Selected publications


Clark, Hannah and Leavens, David A (2019) Testing dogs in ape-like conditions: the effect of a barrier on dogs’ performance on the object-choice task. Animal Cognition, 22. pp. 1063-1072. ISSN 1435-9448

Clark, Hannah, Elsherif, Mahmoud M and Leavens, David A (2019) Ontogeny vs. phylogeny in Primate/Canid comparisons: a meta-analysis of the object choice task. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 105. pp. 178-189. ISSN 0149-7634

Leavens, David A, Bard, Kim A and Hopkins, William D (2019) The mismeasure of ape social cognition. Animal Cognition, 22 (4). pp. 487-504. ISSN 1435-9448

Krause, Mark A, Udell, Monique A R, Leavens, David A and Skopos, Lyra (2018) Animal pointing: changing trends and findings from 30 years of research. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 132 (3). pp. 326-345. ISSN 0735-7036

Flack, Zoe M, Naylor, Martha and Leavens, David A (2018) Pointing to visible and invisible targets. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 42 (2). pp. 221-236. ISSN 0191-5886

Hobaiter, Catherine, Leavens, David A and Byrne, Richard W (2016) Les chimpanzés sauvages (Pan troglodytes) produisent-ils des gestes déictiques? Enfance, 2016 (4). pp. 405-417. ISSN 0013-7545

Leavens, David A and Bard, Kim A (2016) Tickling. Current Biology, 26 (3). R91-R93. ISSN 0960-9822

Leavens, David, Reamer, Lisa A, Mareno, Mary Catherine, Russell, Jamie L, Wilson, Daniel, Schapiro, Steve J and Hopkins, William D (2015) Distal communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence for common ground? Child Development, 86 (5). pp. 1623-1638. ISSN 0009-3920

Meguerditchian, Adrien, Taglialatela, Jared P, Leavens, David A and Hopkins, William D (2014) Why vocal production of atypical sounds in apes and its cerebral correlates have a lot to say about the origin of language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37 (6). pp. 565-566. ISSN 0140-525X

Bard, Kim A and Leavens, David A (2014) The importance of development for comparative primatology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 43. pp. 183-200. ISSN 0084-6570

Bard, Kim A, Bakeman, Roger, Boysen, Sarah T and Leavens, David A (2014) Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees. Developmental Science, 17 (5). pp. 682-696. ISSN 1363-755X

Leavens, David A, Sansone, Jo, Burfield, Anna, Lightfoot, Sian, O'Hara, Stefanie and Todd, Brenda K (2014) Putting the 'joy' in joint attention: affective-gestural synchrony by parents who point for their babies. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 (879). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1664-1078

Froese, Tom and Leavens, David A (2014) The direct perception hypothesis: perceiving the intention of another’s action hinders its precise imitation. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 (65). pp. 1-15. ISSN 1664-1078

Hobaiter, Catherine, Leavens, David A and Byrne, Richard W (2014) Deictic gesturing in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)? Some possible cases. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128 (1). pp. 82-87. ISSN 0735-7036

Lyn, Heidi, Russell, Jamie L, Leavens, David A, Bard, Kim A, Boysen, Sarah T, Schaeffer, Jennifer A and Hopkins, William D (2014) Apes communicate about absent and displaced objects: methodology matters. Animal Cognition, 17 (1). pp. 85-94. ISSN 1435-9456

Hopkins, William D, Russell, Jamie L, McIntyre, Joe and Leavens, David A (2013) Are chimpanzees really so poor at understanding imperative pointing? Some new data and an alternative view of canine and ape social cognition. PLoS ONE, 8 (11). e79338. ISSN 1932-6203

Leavens, David (2013) Foreword: Pointing: where embodied cognition meets the symbolic mind. Humana.Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies, 24. iii-x. ISSN 1972-1293

Forrester, Gillian S, Quaresmini, Caterina, Leavens, David A, Mareschal, Denis and Thomas, Michael S (2013) Human handedness: an inherited evolutionary trait. Behavioural Brain Research, 237 (1). pp. 200-206. ISSN 0166-4328

