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Publication Type J
Authors Gallego-Tevar, B., B. J. Grewell, C. J. Futrell, R. E. Drenovsky and J. M. Castillo
Title Interactive effects of salinity and inundation on native Spartina foliosa, invasive S. densiflora and their hybrid from San Francisco Estuary, California
Source Annals of Botany
Author Keywords Abiotic stress climate change estuarine ecosystems evolutionary biology functional traits halophytes hybridization invasiveness plant invasion salt marsh sea level rise pacific coast salt-marsh physiological-responses phenotypic plasticity plant-responses climate-change cordgrass water stress populations
Abstract Background and Aims Sea level rise (SLR) associated with climate change is intensifying permanent submersion and salinity in salt marshes. In this scenario, hybridization between native and invasive species may result in hybrids having greater tolerance of abiotic stress factors than their parents. Thus, understanding the responses of native and invasive halophytes and their hybrids to interacting physiological stresses imposed by SLR is key to native species conservation. We analysed how salinity, inundation depth and their interaction impact the functional traits of native and invasive cordgrass species and their hybrid (genus Spartina; Poaceae). Methods In a mesocosm experiment, we evaluated interactive stress effects of three inundation depths (4.5, 35.5 and 55 cm) and four aqueous salinities (0.5, 10, 20 and 40 ppt) on 27 functional traits of native Spartina foliosa, invasive S. densiflora and their hybrid S. densiflora x S. foliosa from San Francisco Estuary. Key Results The combined effect of salinity and inundation led to synergistic effects on leaf biochemical stress indicators. Spartina foliosa behaved as a stress-tolerant species, with high leaf sodium exudation rate and glycine betaine concentrations that also increased with stress. Spartina foliosa was less sensitive to salinity than S. densiflora and the hybrid but was highly growth-limited in response to increased inundation and salinity. Spartina densiflora was fast-growing in low-stress conditions and tolerated moderate interactive stresses. The hybrid produced more biomass, rhizome reserves and tillers than its parents, even under the most stressful conditions. Transgressivity improved the hybrid's capacity to deal with flooding stress more so than its response to increasing salinity. Conclusions Based on our observations, we predict that established populations of both native and invasive cordgrasses will experience reduced vegetative and sexual fitness in response to SLR. In particular, the combined effects of high salinity and deep inundation may decrease floret production in S. densiflora, a key trait for the spread of its invasive populations. In contrast, the hybrid likely will be able to sustain its invasiveness under SLR based on its ability to maintain growth and biomass production under stressful conditions.
Author Address [Gallego-Tevar, Blanca; Castillo, Jesus M.] Univ Seville, Dept Biol Vegetal & Ecol, Ap 1095, Seville 41080, Spain. [Grewell, Brenda J.] ARS, USDA, Invas Species & Pollinator Hlth Res Unit, Washington, DC USA. [Futrell, Caryn J.] Univ Calif Davis, Dept Plant Sci MS 4, Davis, CA 95616 USA. [Drenovsky, Rebecca E.] Univ Hts, John Carroll Univ, Dept Biol, Cleveland, OH 44118 USA. Castillo, JM (corresponding author), Univ Seville, Dept Biol Vegetal & Ecol, Ap 1095, Seville 41080, Spain. manucas@us.es
ISSN 0305-7364
ISBN 0305-7364
29-Character Source Abbreviation Ann. Bot.
Publication Date Jan
Year Published 2020
Volume 125
Issue 2
Beginning Page 377-389
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1093/aob/mcz170
Unique Article Identifier WOS:000540297900016
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