Critical Legal Theory, Legal Pluralism

  • Theoretical and philosophical approaches to critiquing and understanding state and non-state law

Space, Time, Law, Property, Resistance

  • Spatio-temporal approaches to law, property, squatting, commons, protest and housing rights
  • Spatio-temporal approaches to naughtiness and disobedience in relation to law

Law and Art

  • Philosophical, historical and critical legal appreciation of the role of art in law and law in art
  • Interconnections between law, resistance, aesthetics, protest and entropy
  • Complexity Theory inspired Art/Law pedagogy
  • Outsider art, law and Legal Pluralism
  • Street art, graffiti, property and legal voids 

Complexity Theory and Entropy

  • Complexity Theory methodology for understanding law, time, space, resistance
  • Role of entropy in time, complexity, aesthetics, resistance and law
  • Speculative Realism, New Materialisms, Object Oriented Ontology and law
  • Legal voids, entropy and complexity

Research Supervision

PhD/postgraduate supervision is available in any of the above, as well as more broadly in the areas of critical legal and social theory relating to law. 

Research Clusters

Art and Law, Law, Politics and Sociology, Sussex

Research Centres

Sussex Rights and Justice Research Centre

List of Works


Protest, Property and the Commons - Performances of Law and Resistance (2016), Social Justice Books Series, London, Routledge

Edited Collections

Art, Law, Power: Perspectives on Legality and Resistance in Contemporary Aesthetics, with Eleftheria Lekakis (Counterpress, 2019)


Voids, Vacuums and Loopholes – Escaping to the Heart of Law (Forthcoming), with Charlie Blake in ‘Holes’ Special Issue, Emotion, Space and Society

Forming the Legal Avant Garde: A Theory of Art/Law (2019), Law Culture and the Humanities,

Squatters’ rights – a case study on ‘legal movements’ theory (2017), Socialist Lawyer, 40-45

Beauty, Totality, Violent Law (2017), The Conscious Lawyer, 8-10

ArtLaw Network (2017), The Conscious Lawyer, 10-12

Letters on Legal Architecture (2016), with Leopold Lambert, ARCH+ Legislating Architecture, Berlin, May, 14-20

Law in Numbers - The Poiesis of the Crowd (2014), Lo Squaderno (Crowded Spaces), 13-18

Fracking and the Legal and Extra-Legal in Planning Procedures (2014), Journal of Environmental Law and Planning, 1210-214

Responding to the Private Regulation of Dissent - Climate Change Action, Popular Justice and the Right to Protest (2013), 25, Journal of Environmental Law, 2, 293-304

Seeing Red - Entropy, Property and Resistance in the Summer Riots 2011 (2012), 23, Law and Critique, 3, 199-217

The Criminalisation of Squatting (2011), 50-51, Corporate Watch Magazine, 23-25

Finding Space for Resistance through Legal Pluralism - The Hidden Legality of the UK Social Centre Movement (2010), 60, Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 31-52

An Anarchists Wetherspoons or Virtuous Resistance? Social Centres as MacIntyres Vision of Practice-based Communities (2008), 7, Philosophy of Management, 1, 21-32


In Vacuums of Law We Find- Outsider Poiesis in Street Art and Graffiti (2019) in D. Chappell and S. Hufnagel (eds.) Art Crime Handbook (London, Palgrave MacMillan)

Continua of (In)Justice (2018) in A. Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos (ed.) Handbook of Law and Theory (London, Routledge) 104-123

Nonlinearity, autonomy and resistant law (2018) in T. Webb and S. Wheatley (eds.) Complexity Theory & Law: Mapping an Emergent Jurisprudence, Law, Science and Society Series (London, Routledge) 213-233

Speculative Entropy – Dynamism, Hyperchaos and the Fourth Dimension in Environmental Law Practice (2018) in A. Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos and V. Brooks (eds.) ‘Research Methods in Law Series (Handbook of Research Methods in Environmental Law)’ (London, Edward Elgar Publishing) 104-130

Time’s Up – Resisting Private Limitations on Rights to Housing and Protest (2016) in M. Vols and J. Sidoli del Ceno (eds.) Regulating the City: Contemporary Urban Housing Law (The Hague, Eleven Publishing) 81-107

The Changing Architectures of Adverse Possession and a Poltiical Aesthetics of Squatting (2014) in L. Fox-O’Mahony et al. (eds.) ‘’Vulnerable Demons’? Moral Rhetoric and the Criminalisation of squatting’ (London, Routledge) 204-223

Squatting in London – Squatters Rights and Legal Movement(s) (2014) in B. van der Steen and A. Katzeff (eds.), ‘The City is Ours’ (2014) (Oakland, PM Press) 207-231

The Case of the Naughty in Relation to Law (2013) in E. Loizidou (ed.) ‘Disobedience: Concept and Practice’ (London, Routledge) 83-97

An Epistolary Conversation with Léopold Lambert (2013) in ‘The Funambulist Papers: Volume 4’ (Brooklyn, Punctum Books) 9-22

Squats and Spaces Solidarity Day: The Globe as a Temporary Autonomous Zone (2008) in “What’s this Place? Stories from Radical Social Centres in the UK and Ireland”, ESRC funded project ‘Autonomous Geographies’ (Leeds, Footprints Woklers Co-Operative) 76-79

Book Reviews

Book Review Securitisation of Property Squatting (2014)Book Review Securitisation of Property Squatting (2014), Mary Manjikian, London, Routledge in ‘Journal of Urban Studies’, 51 (6), 1341-1344


Who's Guarding Property Guardians?, The Guardian, Friday 9 June 2010


Eminent Domain v Imminent Domain:  The Law and its Spatial Practices, published at


Nowhere Left to Dance:  ScumTek, the Electronic Underground and Neoliberal Mainstreamism, (2016), published at

Their Law:  The New Energies of UK Squats, Social Centres and Eviction Resistances in the Fight Against Expropriation (Part 2 of 2) (2015), published at

Their Law:  The New Energies of UK Squats, Social Centres and Eviction Resistances in the Fight Against Expropriation (Part 1 of 2) (2015), published at

Locating a Right to Protest (2014), published at

Letters on Legal Architecture (2013), published at www.

The Law of the Commons:  Climate Change Protest in Buckfastleigh (2013), published at

Architecture and the Law: An Epistolary Conversation with Dr. Lucy Finchett-Maddock in four letters (2013), published at

No Home for Squatters' Rights:  Limitations and Legitimated Violence (2012), published at

Burroughs Called the Law (2012), with Nathan Moore, published at

Entropy, Law and Funambulism (2011), published at

To Dis or Not to Dis?  Disobedience in Relation to Naughty and Law's Response (2011), published at and

Some Indonesian Recollections on Critical Legal Pluralism(2011), published at

Critical Legal Pluralism and the Law of the Ulayat (2011), RUPES Working Paper

Trespassers Will and the Removal of the Other (2011), published at

The Memory and the Hope of Social Centres (2011), published at