Leavens, David A, Ely, Jon, Hopkins, William D and Bard, Kim A (2012) Effects of cage mesh on pointing: hand shapes in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition, 15 (3). pp. 437-441. ISSN 1435-9448

Forrester, Gillian S, Quaresmini, Caterina, Leavens, David A, Spiezio, Caterina and Vallortigara, Giorgio (2012) Target animacy influences chimpanzee handedness. Animal Cognition, 15 (6). pp. 1121-1127. ISSN 1435-9448

Forrester, Gillian S, Leavens, David A, Quaresmini, Caterina and Vallortigara, Giorgio (2011) Target animacy influences gorilla handedness. Animal Cognition, 14 (6). pp. 903-907. ISSN 1435-9448

Leavens, David and Bard, Kim A (2011) Environmental influences on joint attention in great apes: implications for human cognition. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 10 (1). pp. 9-31. ISSN 1945-8959

Leavens, David A, Bard, Kim A and Hopkins, William D (2010) BIZARRE chimpanzees do not represent "the chimpanzee". Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33 (2-3). pp. 100-101. ISSN 0140-525X

Leavens, David A, Russell, Jamie L and Hopkins, William D (2010) Multimodal communication by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition, 13 (1). pp. 33-40. ISSN 1435-9448

Leavens, David A (2009) Animal communication: laughter is the shortest distance between two apes. Current Biology, 19 (13). R511-R513. ISSN 0960-9822

Leavens, David and Racine, Timothy P (2009) Joint attention in apes and humans: are humans unique? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16 (6-8). pp. 240-267. ISSN 1355-8250

Leavens, David A (2008) Invited commentary on: Arbib, Michael; Liebal, Katja & Pika, Simone 'Primate Vocalization, Gesture, and the Evolution of Human Language'. Current Anthropology, 49 (6). pp. 1065-1066. ISSN 0011-3204

Thomas, Emily, Murphy, Mary, Pitt, Rebecca, Rivers, Angela and Leavens, David (2008) Understanding of visual attention by adult humans (Homo sapiens): a partial replication of Povinelli, Bierschwale, and Cech (1999). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122 (4). pp. 428-436. ISSN 0735-7036

Leavens, David A (2008) Of handedness, homology, and hopeful monsters. Laterality, 13 (6). pp. 561-568. ISSN 1357-650X

Leavens, David A (2007) Animal cognition: multimodal tactics of orangutan communication. Current Biology, 17 (17). R762-R764. ISSN 0960-9822

Hopkins, W. D., Taglialatela, J. P. and Leavens, David (2007) Chimpanzees differentially produce novel vocalizations to capture the attention of a human. Animal Behaviour, 73 (2). pp. 281-286. ISSN 0003-3472

Hopkins, W. D., Russell, J. L., Freeman, H, Reynolds, E. A. M., Griffis, C and Leavens, David (2006) Lateralized scratching in chimpanzees: evidence of a functional asymmetry during arousal. Emotion, 6 (4). pp. 553-559. ISSN 1528-3542

Leavens, David A (2006) It takes time and experience to learn how to interpret gaze in mentalistic terms. Infant and Child Development, 15 (2). pp. 187-190. ISSN 1522-7227

Bard, K. A., Todd, Brenda, Bernier, C, Love, J and Leavens, David (2006) Self-awareness in human and chimpanzee infants: what is measured and what is meant by the mark and mirror test? Infancy, 9 (2). pp. 191-219. ISSN 1525-0008

Leavens, David, Hopkins, William D and Bard, Kim A (2005) Understanding the point of chimpanzee pointing: epigenesis and ecological validity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 (4). pp. 185-189. ISSN 0963-7214

Leavens, David, Russell, J. L. and Hopkins, W. D. (2005) Intentionality as measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodyes). Child Development, 76 (1). pp. 291-306. ISSN 0009-3920

Leavens, David and Hopkins, William D (2005) Multimodal concomitants of manual gesture by chimpanzees: influence of food size and distance. Gesture, 5 (1-2). pp. 75-90. ISSN 1568-1475

