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Publication Type J
Authors Allen, JA; Krauss, KW; Hauff, RD
Author Full Name Allen, JA; Krauss, KW; Hauff, RD
Title Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum
Source OECOLOGIA
Language English
Document Type Article
Author Keywords kosrae; Federated States of Micronesia; seed predation; salinity tolerance; flood tolerance
Keywords Plus AVICENNIA-MARINA; SEED PREDATION; DIFFERENTIAL PREDATION; PROPAGULE PREDATION; TIDAL FORESTS; SALINITY; AUSTRALIA; DOMINANCE; SURVIVAL; GROWTH
Abstract The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we evaluated included differential seed predation across the lower, mid, and upper intertidal zones and seedling responses to salinity, tidal flooding, and shade. Seed predation was 22.4% over the first 34 days and varied little among zones or in gaps versus under the forest canopy. By day 161, there were still no differences in seed mortality, but a significant difference was found in seedling establishment, with much greater establishment in the upper intertidal plots. X. granatum seedlings in a greenhouse experiment exhibited greater growth in freshwater than seedlings in 23 ppt salinity, which is typical of salinity levels found in the mid intertidal zone in our field study sites in Micronesia, where mature X. granatum trees are generally absent. Seedlings grown in 23 ppt salinity, however, exhibited few visible signs of stress associated with patterns in growth. Seedlings grown in a simulated tidal flooding treatment (with 23 ppt salinity) also showed few signs of stress. Growth declined dramatically under 80% shade cloths, but there were few interactions of shading with either 23 ppt salinity or simulated tidal flooding. Differential seed predation is not likely to be the primary factor responsible for the intertidal distribution of X. granatum on Kosrae. However, seedling tolerance of flooding or salinity may be more important, especially relative to a potential contribution to secondary stress mortality. Other factors may ultimately prove to be more critical, such as physiological effects of salinity on seed germination, effects of tides on seed dispersal and rooting, or differential herbivory on seedlings.
Author Address USDA, Forest Serv, Pacific SW Res Stn, Inst Pacific Isl Forestry, Honolulu, HI 96813 USA
Reprint Address Krauss, KW (corresponding author), US Geol Survey, Natl Wetlands Res Ctr, 700 Cajundome Blvd, Lafayette, LA 70506 USA.
ResearcherID Number Allen, James/K-9141-2013
ORCID Number Allen, James/0000-0001-6459-5734
Times Cited 44
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 53
Publisher SPRINGER-VERLAG
Publisher City NEW YORK
Publisher Address 175 FIFTH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10010 USA
ISSN 0029-8549
ISBN 0029-8549
29-Character Source Abbreviation OECOLOGIA
ISO Source Abbreviation Oecologia
Publication Date MAR
Year Published 2003
Volume 135
Issue 1
Beginning Page 110
Ending Page 121
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1007/s00442-002-1167-2
Page Count 12
Web of Science Category Ecology
Subject Category Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Document Delivery Number 672AB
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000182497200013
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