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Authors SHAFROTH, PB; FRIEDMAN, JM; ISCHINGER, LS
Author Full Name SHAFROTH, PB; FRIEDMAN, JM; ISCHINGER, LS
Title EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON ESTABLISHMENT OF POPULUS-FREMONTII (COTTONWOOD) AND TAMARIX-RAMOSISSIMA (SALTCEDAR) IN SOUTHWESTERN UNITED-STATES
Source GREAT BASIN NATURALIST
Language English
Document Type Article
Author Keywords EXOTIC SPECIES; TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA; POPULUS FREMONTII; RIVER SALINITY; SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT; RIO GRANDE; RIPARIAN VEGETATION; BOSQUE DEL APACHE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Abstract The exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) has replaced the native Populus fremontii (cottonwood) along many streams in southwestern United States. We used a controlled outdoor experiment to examine the influence of river salinity on germination and first-year survival of P. fremontii var. wislizenii (Rio Grande cottonwood) and T, ramosissima on freshly deposited alluvial bars. We grew both species from seed in planters of sand subjected to a declining water table and solutions containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the concentrations of major ions in the Rio Grande at San Marcial, NM (1.2, 10.0, 25.7, and 37.4 meg l(-1); 0.11, 0.97, 2.37, and 3.45 dS m(-1)). Germination of P. fremontii declined by 35% with increasing salinity (P = .008). Germination of T. ramosissima was not affected. There were no significant effects of salinity on mortality or above- and belowground growth of either species. In laboratory tests the same salinities had no effect on P. fremontii germination. P. fremontii germination is more sensitive to salinity outdoors than in covered petri dishes, probably because water scarcity resulting from evaporation intensifies the low soil water potentials associated with high salinity. River salinity appears to play only a minor role in determining relative numbers of P. fremontii and T. ramosissima seedlings on freshly deposited sandbars. However, over many years salt becomes concentrated on floodplains as a result of evaporation and salt extrusion from saltcedar leaves. T. ramosissima is known to be more tolerant of the resulting extreme salinities than P. fremontii. Therefore, increases in river salinities could indirectly contribute to decline of P. fremontii forests by exacerbating salt accumulation on floodplains.
Reprint Address SHAFROTH, PB (reprint author), MIDCONTINENT ECOL SCI CTR,NATL BIOL SURVEY,FT COLLINS,CO 80525, USA.
ORCID Number Friedman, Jonathan/0000-0002-1329-0663
Times Cited 72
Total Times Cited Count (WoS, BCI, and CSCD) 74
Publisher BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV
Publisher City PROVO
Publisher Address 290 LIFE SCIENCE MUSEUM, PROVO, UT 84602
ISSN 0017-3614
29-Character Source Abbreviation GREAT BASIN NAT
ISO Source Abbreviation Gt. Basin Nat.
Publication Date JAN
Year Published 1995
Volume 55
Issue 1
Beginning Page 58
Ending Page 65
Page Count 8
Web of Science Category Ecology
Subject Category Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Document Delivery Number QE753
Unique Article Identifier WOS:A1995QE75300006
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