Leavens, David A (2004) Review of Pointing: Where Language, Culture and Cognition Meet, S. Kita (Ed.); Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003; ISBN 0-8058-4014-1. Cognitive Systems Research, 5 (2). pp. 157-165. ISSN 1389-0417

Leavens, David, Hopkins, William D and Thomas, Roger K (2004) Referential communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118 (1). pp. 48-57. ISSN 0735-7036

Leavens, David, Hostetter, A. B, Wesley, M. J. and Hopkins, W. D. (2004) Tactical use of unimodal and bimodal communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Behaviour, 67 (3). pp. 467-476. ISSN 0003-3472

Leavens, David, Aureli, F and Hopkins, W. D. (2004) Behavioral evidence for the cutaneous expression of emotion in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Behaviour, 141 (8). pp. 979-997. ISSN 0005-7959

Bard, K. A, Leavens, David, Custance, D, Vancatova, M, Keller, H, Benga, O and Sousa, C (2004) Emotion cognition: comparative perspectives on the social cognition of emotion. Cognitie Creier Comportament, 8 (3-4). pp. 351-362. ISSN 1224-8398

Leavens, David A (2004) Manual deixis in apes and humans. Interaction Studies, 5 (3). pp. 387-408. ISSN 1572-0373

Leavens, David A (2003) Integration of visual and vocal communication: evidence for Miocene origins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26 (2). pp. 232-233. ISSN 0140-525X

Leavens, David (2002) On the public nature of communication. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25 (5). pp. 631-632. ISSN 0140-525X

Leavens, David, Aureli, F, Hopkins, W. D. and Hyatt, C. W. (2001) The effects of cognitive challenge on self-directed behaviors by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 55 (1). pp. 1-14. ISSN 0275-2565

Leavens, David and Hopkins, W. D. (1999) The whole hand point: the structure and function of pointing from a comparative perspective. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113 (4). pp. 417-425. ISSN 07357036

Hopkins, William D and Leavens, David (1999) Hand use and gestural communication in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112 (1). pp. 95-99. ISSN 07357036

Leavens, David and Hopkins, W. D. (1998) Intentional communication by chimpanzees: a cross-sectional study of the use of referential gestures. Developmental Psychology, 34 (5). pp. 813-822. ISSN 00121649

Leavens, David A (1998) Having a concept 'see' does not imply attribution of knowledge: some general considerations in measuring 'theories of mind'. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21 (01). pp. 123-124. ISSN 0140-525X

Hyatt, C. W. and Leavens, David (1997) An inexpensive liquid dispenser. Behavior Research Methods, 29 (3). pp. 448-449. ISSN 1554-351X

Hyatt, C. W. and Leavens, David (1997) An inexpensive reinforcement dispenser. Behavior Research Methods, 29 (3). pp. 446-447. ISSN 1554-351X

Leavens, David, Hopkins, W. D. and Bard, K. A. (1996) Indexical and referential pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110 (4). pp. 346-353. ISSN 07357036

Book Section

Leavens, David A and Bard, Kim A (2019) Primate cognition in captivity. In: Lock, A, Sinha, C and Gontier, N (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution. Oxford University Press. (Accepted)

Leavens, David A (2018) The cognitive implications of intentional communication: a multifaceted mirror. In: Di Paolo, Laura Desirèe, Di Vincenzo, Fabio and De Petrillo, Francesca (eds.) Evolution of Primate Social Cognition. Interdisciplinary Evolution Research . Springer, Cham, pp. 59-77. ISBN 9783319937755

Flack, Zoe M and Leavens, David A (2018) Communication and developmental milestones. In: Shackelford, Todd K and Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A (eds.) Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. Springer, Cham. ISBN 9783319169996

Leavens, David (2018) William Hopkins. In: Vonk, Jennifer and Shackelford, Todd K (eds.) Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer. ISBN 9783319550640

Leavens, David and Clark, Hannah (2017) Joint attention. In: Vonk, Jennifer and Shackelford, Todd K (eds.) Encyclopedia of animal cognition and behavior. Springer, New York. ISBN 9783319550640

