A MARX BIBLIOGRAPHY

(with sections on the Young Hegelians and 20th-century Marxists)

 

This selective bibliography is mainly of English-language material, although some items in French and German are also listed. Printed out, the bibliography is about 40 pages long.

 

Navigation: The bibliography is all on one page. After the list of contents, it is divided into 9 main sections, each with up to 20 headings. Each heading is preceded by ‘@’ plus a space. To find a heading, use the ‘find’ facility on your browser, entering ‘@’ +  space +  the first words of the heading. To return to the top of the page, press Ctrl-Home.

 

[ ] = date of writing or original publication    *  = recommended    +  = introductory

 

Please e-mail suggestions for additions or improvements to Andrew Chitty, University of Sussex, England (home page).

 

See also PhilPapers Karl Marx bibliography of online papers

 

Last updated 23 August 2014

 

Headings:

ELEMENTARY

GENERAL

PRECURSORS AND DEVELOPMENT

SPECIES-BEING AND ALIENATION

MATERIALISM AND PRAXIS

THEORY OF HISTORY AND IDEOLOGY

CAPITAL

STATE, LAW AND POLITICS

ETHICS, CLASSES AND PARTY

20TH CENTURY MARXISM

 

@ ELEMENTARY

(For introductions to Marx see that)

 

   Species-being, alienation and communism:

   Marx Notes on James Mill (or Marginal Notes on James Mill's 'Elements of Political Economy etc.) in collections of early writings

   Marx Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in collections of early writings

   Marx 'Critique of the Gotha Programme', sec. 1, in editions of selected works

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, chs. 1-4

   Chitty, A. (1997) 'First person plural ontology and praxis', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97(1)

 

   History and social relations of production:

   Marx German Ideology ch. 1, in collections of selected works

   Marx 1859 Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, in editions of selected works

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, sec. 5.1

   Cohen, G.A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, chs. 2-3, 8

 

   Structure of capitalism:

   (See '~ Capital: introductions')

 

   The capitalist state:

   Marx The Civil War in France, part 3, in editions of selected works

   Marx The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, in editions of selected works

   Marx and Engels The German Ideology, ch. 1, the section near the end of the chapter on 'The relation of state and law to property'

   Lenin, V.I. The State and Revolution, esp. chs. 1-3

   Miliband, R. (1965) 'Marx and the state', Socialist Register, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed.) Karl Marx 1973

   Draper, H. (1971) Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Vol. 1: State and Bureaucracy, chs. 8, 11-15

 

   Ideology and fetishism:

   Marx Capital volume 1 ch. 1 sec. 4 'The fetishism of commodities' (this is pp. 435-443 in McLellan, Karl Marx: Selected Writings)

   Marx 'Theses on Feuerbach', in any edition of selected works, or of the German Ideology

   Lukacs, G. 'Reification and the consciousness of the proletariat', sec. 1, in his History and Class Consciousness

 

   Marx and art:

   Lifshitz, M. The Philosophy of Art of Karl Marx (a reconstruction of Marx's view of the place of art)

   Fischer, E. The Necessity of Art: A Marxist Approach

 

@ 1. @ GENERAL

 

@ E-texts

   The Marx/Engels internet archive has most of Marx's works in English. The cross-language section has links to his works in German and many other languages.

   The MLWerke site has the best collection of Marx's texts in German. See also the Projekt Gutenberg-DE Marx archive.

 

@ Collections of Marx and Engels' works

   Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1970-

   Marx-Engels Werke, Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1956- (40 volumes)

   Karl Marx: Early Writings, (ed.) L. Colletti, Penguin

   Karl Marx: Early Texts, (ed.) D. McLellan

   Karl Marx: Early Writings, (ed.) T. Bottomore

   Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Collected Works, Lawrence and Wishart, 1975- (Some 30 volumes)

   Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Selected Works in Three Volumes, Moscow (from 1845 only)

   Karl Marx: Selected Writings, (ed.) D. McLellan (Key texts, but by different translators)

 

@ Marx's most important writings

   (With date of composition)

   Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right [1843] (in collections of early works)

   On the Jewish Question [1843] (in collections of early works)

   Contribution to a Critique Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction (the '1843 Introduction')

   Notes on James Mill [1844] (also known as Excerpt-notes of 1844 etc.) (in collections of early works)

   Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts [1844] (in collections of early works)

   Theses on Feuerbach [1845] (included in editions of The German Ideology)

