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Publication Type J
Authors Callaway, J. C., G. Sullivan and J. B. Zedler
Title Species-rich plantings increase biomass and nitrogen accumulation in a wetland restoration experiment
Source Ecological Applications
Author Keywords biodiversity diversity ecosystem functions nitrogen richness Salicornia virginica salt marsh wetland restoration salt-marsh spartina-alterniflora ecosystem development declining biodiversity salicornia-virginica soil development organic-matter diversity phosphorus ecology
Abstract Our test of the hypothesis that biomass and nitrogen would increase with more species-rich plantings simultaneously vegetated a salt marsh restoration site and demonstrated that on average, randomly chosen, 6-species plantings accumulated more biomass and nitrogen than the mean for 0- and 1-species assemblages, with the mean for 3-species assemblages being intermediate. In addition, we found that individual species (from the pool of eight native halophytes) differed in their functional capacity, with Salicornia virginica (Sv) and Jaumea carnosa contributing the greatest biomass when planted alone, while Triglochin concinna had the highest tissue N concentrations. When planted alone, Sv accumulated comparable amounts of biomass and nitrogen as in the multispecies plots, indicating that individual species can have a large effect on particular functions. Soil TKN in the surface 0-5 cm was greater in 6-species plots than unplanted plots in 1999, while both 3- and 6-species plots were greater than unplanted plots in 2000; however, there were no differences at 5-20 cm depth and no species-specific effects. Root and shoot biomass both increased with species richness, with total biomass of 6-species, plots averaging 995.6 +/- 120.5 g/m(2) in 2000, compared to the mean for 1-species plots (572.1 +/- 90.3 g/m(2)) and unplanted plots (164.5 +/- 24.7 g/m(2)). Still, at the age of three years, root biomass was only about one-third that of the species-rich reference site, and shoot biomass was one-half to one-fifth the maxima reported for reference salt marshes. Species-specific effects were found for Sv, which had high biomass of both roots and shoots in the multispecies plots (55% of aboveground biomass in 3-species plots and 41% in 6-species plots) and the highest pool of N (52% of the N pool in 3-species plots and 42% in 6-species plots), even though only one-eighth of the initial plantings were Sv. However, when plots with this species were excluded from the analysis, the species-richness effect persisted. Thus, ecosystem function, as measured by biomass. and N accumulation, increased with species richness regardless of dominance by the highly productive,Sv. We conclude that manipulating the richness and composition of plantings offers ecosystem restorationists an effective tool-for accelerating the rate of functional development.
Author Address Univ San Francisco, Dept Environm Sci, San Francisco, CA 94117 USA Wetlands Initiat, Chicago, IL 60604 USA Univ Wisconsin, Dept Bot, Madison, WI 53706 USA Callaway, JC (reprint author), Univ San Francisco, Dept Environm Sci, 2130 Fulton St, San Francisco, CA 94117 USA
ISSN 1051-0761
ISBN 1051-0761
29-Character Source Abbreviation Ecol. Appl.
Publication Date Dec
Year Published 2003
Volume 13
Issue 6
Beginning Page 1626-1639
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1890/02-5144
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000187616400011
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