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Authors van Regteren, M; Meesters, EH; Baptist, MJ; de Groot, AV; Bouma, TJ; Elschot, K
Author Full Name van Regteren, M.; Meesters, E. H.; Baptist, M. J.; de Groot, A. V.; Bouma, T. J.; Elschot, K.
Title Multiple Environmental Variables Affect Germination and Mortality of an Annual Salt Marsh Pioneer: Salicornia procumbens
Source ESTUARIES AND COASTS
Language English
Document Type Article
Author Keywords Salt marsh; Annual; Sediment dynamics; Intertidal flat; Inundation regime; Seedling recruitment
Keywords Plus SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT; MORPHODYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT; PUCCINELLIA-MARITIMA; HABITAT SUITABILITY; WADDEN SEA; SEDIMENT; EUROPAEA; DYNAMICS; KEY; DOLICHOSTACHYA
Abstract Salt marshes, providing numerous ecosystem services, are degrading worldwide. To effectively aid conservation and restoration efforts, increased knowledge on marsh expansion processes and the initial establishment of pioneer vegetation is essential. In this study, we disentangle environmental drivers that affect the lifecycle of the annual pioneer Salicornia procumbens at the salt marsh edge. We studied the effect of various environmental variables on the start of germination, germination success and mortality before seed-set in a field experiment in the Dutch Wadden Sea at Westhoek. Our results indicate that temperature and sedimentation inhibited the initiation of germination. Once germination occurred, higher precipitation rates increased germination success. In contrast, sedimentation rates above 0.5 mm day(-1) halved germination success through burial of freshly sprouted seedlings. Unexpectedly, natural germination was low, indicating that seed availability may have been limited, despite a seed source nearby. Frequent inundation, extended periods without inundation (through desiccation of the soil) and a highly dynamic bed level increased mortality before seed-set. Consequently, bed-level dynamics (erosion, sedimentation and bed-level variation) impact seed production dually (decrease germination and increase mortality) and thus potentially reproduction success. A high seed reproduction is crucial for annuals, such as S. procumbens, to re-establish the following year. Next to advancing our general knowledge of natural salt marsh expansion, results in this study can also be used to assess the potential of a given site for salt marsh stimulation or restoration. Seed availability and local bed-level dynamics are key in the successful establishment of a salt marsh pioneer: Salicornia procumbens.
Author Address [van Regteren, M.; Meesters, E. H.; Baptist, M. J.; de Groot, A. V.; Elschot, K.] Wageningen Univ & Res, Wageningen Marine Res, NL-1781 AG Den Helder, Netherlands; [van Regteren, M.; Meesters, E. H.; Baptist, M. J.] Wageningen Univ & Res, Aquat Ecol & Water Qual Management, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands; [Bouma, T. J.] Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res NIOZ, Dept Estuarine & Delta Syst, NL-4400 AC Yerseke, Netherlands; [Bouma, T. J.] Univ Utrecht, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands
Reprint Address van Regteren, M (corresponding author), Wageningen Univ & Res, Wageningen Marine Res, NL-1781 AG Den Helder, Netherlands.; van Regteren, M (corresponding author), Wageningen Univ & Res, Aquat Ecol & Water Qual Management, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
E-mail Address marin.vanregteren@wur.nl
Funding Agency and Grant Number Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO)Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) [13888]
Funding Text This work is part of the research program 'Sediment for salt marshes: physical and ecological aspects of a Mud Motor' with project number 13888, which is largely financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). This research received cofunding fromEcoShape: Building with Nature andWaddenfonds. Access to the field site is granted by It Fryske Gea. We thank students and volunteers for their assistance in the field. Additionally, we are grateful for the help of C. Sonneveld, M.E.B. van Puijenbroek (WMR), L. van IJzerloo (NIOZ), and P. Willemsen (University of Twente) for processing the raw SED data; I. Colosimo (TU Delft) for the use of the CTD instruments; and S. Kuhn and T. Daniels for valuable comments on this manuscript.
Publisher SPRINGER
Publisher City NEW YORK
Publisher Address ONE NEW YORK PLAZA, SUITE 4600, NEW YORK, NY, UNITED STATES
ISSN 1559-2723
29-Character Source Abbreviation ESTUAR COAST
ISO Source Abbreviation Estuaries Coasts
Publication Date SEP
Year Published 2020
Volume 43
Issue 6
Beginning Page 1489
Ending Page 1501
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1007/s12237-020-00735-y
Page Count 13
Web of Science Category Environmental Sciences; Marine & Freshwater Biology
Subject Category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Marine & Freshwater Biology
Document Delivery Number MO4YQ
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000527465500001
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