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Publication Type J
Authors Henarejos-Escudero, P., L. E. Contreras-Llano, J. D. Lozada-Ramirez, L. R. Gomez-Pando, F. Garcia-Carmona and F. Gandia-Herrero
Title A dopamine-based biosynthetic pathway produces decarboxylated betalains in Chenopodium quinoa
Source Plant Physiology
Language English
Author Keywords photophysical properties liquid-chromatography betaxanthins purification mechanism Plant Sciences
Abstract Betalains are the nitrogenous pigments that replace anthocyanins in the plant order Caryophyllales. Here, we describe unconventional decarboxylated betalains in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) grains. Decarboxylated betalains are derived from a previously unconsidered activity of the 4,5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase enzyme (DODA), which has been identified as the key enzymatic step in the established biosynthetic pathway of betalains. Here, dopamine is fully characterized as an alternative substrate of the DODA enzyme able to yield an intermediate and structural unit of plant pigments: 6-decarboxy-betalamic acid, which is proposed and described. To characterize this activity, quinoa grains of different colors were analyzed in depth by chromatography, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and reactions were performed in enzymatic assays and bioreactors. The enzymatic-chemical scheme proposed leads to an uncharacterized family of 6-decarboxylated betalains produced by a hitherto unknown enzymatic activity. All intermediate compounds as well as the final products of the dopamine-based biosynthetic pathway of pigments have been unambiguously determined and the reactions have been characterized from the enzymatic and functional perspectives. Results evidence a palette of molecules in quinoa grains of physiological relevance and which explain minor betalains described in plants of the Caryophyllales order. An entire family of betalains is anticipated.
Author Address [Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Garcia-Carmona, Francisco; Gandia-Herrero, Fernando] Univ Murcia, Fac Biol, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol A, Reg Campus Int Excellence, Murcia 30100, Spain. [Eduardo Contreras-Llano, Luis] Univ Calif Davis, Dept Biomed Engn, Coll Engn, Davis, CA 95616 USA. [Daniel Lozada-Ramirez, Jose] Univ Las Amer Puebla, Dept Hlth Sci, Puebla 72810, Mexico. [Rayda Gomez-Pando, Luz] Natl Agr Univ La Molina, Cereal Res Program, Lima 12056, Peru. Gandia-Herrero, F (corresponding author), Univ Murcia, Fac Biol, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol A, Reg Campus Int Excellence, Murcia 30100, Spain. fgandia@um.es
ISSN 0032-0889
ISBN 0032-0889
29-Character Source Abbreviation Plant Physiol.
Publication Date Jul
Year Published 2021
Volume 186
Issue 3
Beginning Page 1473-1486
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1093/plphys/kiab158
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000674744100018

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