   The German Ideology (with Engels) [1845-46], ch. 1 'Feuerbach', in Marx and Engels: Collected Works Vol. 5 (or, with sections of the chapter variously reordered: in Marx and Engels: Selected Works in Three Volumes, in C.J. Arthur (ed.) The German Ideology, and in R. Pascal (ed.) The German Ideology)

   Letter to Annenkov [1846] (in most collections of selected works)

   The Poverty of Philosophy [1846-47]

   Wage-Labour and Capital [1847]

   The Communist Manifesto (with Engels) [1847-48], parts 1 and 2

   The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte [1852]

   Grundrisse [1857-58]

   A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy [1859] (The '1859 Preface' to this is in editions of Marx and Engels' selected works)

   Theories of Surplus Value, 3 volumes [1863]

   Urtext of Capital [1861-63]

   Value, Price and Profit [1865] (German edition published as Wages Price and Profit )

   Capital Vol. 1 [pub. 1867] tr. B. Fowkes, Penguin (or tr. S. Moore and E. Aveling, Lawrence and Wishart, or abridged as Capital: A Student Edition, (ed.) C.J. Arthur)

   Capital Vol. 1 (first edition) ch. 1 'The commodity', and appendix 'The value-form', in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory 1994; also (less well translated) in A. Dragstedt tr. Value: Studies by Marx 1976; the appendix alone is translated by M. Roth and W. Suchting in Capital & Class 4, Spring 1978

   The Civil War in France [1871]

   Critique of the Gotha Programme [1875], secs. 1-2 (in collections of selected works)

   Ethnological Notebooks [1879-80], (ed.) L. Krader

   Notes on Wagner [1881] (in Theoretical Practice 5, Spring 1972; T. Carver (ed.) Karl Marx: Texts on Method; and A. Dragstedt (ed.) Value: Studies by Marx)

 

@ Introductions to Marx

   Marx and Engels [1848] The Communist Manifesto, parts 1 and 2, in collections of selected works

* McLellan, D. (1971) The Thought of Karl Marx, 3rd ed. 1995

   McLellan, D. (1975) Marx, Fontana Modern Masters

   Singer, P. (1980) Marx, Pastmasters, reissued as Marx: A Very Short Introduction, 2001 [4]

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, chs. 6-8, also available online

   Graham, K. (1992) Karl Marx: Our Contemporary. Social Theory for a Post-Leninist World

   Hindess, B. (1995) 'Marxism' in Goodin and Pettit (eds) A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy

   Eagleton, T. (1997) Marx, The Great Philosophers (sometimes listed with the title Marx and Freedom

   Wolff, J. (2003) Why Read Marx Today?

   Collier, A. (2004) Marx

   Osborne, Peter (2005) How to Read Marx

   Allen, K. (2011) Marx and the Alternative to Capitalism

 

@ Biographies of Marx

   (Also discussions of his personal psychology)

* Mehring, F. [1918] Karl Marx: The Story of His Life, tr. E. Fitzgerald 1936

   Berlin, I. (1939) Karl Marx: His Life and Environment

* Cornu, A. (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et leur oeuvre, 3 vols.

   Rubel, M. (1957) Karl Marx: Essai de biographie intellectuelle

   McLellan, D. (1971) Karl Marx: His Life and Thought

   Seigel, J. E. (1972-73) 'Marx's early development: vocation, rebellion, and realism', Journal of Interdisciplinary History 3

   Seigel, J. (1978) Marx's Fate: The Shape of a Life

   Reiss, E. (1996) 'Nothing human should be alien to Marx', Imprints 1(2)

   Wheen, F. (1999) Karl Marx

   Draper, H. (1985) The Marx-Engels Cyclopedia, 3 volumes

 

@ Commentaries on Marx's work as a whole

   Lichtheim, G. (1961) Marxism

   Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004

   Bottomore, T. (ed.) (1983) Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed. 1991

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx

 

@ Bibliographies of works on Marx

* McLellan, D. (1971) The Thought of Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1980

   Teeple, G. (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847

 

@ Collections of articles on Marx

   Bottomore, T. (ed.) (1973) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1979

   Mepham, J. and Ruben, D.-H. (eds) (1979-81) Issues in Marxist Philosophy, 4 vols.

   Parkinson, G.H.R. (ed.) (1982) Marx and Marxisms

   Ball, T. and Farr, J. (eds) (1984) After Marx

   Cowling, M. and Wilde, L. (eds) (1989) Approaches to Marx

   Jessop, B. and Malcolm-Brown, C. (eds) (1990) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments, 4 vols.

