Times Cited 18
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 18
Publisher SPRINGER
Publisher City NEW YORK
Publisher Address 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA
ISSN 1559-2723
29-Character Source Abbreviation ESTUAR COAST
ISO Source Abbreviation Estuaries Coasts
Publication Date FEB
Year Published 2007
Volume 30
Issue 1
Beginning Page 12
Ending Page 25
Page Count 14
Web of Science Category Environmental Sciences; Marine & Freshwater Biology
Subject Category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Marine & Freshwater Biology
Document Delivery Number 149GD
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000245134200003
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