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Authors Pouladi, SF; Anderson, BC; Wootton, B; Rozema, L
Author Full Name Pouladi, Soheil Fatehi; Anderson, Bruce C.; Wootton, Brent; Rozema, Lloyd
Title Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent
Source WATER
Language English
Document Type Article
Author Keywords phytodesalination; wood-chip bioreactor; greenhouse effluent; halophyte; salinity
Keywords Plus SALT UPTAKE; WATER; GROWTH; FLOW; GERMINATION; REMOVAL
Abstract The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination) in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC) by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%). S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl- in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days) and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.
Author Address [Pouladi, Soheil Fatehi; Anderson, Bruce C.] Queens Univ, Dept Civil Engn, 58 Univ Ave, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; [Wootton, Brent] Fleming Coll, Ctr Alternat Wastewater Treatment, Lindsay, ON K9V 5E6, Canada; [Rozema, Lloyd] Aqua Treatment Technol, Campden, ON L0R 1G0, Canada
Reprint Address Pouladi, SF (corresponding author), Queens Univ, Dept Civil Engn, 58 Univ Ave, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.
E-mail Address 12sfp@queensu.ca; bruce.anderson@queensu.ca; brent.wootton@flemingcollege.ca; lrozema@aqua-tt.com
ORCID Number Anderson, Bruce/0000-0002-4855-864X; Fatehi Pouladi, Soheil/0000-0001-6564-0808
Funding Agency and Grant Number College-University Idea to Innovation (CUI2I) Grants program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
Funding Text This research and the cost to publish in open access were funded under the College-University Idea to Innovation (CUI2I) Grants program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).
Times Cited 8
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 8
Publisher MDPI
Publisher City BASEL
Publisher Address ST ALBAN-ANLAGE 66, CH-4052 BASEL, SWITZERLAND
ISSN 2073-4441
29-Character Source Abbreviation WATER-SUI
ISO Source Abbreviation Water
Publication Date JUN
Year Published 2016
Volume 8
Issue 6
Article Number 233
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.3390/w8060233
Page Count 20
Web of Science Category Environmental Sciences; Water Resources
Subject Category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Water Resources
Document Delivery Number DP9XN
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000378851300017
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