Benedict du Boulay, Aaron Sloman
Several factors make it very difficult to automate skilled teacher student interactions, e.g. integrating new material in a way that links effectively to the student's existing knowledge, taking account of the student's goals and beliefs and adjusting the form of presentation as appropriate. These difficulties are illustrated with examples from teaching programming. There are domain-specific and domain-neutral problems in designing ITS. The domain-neutral problems include: encyclopaedic knowledge, combining different kinds of knowledge, knowing how to devise a teaching strategy, knowing how to monitor and modify the strategy, knowing how to motivate intellectual curiosity, understanding the cognitive states and processes involved in needing (wanting) or an explanation, knowing how to cope with social and affective processes, various communicative skills (this includes some of the others), knowing how to use various representational and communicative media, and knowing when to use them (an example of strategy).
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