Skills Hub

MHRA style

The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) referencing style guidance below has been cited from: Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 10th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Important to note:

The MHRA referencing style requires the second and subsequent lines of each entry in the bibliography to be indented. Due to the formatting constraints of this website, this is not reflected in the examples below; please keep this in mind when formatting your bibliography. Alternatively, consult the MHRA style guide.

Click on the appropriate header below to expand the section and find exact information about how to cite a particular source in MHRA style.


In-Text Numbering, Footnotes & Endnotes

The MHRA style of referencing requires you to use superscript numbers in place of in-text citations. The numbers correspond to a full reference in either a footnote or endnote (see note below), in addition to your bibliography. 

Important to note:

Your school may have a preference with MHRA reference formatting, and footnotes or endnotes may be preferable. It is advised you check this with your school.
 

The following should be followed when formatting your footnotes or endnotes:

  • the first time you cite a source full reference details should be provided; subsequent entries of the same source can be abbreviated to author's surname, first two words of the title, and a page number
  • author's forename is followed by surname
  • footnotes / endnotes have a full stop at the end of them
  • citations are numbered in the order that they appear in the text
  • where there is no author, use the title instead 
  • the first letter of each title word should be capitalised
  • urls are placed between angle brackets < >

 
Example footnotes:
  1. Barbara Allan, Emerging Strategies for Supporting Student Learning, (London: Facet Publishing, 2016), p. 52.
  2. Palladio's Italian Villas (2005) <http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/> [accessed 10 January 2018].
  3. Allan, Emerging Strategies, p. 140.

Creating your bibliography/list of references

The bibliography is the list of all the sources that you have used. You must list every source you have reviewed, in your bibliography, even those you have not cited in the text.

The following should be followed when formatting your bibliography:

  • should be arranged in alphabetical order by author's surname
  • where there is no author, use the title instead in alphabetical order
  • the first letter of each title word should be capitalised
  • bibliographic entries do not have a full stop at the end
  • the second and subsequent lines of each bibliographic entry are indented
  • urls are placed between angle brackets < >
  • chapters or sections of an edited book that are included in the bibliography should contain the relevant page range (preceeded by pp.) e.g. pp. 27-52
  • journal articles included in the bibliography should also include the page range, but without the pp. denotation e.g. 240-67  
  • commas separate each component part of the bibliographic entry

Book

Footnote

 

Citation order & format 

Author Forename Surname, Book title  (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), p. X. 

Example:

Vivian Caillard, The Songs of Innocence of William Blake Set to Music (London: Novello, Ewer and Co, 1891), p. 5.

 

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, Book title (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication)

Example: 

Caillard, Vivian, The Songs of Innocence of William Blake Set to Music (London: Novello, Ewer and Co, 1891)

Translated Works

Footnote

 

Citation order and format

Author Forename Surname, Book title, trans. by translator's Forename Surname. (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication) p. X.

Example:

Franz Kahlo, Frieda and Diego Rivera, trans. by John Smith (London: Wordpress, 1992), p. 10.

 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, Book title, trans. by translator's Forename Surname. (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication) 

Example:

Kahlo, Franz, Frieda and Diego Rivera, trans. by John Smith (London: Wordpress, 1992)

Chapters / sections in edited books

When you want to quote a chapter or section of text within a book, that has been written by someone other than the author or editor listed on the cover page of the book, use the format below:

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Chapter Author Forename Surname, 'Chapter title,' in Book title, ed. by Editor(s) Forename Surname (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), pp. X-X (p. X).

Example:

Audrey Walsh, 'Management Issues', in The Treatment of Children, ed. by John Smith (London: Collins Books, 2012), pp. 83-95 (p .88).

 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Chapter Author Surname, Forename, 'Chapter title,' in Book title, ed. by Editor(s) Forename Surname (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication), pp. X-X.

Example:

Walsh, Audrey, 'Management Issues', in The Treatment of Children, ed. by John Smith (London: Collins Books, 2012), pp. 83-95.

Ebook

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, Title (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication) <url>[accessed day Month year], p. X.

Example:

Mary Corrie, A Concise Companion to Middle English Literature (London: NetLibrary, 2009) <http:netlibrary.aconcisecompanion.com> [accessed 21 June 2011], p. 10.

 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, Title (Place of publication: publisher, year of publication) <url>[accessed day Month year]

Example:

Corrie, Mary, A Concise Companion to Middle English Literature (London: NetLibrary, 2009) <http:netlibrary.aconcisecompanion.com> [accessed 21 June 2011]

Journals

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of article', Journal title, Volume number.Issue number (year of publication), page range - not preceded by pp. (page number used - preceeded by p.).

Example:

Kevin Newton, 'May the Weak Force be With You: The Power of Mass Media in Modern Politics', European Journal of Political Research, 45.2 (2006), 209-234 (p. 222).

eJounals 

If you have accessed the journal article using an online source such as JSTOR or SCOPUS, you need to include this in your reference. You also need to include the URL of the collection or the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier).

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of Article', Journal Title, Volume number.Issue number (year of publication), page numbers - not preceded by pp. (page number used - preceded by p.) <url or DOI> [accessed date - if required].

