Skills Hub

Numeric style

Click on the appropriate header below to find more information about how to cite particular material in a Numeric style.

 

Check with your school about specific referencing requirements.


In-text citations

Generally, when using the Numeric style, a reference in your paper requires only the name of the author or authors and the number of the detailed reference.

For example:

As Deitel [1] outlines: "It would be dangerous to enable applets arriving from anywhere on the World Wide Web to be able to read files on the client system."

Two or three authors of one work

Rossetti and Revonsuo [2] recently stated...

Four or more authors of one work

Chavarria et al [3]

When the authors are not mentioned in the text, use numbers

Experiments have been reported using quantum dot qubits [4-6]

These works are then listed in full at the end of the essay. Superscript 7, brackets (8) or square brackets [9] may be used.


Book

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Title. Edition - if not the first edition. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication, pp.

Example:

Deitel, H.M. and Deitel P.J. Java: How to Program. London: Prentice Hall, 1999, pp. 10-14.


Chapter in a book

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Chapter title. In: editor name. - Surname, Forename. Title of book. ed. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication, pp.

Example:

Pears, R. Sheilds, G. What is Referencing? In: Cite Them Right: the essential referencing guide. 10th ed. London: Palgrave, 2016, pp.1-4.


eBook

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Title.  Edition. - if not the first edition Publisher, year of publication, page number p. [Online] Available at: url [Accessed date month year].

Example:

Corrie, M. A concise companion to Middle English literature. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. [Online] Available at http://netlibrary.com [Accessed 21 June 2011].

eReaders

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Title.  [medium version]. Publisher, year of publication, page number p. [Online] Available at: url [Accessed date month year].

Example:

Corrie, M. A concise companion to Middle English literature. [Kindle version]. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Available at http://amazon.com [Accessed 21 June 2011].


Journal article

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Article title. Journal title,  year of publication, volume (issue number) p.

Example:

Chavarria, J.A., Malin, P., Catchings, R.D. and Shalev, E. A Look Inside the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield Through Vertical Seismic Profiling. Science, 2003, 302 (5651) pp. 1746-1748.


Web page

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Title of article. Title of the website, year of publication. [Online] Available from: URL [Accessed date month abbreviated year].

Example:

S. Hawking. The Beginning of Time. A public lecture. Professor Stephen Hawking's website, 2000. [Online] Available from: http://www.hawking.org.uk/home/hindex.html [Accessed 31 Jan 2017].


Film

Citation order and format

Title of film. Directed by: director Forename, Surname. Place of distribution: Distribution Company, year of release.

Example:

Macbeth. Directed by: Orson Wells. California: Republic Pictures, 1948.


Government document

Citation order and format

Country or State, Corporate author. Title of publication. Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication.

Example:

Great Britain, Lord Chancellor's Department. Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office, 2009.


Newspaper article

Citation order and format

Author Surname, Initials. Article name. Newspaper name, date of publication day month year, p.

Example:

Brooker C. Screen burn. The Guardian, 14th February 2008, p.13


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