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Authors Saeed, A; Hussain, A; Khan, MI; Arif, M; Maqbool, MM; Mehmood, H; Iqbal, M; Alkahtani, J; Elshikh, MS
Author Full Name Saeed, Amna; Hussain, Ansar; Khan, Muhammad Ifnan; Arif, Muhammad; Maqbool, Muhammad Mudassar; Mehmood, Hassan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Alkahtani, Jawaher; Elshikh, Mohamed Soliman
Title The influence of environmental factors on seed germination of Xanthium strumarium L.: Implications for management
Source PLOS ONE
Language English
Document Type Article
Keywords Plus BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL; RANGE EXPANSION; PLANT; POPULATIONS; DORMANCY; MAIZE; WEEDS; WATER; COCKLEBUR; SORGHUM
Abstract Xanthium strumarium L. (Common cocklebur) is a noxious weed prevailing in different ecosystems around the world. It incurs significant yield and economic losses in different cropping systems globally. Successful management of any weed species depends on sound knowledge of seed germination biology. However, detailed knowledge on seed germination biology of the species is missing. Therefore, we investigated the impact of different environmental factors on seed germination and seed burial depths on seedling emergence of two X. strumarium populations. The impact of different sorghum mulch doses (0-10 t ha(-1)) on seedling emergence of the tested populations was also explored. Seed germination was evaluated under different photoperiods (0, 12 and 24), constant temperatures (0-50 degrees C with 5 degrees C stepwise rise), and different levels of pH (3-12), salinity (0-600 mM) and osmotic potential (0 to -1.6 MPa). Seedling emergence was observed for seeds buried at different depths (0-15 cm). Seeds of both populations proved non-photoblastic; however, higher germination was recorded under 12-hour photoperiod. The seeds germinated under a wide range of constant temperatures (10-45 degrees C), pH (4-10), osmotic potentials (0 to -0.8 MPa) and salinity levels (0-400 mM NaCl). However, the highest germination was observed under 30-31 degrees C temperature and neutral pH (7.51-7.52). Seeds were able to withstand 400 mM salinity and -1.00 MPa osmotic potential. Seedling emergence was initially improved with increasing burial depth and then a sharp decline was noted for the seeds buried >3 cm depth. Most of the seeds of both populations did not emerge from >8 cm depth. Different sorghum mulch doses linearly suppressed seedling emergence of tested populations, and 5.83-5.89 t ha(-1) mulch application suppressed 50% of seedling emergence. Seedling emergence was completely retarded with 8 t ha(-1) sorghum mulch. The tested populations germinated under diverse environmental circumstances indicating that the species can become troublesome in marginal habitats and cropped lands. Deep burial of seeds and application of sorghum mulches suppressed seedling emergence. Thus, deep burial followed by shallow tillage and application of sorghum mulches could be used as a successful strategy to manage the species in agricultural fields. Nonetheless, management strategies must be developed to control the species in other habitats.
Author Address [Saeed, Amna] Govt Reclamat Res Stn, Mian Channu, Pakistan; [Hussain, Ansar; Khan, Muhammad Ifnan] Ghazi Univ, Dept Plant Breeding & Genet, Dg Khan, Pakistan; [Arif, Muhammad] Ghazi Univ, Dept Plant Protect, Dg Khan, Pakistan; [Maqbool, Muhammad Mudassar] Ghazi Univ, Dept Agron, Dg Khan, Pakistan; [Mehmood, Hassan] Bahauddin Zakariya Univ, Dept Soil Sci, Multan, Pakistan; [Iqbal, Muhammad] Cotton Res Inst, Multan, Pakistan; [Alkahtani, Jawaher; Elshikh, Mohamed Soliman] King Saud Univ, Coll Sci, Dept Bot & Microbiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Reprint Address Saeed, A (corresponding author), Govt Reclamat Res Stn, Mian Channu, Pakistan.
E-mail Address emishahidhu@gmail.com
ResearcherID Number Alsheikh, Mohamed Soliman/AAO-3264-2021; Alsheikh, Mohamed Soliman/R-6046-2016
ORCID Number Alsheikh, Mohamed Soliman/0000-0002-6710-0458; Alsheikh, Mohamed Soliman/0000-0002-6710-0458
Funding Agency and Grant Number Directorate of Land Reclamation, Government of Punjab, Pakistan [RSP-2020/193]; King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaKing Saud University
Funding Text The current study was partially supported by Directorate of Land Reclamation, Government of Punjab, Pakistan. There was no additional external funding received for the study. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.; The authors extend their appreciation to the Researchers supporting project number (RSP-2020/193) King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Times Cited 2
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 2
Publisher PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Publisher City SAN FRANCISCO
Publisher Address 1160 BATTERY STREET, STE 100, SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94111 USA
ISSN 1932-6203
29-Character Source Abbreviation PLOS ONE
ISO Source Abbreviation PLoS One
Publication Date OCT 30
Year Published 2020
Volume 15
Issue 10
Article Number e0241601
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1371/journal.pone.0241601
Page Count 16
Web of Science Category Multidisciplinary Sciences
Subject Category Science & Technology - Other Topics
Document Delivery Number OP8VN
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000588368900004
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