Example:

R.H. Dunham, 'Silas Marner and the Wordsworthian Child', Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 16.4 (1976), 645-665 (p. 650)<https:jstor.com/wordsworthian/834725> [accessed 10 February 2012].

 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of Article', Journal Title, Volume number.Issue number, (year of publication), page range - not preceded by pp.

Example:

Newton, Kevin, 'May the Weak Force be With You: The Power of Mass Media in Modern Politics', European Journal of Political Research, 45.2 (2006), 209-234

eJournals 

If you have accessed the journal article using an online source such as JSTOR or SCOPUS, you need to include this in your reference. You also need to include the URL of the collection or the article DOI (Digital Object Identifier).

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of article', Journal title, Volume number.Issue number (year of publication), page range - not preceded by pp. <url or DOI> [accessed date - if required]

Example:

Dunham, R.H. 'Silas Marner and the Wordsworthian Child', Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 16.4 (1976), 645-665 <https:jstor.com/wordsworthian/834725> [accessed 10 February 2012]

Web page

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Author or organisation, Title of website (year) <url> [accessed day Month year].

Example:

Christel Lane, The Future of Professionalised Work: UK and Germany Compared (2003) <http://www.agf.org.uk/pubs/pdfs/1232web.pdf> [accessed 12 December 2007].

 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forname or organisation, Title of website (year) <url> [accessed day Month year]

Example: 

Lane, Christel, The Future of Professionalised Work: UK and Germany Compared (2003) <http://www.agf.org.uk/pubs/pdfs/1232web.pdf> [accessed 12 December 2007] 

Newspaper article

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of article', Full title of newspaper, day Month year, p. X.

Example:

Dan Old, 'House Price Gloom', Evening Chronicle, 26 June 2008, p. 25. 

Bibliography 

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of article', Full title of newspaper, day Month year, p. X

Example:

Old, Dan, 'House Price Gloom', Evening Chronicle, 26 June 2008, p. 25

Art

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

 

Artist Forename Surname, Title of work, Date, medium. location.

Example:

Frieda Kahlo, Frieda and Diego Rivera, 2008, oil on canvas. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco.

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Artist Surname, Forename, Title of work, Date, medium. location

Example:

Kahlo, Frieda, Frieda and Diego Rivera, 2008, oil on canvas. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco

Email

Footnote 

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of email' (Email to recipient's Forename Surname, date of email).

Example:

Claire Walsh, 'New Research Published' (Email to David Mallow, 16 June 2013). 

Bibligraphy

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of email' (Email to recipient's Forename Surname, date of email).

Example: 

Walsh, Claire, 'New Research Published' (Email to David Mallow, 16 June 2013)  

Theses and Dissertations

Footnote 

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of thesis' (degree level, University, year).

Example: 

Claire Walsh, 'Sylvia Plath's Poetry of Youth' (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sussex, 2006).

 

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of thesis' (degree level, University, year).

Example:

Walsh, Claire, 'Sylvia Plath's Poetry of Youth' (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sussex, 2006)

Film, Television, Radio

Film

Citation order & format

Title, dir. by director Forename Surname (Distributor, year) [on DVD]. 

Example footnote:

Macbeth, dir. by Orson Wells (Republic Pictures, 1943) [on DVD].

 

Bibliography: Omit the full stop at the end, and indent the second and subsequent lines.

Television/Radio

Citation order & format

'Episode title', Broadcast / programme / series title, Channel Name, Day Month Year, time of broadcast.

Example:

'The One Where Joey Speaks French', Friends, E4, 2 February 2015, 17:30.

 

Bibliography: Omit the full stop at the end, and indent the second and subsequent lines.

 

Sound Recordings

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Composer or artist Forename Surname, Title, Artist / Orchestra / cond. by conductor Forename Surname (Recording Company, CD reference, year) [on CD].

Example:

Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 5, BBC National Orchestra of London, cond. by Malcolm Black (BBC, MM124, 1994) [on CD].

 

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Composer or artist Surname, Forename, Title, Artist / Orchestra / cond. by conductor Forename Surname (Recording Company, CD reference, year) [on CD]

Example:

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Symphony no. 5, BBC National Orchestra of London, cond. by Malcolm Black (BBC, MM124, 1994) [on CD]

Music Scores

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Composer Forename Surname, Title of work (place of publication: publisher, year).

Example: 

Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 5 (London: Merryman Music, 1994).

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Composer Surname, Forename, Title of work (place of publication: publisher, year)

Example: 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Symphony no. 5 (London: Merryman Music, 1994)

Tweet

Footnote

 

Citation order & format

Author Forename Surname, 'Title of post/tweet' [Twitter post] (Twitter user handle, date of post - date Month year).

Example:

National Academies, 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' [Twitter post] (@national_academies, 8 March 2012).  

Bibliography

 

Citation order & format

Author Surname, Forename, 'Title of post/tweet' [Twitter post] (Twitter user handle, date of post - date Month year).

Example:

Academies, National, 'How well equipped are we to manage the effects of the solarstorm?' [Twitter post] (@national_academies, 8 March 2012)

Expand all

Print Friendly and PDF