Loading content, please wait..
loading..
Logo
Version 3.24
or
Authors Drake, BG
Author Full Name Drake, Bert G.
Title Rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation impact plant and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 on a Chesapeake Bay wetland: review of a 28-year study
Source GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY
Language English
Document Type Review
Author Keywords biomass production; ecosystem gas exchange; elevated CO2; evapotranspiration; net ecosystem production; nitrogen; photosynthesis; rising sea level; wetland
Keywords Plus OPEN-TOP CHAMBERS; ATMOSPHERIC CO2; CARBON-DIOXIDE; ACTIVATION STATE; PHOTOSYNTHESIS; NITROGEN; C-3; ACCLIMATION; RUBISCO; GROWTH
Abstract An ongoing field study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a brackish wetland on Chesapeake Bay, started in 1987, is unique as the longest continually running investigation of the effects of elevated CO2 on an ecosystem. Since the beginning of the study, atmospheric CO2 increased 18%, sea level rose 20cm, and growing season temperature varied with approximately the same range as predicted for global warming in the 21st century. This review looks back at this study for clues about how the effects of rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation interact with high atmospheric CO2 to alter the physiology of C3 and C4 photosynthetic species, carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration, plant and ecosystem nitrogen, and distribution of plant communities in this brackish wetland. Rising sea level caused a shift to higher elevations in the Scirpus olneyi C3 populations on the wetland, displacing the Spartina patens C4 populations. Elevated CO2 stimulated carbon assimilation in the Scirpus C3 species measured by increased shoot and root density and biomass, net ecosystem production, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and methane production. But elevated CO2 also decreased biomass of the grass, S.patens C4. The elevated CO2 treatment reduced tissue nitrogen concentration in shoots, roots, and total canopy nitrogen, which was associated with reduced ecosystem respiration. Net ecosystem production was mediated by precipitation through soil salinity: high salinity reduced the CO2 effect on net ecosystem production, which was zero in years of severe drought. The elevated CO2 stimulation of shoot density in the Scirpus C3 species was sustained throughout the 28years of the study. Results from this study suggest that rising CO2 can add substantial amounts of carbon to ecosystems through stimulation of carbon assimilation, increased root exudates to supply nitrogen fixation, reduced dark respiration, and improved water and nitrogen use efficiency.
Author Address Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA
Reprint Address Drake, BG (corresponding author), Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
E-mail Address drakeb@si.edu
Funding Agency and Grant Number US Department of EnergyUnited States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-FG05-85ER60374, DE-FG05-87ER13652, DE-FG02-95ER61993]; NSF-LTREBNational Science Foundation (NSF) [DEB-0950080]; Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental ResearchUnited States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-SC0008339]; Direct For Biological SciencesNational Science Foundation (NSF)NSF - Directorate for Biological Sciences (BIO) [0950080] Funding Source: National Science Foundation
Funding Text I wish to gratefully acknowledge the guidance of Dr Lee-Ann Hayek on statistical analyses and manuscript preparation and Dr Lu Meng for assistance with data records. I am grateful for the helpful suggestions of Drs James Bunce, Adam Langely, J. Patrick Megonigal, and two anonymous reviewers of an earlier version of this article. I also acknowledge the sustained support of the US Department of Energy through grants to the Smithsonian Institution that funded the CO2 program at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center from 1985-1995 (DE-FG05-85ER60374), 1986-1988 (DE-FG05-87ER13652), and 1995-2009 (DE-FG02-95ER61993). The ongoing project is supported by the NSF-LTREB program (grant DEB-0950080) and the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (grant DE-SC0008339).
Times Cited 35
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 36
Publisher WILEY
Publisher City HOBOKEN
Publisher Address 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA
ISSN 1354-1013
29-Character Source Abbreviation GLOBAL CHANGE BIOL
ISO Source Abbreviation Glob. Change Biol.
Publication Date NOV
Year Published 2014
Volume 20
Issue 11
Beginning Page 3329
Ending Page 3343
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1111/gcb.12631
Page Count 15
Web of Science Category Biodiversity Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Sciences
Subject Category Biodiversity & Conservation; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Document Delivery Number AR7MC
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000343762800004
Plants associated with this reference

LEGAL NOTICES — This website is protected by Copyright © The University of Sussex, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022. The eHALOPH database is protected by Database Right and Copyright © The University of Sussex and other contributors, 2006, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022. This database is based on an earlier work by James Aronson.
THIS WEBSITE AND THIS DATABASE ARE PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND YOU USE THEM AND RELY ON THEM AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Contact email: halophytes@sussex.ac.uk
Credits – Tim Flowers, Joaquim Santos, Moritz Jahns, Brian Warburton, Peter Reed