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Authors Schlutz, F; Enters, D; Bittmann, F
Author Full Name Schluetz, Frank; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix
Title From dust till drowned: the Holocene landscape development at Norderney, East Frisian Islands
Source NETHERLANDS JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES-GEOLOGIE EN MIJNBOUW
Language English
Document Type Article
Author Keywords alder carr; AMS C-14 dating; freshwater lakes; German Wadden Sea; Holocene sea-level rise; intercalated peats; Klappklei; Sphagnum bogs
Abstract Within the multidisciplinary WASA project, 160 cores up to 5 m long have been obtained from the back-barrier area and off the coast of the East Frisian island of Norderney. Thirty-seven contained basal peats on top of Pleistocene sands of the former Geest and 10 of them also had intercalated peats. Based on 100 acclerator mass spectrometry (AMS) C-14 dates and analyses of botanical as well as zoological remains from the peats, lagoonal sediments and the underlying sands, a variety of distinct habitats have been reconstructed. On the relatively steep slopes north of the present island, a swampy vegetation fringe several kilometres wide with carrs of alder (Alnus glutinosa) moved in front of the rising sea upwards of the Geest as it existed then until roughly 6 ka, when the sea level reached the current back-barrier region of Norderney at around -6 m NHN (German ordnance datum). From then on for nearly 4000 years a changing landscape with a mosaic of freshwater lakes and fens existed within this area. It was characterised by various stands of Cladium mariscus (fen sedge), alternating with brackish reed beds with Phragmites australis (common reed) and salt meadows with Aster tripolium (sea aster), Triglochin maritima (sea arrowgrass), Juncus gerardii (saltmarsh rush) as well as mudflats with Salicornia europaea (common glasswort). As far as shown by our cores, this highly diverse, and for humans potentially attractive landscape was at least some 4 km wide and followed the coast for about 10 km. Before the rising sea caused diversification of habitats, wet heath as well as dry and dusty sand areas existed. In the course of time, parts of the wet heath turned into raised Sphagnum bogs under an oceanic precipitation regime before this diverse landscape was drowned by the rising sea and finally covered by marine sediments, while the earlier sediments and peats were partly eroded and redeposited.
Author Address [Schluetz, Frank] Georg August Univ, Albrecht von Haller Inst Plant Sci, Dept Palynol & Climate Dynam, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany; [Schluetz, Frank; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix] Lower Saxony Inst Hist Coastal Res, Viktoriastr 26-28, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany; [Bittmann, Felix] Univ Bremen, Inst Geog, Celsiusstr 2, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
Reprint Address Schlutz, F (corresponding author), Georg August Univ, Albrecht von Haller Inst Plant Sci, Dept Palynol & Climate Dynam, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany.; Schlutz, F (corresponding author), Lower Saxony Inst Hist Coastal Res, Viktoriastr 26-28, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
E-mail Address frank.schluetz@fu-berlin.de
Funding Agency and Grant Number 'Niedersachsisches Vorab' of the VolkswagenStiftung within the funding initiative 'Kusten und Meeresforschung in Niedersachsen' of the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony, Germany [VW ZN3197]
Funding Text This study is part of the multidisciplinary project WASA 'The Wadden Sea as an archive of landscape evolution, climate change and settlement history' funded by the 'Niedersachsisches Vorab' of the VolkswagenStiftung within the funding initiative 'Kusten und Meeresforschung in Niedersachsen' of the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony, Germany (project VW ZN3197). The authors thank the whole WASA team for the joint work and especially A. Wehrmann and R. Capperucci for drilling, F. Bungenstock and R. Capperucci for the core sketches and Th. Becker for technical support. Thanks go to Th. Goslar for discussion on dating. We thank Wim Hoek and an anonymous reviewer for their profound improvements. Special thanks go to M. Karle for support on getting started and fruitful discussions.
Publisher CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Publisher City CAMBRIDGE
Publisher Address EDINBURGH BLDG, SHAFTESBURY RD, CB2 8RU CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND
ISSN 0016-7746
29-Character Source Abbreviation NETH J GEOSCI
ISO Source Abbreviation Neth. J. Geosci.
Publication Date APR 5
Year Published 2021
Volume 100
Article Number e7
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1017/njg.2021.4
Page Count 13
Web of Science Category Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Subject Category Geology
Document Delivery Number RI2PV
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000636752400001
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