Leavens, David A and Hopkins, William D (2016) Primate gestures. In: Shackelford, Todd K and Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana (eds.) Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. Springer International Publishing, New York, pp. 1-5. ISBN 9783319169996

Leavens, David A (2014) The plight of the sense-making ape. In: Cappuccio, Massimiliano and Froese, Tom (eds.) Enactive cognition at the edge of sense-making: making sense of non-sense. New directions in philosophy and cognitive science . Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 81-104. ISBN 9781137363350

Leavens, David A, Taglialatela, Jared P and Hopkins, William D (2014) From grasping to grooming to gossip: innovative use of chimpanzee signals in novel environments supports both vocal and gestural theories of language origins. In: Pina, Marco and Gontier, Nathalie (eds.) The evolution of social communication in primates: a multidisciplinary approach. Interdisciplinary evolution research, 1 . Springer, New York, pp. 179-194. ISBN 9783319026688

Leavens, David A (2012) Pointing: contexts and instrumentality. In: Pika, Simone and Liebal, Katja (eds.) Developments in Primate Gesture Research. Gesture Studies (6). John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp. 181-197. ISBN 9789027228482

Racine, Timothy P, Wereha, Tyler J and Leavens, David A (2012) Primates, motion and emotion: to what extent nonhuman primates are intersubjective and why. In: Foolen, Ad, Lüdtke, Ulrike M, Zlatev, Jordan and Racine, Timothy P (eds.) Moving ourselves, moving others: motion and emotion in intersubjectivity, consciousness and language. Consciousness & Emotion Book Series (6). John Benjamins Publishing Co, Amsterdam, pp. 221-242. ISBN 978 90 272 4156 6

Leavens, David A (2012) Joint attention: twelve myths. In: Seemann, Axel (ed.) Joint attention: New developments in Psychology, Philosophy of Mind, and Social Neuroscience. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 43-72. ISBN 9780262016827

Hopkins, William D, Taglialatela, J. P. and Leavens, David (2011) Do chimpanzees have voluntary control of their facial expressions and vocalizations? In: Vilain, Anne, Schwartz, Jean-Luc, Abry, Christian and Vauclair, Jacques (eds.) Primate communication and human language : vocalisation, gestures, imitation and deixis in humans and non-humans. John Benjamins Pub, pp. 71-90. ISBN 9789027204547

Hopkins, W. D., Taglialatela, J. P., Leavens, David, Russell, J. L. and Schapiro, S (2010) Behavioral and brain asymmetries in chimpanzees. In: Lonsdorf, E, Ross, S and Matsuzawa, T (eds.) The mind of the chimpanzee : ecological and experimental perspectives. University of Chicago Press, pp. 60-74. ISBN 9780226492780

Bard, K. A. and Leavens, David (2009) Socio-emotional factors in the development of joint attention in human and ape infants. In: Roska-Hardy, L and Neumann-Held, EM (eds.) Learning from animals? : examining the nature of human uniqueness. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781841697079

Leavens, David, Racine, T. P. and Hopkins, W. D. (2009) The ontogeny and phylogeny of non-verbal deixis. In: Botha, RP and Knight, C (eds.) The prehistory of language. Oxford University Press,, pp. 142-165. ISBN 9780199545872

Racine, T. P., Leavens, David, Susswein, N and Wereha, T. J. (2008) Conceptual and methodological issues in the investigation of primate intersubjectivity. In: Morganti, F, Carassa, A and Riva, G (eds.) Enacting Intersubjectivity: A Cognitive and Social Perspective on the Study of Interactions. IOS Press. ISBN 9781586038502

Leavens, David, Hopkins, William D and Bard, Kim A (2008) The heterochronic origins of explicit reference. In: Zlatev, Jordan, Racine, Timothy P, Sinha, Chris and Itkonen, Esa (eds.) The shared mind : perspectives on intersubjectivity. John Benjamins Pub. Co, pp. 187-214. ISBN 9789027239006