   Carver, T. (ed.) (1991) The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Panasiuk, R. and Nowak, L. (1998) Marx's Theories Today

   Meikle, S. (ed.) (2002) Marx, International Library of Critical Essays in the History of Philosophy

   Uchida, H. (ed.) (2006) Marx for the 21st Century

   Bellofiore, R. and Fineschi, R. (eds) (2009) Re-reading Marx: New Perspectives after the Critical Edition

   Chitty, Andrew and McIvor, M. (ed.s) (2009) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy

 

@ Journals of Marx and Marxism studies

   Studies in Marxism

   Historical Materialism

   Marx Actuel

 

@ 2. @ PRECURSORS AND DEVELOPMENT (1837-46)

 

@ Influences on Marx's development: general

   Cornu, A. (1957) The Origins Of Marxian Thought

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, first chapters

 

@ Aristotle and Marx

   (See also the CASEP bibliography on Marxism and Aristotelianism)

   (See also '~ Species-being as a normative ground')

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

   Gould, C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality, ch. 1 'The ontology of society'

   Mansfield, H.C. Jr. (1980) 'Marx on Aristotle', Review of Metaphysics 37

   Miller, R.W. (1981) 'Marx and Aristotle: a kind of consequentialism', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supp. Vol. 7, reprinted in A. Callinicos (ed.) Marxist Theory, and in K, Nielsen and S.C. Patten (eds) Marx and Morality

   Depew, D.J.

   Gilbert, A. (1984) 'Marx's moral realism: eudaimonism and moral progress', in T. Ball and J. Farr (eds) After Marx

   Meikle, S. (1985) Essentialism in the Thought of Karl Marx

   Springborg, P. (1986) 'Politics, primordialism and orientalism: Marx, Aristotle and the myth of the Gemeinschaft', American Political Science Review 801(1)

   Kain, P.J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, chs. 1-2

   McCarthy, G.E. (1990) Marx and the Ancients: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Kain, P.J. (1992) 'Aristotle, Kant and the ethics of the young Marx', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

* Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity -creation')

   McCarthy, G.E. (ed.) (1992) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity

   Mewes, H. (1992) 'Karl Marx and the influence of Greek antiquity on Eighteenth-century Geramn Thought', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Depew, D.J. (1992) 'The polis transfigured: Aristotle's Politics and Marx's Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   MacIntyre, A. [1994] 'The Theses on Feuerbach: a road not taken' in K. Knight ed The MacIntyre Reader, 1998

   Katz, C. (1994) 'The socialist polis: antiquity and socialism in Marx's thought', Review of Poltiics 56(2)

   Wilde, L. (1998) 'Marx and justice revisited: the Greek dimension', Studies in Marxism 5, pp. 93-113

   Pike, J.E. (1999) From Aristotle to Marx: Aristotelianism in Marxist Social Ontology

   Giddy, P. (2000) 'A critical ethic of transformation: dialogue with Marx and Aristotle', Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 95

   Pike, J.E. (2001) 'Aristotle and Marx: egalitarianism, civic friendship and rights', Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 12

   Meikle, S. (ed.) (2002) Marx, International Library of Critical Essays in the History of Philosophy (many articles in this collection focus on the Marx-Aristotle relationship)

   McCarthy, G.E. (2003) 'Karl Marx, Athenian democracy and the critique of political economy', in his Classical Horizons: The Origins of Sociology in Ancient Greece

   Burns, T. (2005) 'Whose Aristotle? Which Marx? Ethics, law and justice in Aristotle and in Marx', Imprints 8(2)

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing

 

@ Spinoza and Marx

   Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

   Hull, G. (2000) 'Marx's anomalous reading of Spinoza', Interpretation 28(1)

 

@ Liberalism and Marx

   (See also '~ Rights and the rule of law')

   Blackburn, R. (ed.) (1991) After the Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism

 

@ Rousseau and Marx

   Rousseau [1755] Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

   Rousseau [1762] The Social Contract, book 1 chs. 1-6, book 2 ch. 1

   Rotenstreich, N. (1949) 'Between Rousseau and Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9

   Della Volpe (1957) Rousseau and Marx, tr. 1987

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, pp. 48-61, 99-107

   Althusser, L. [1970] article on Rousseau in his Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx 1972

   Lecercle, J.-L. (1982) 'Rousseau et Marx', in R.A. Leigh (ed.) Rousseau After Two Hundred Years (and discussion by R. Wokler)

   Wokler, R. (1983) 'Rousseau and Marx', in D. Miller and L. Siedentop eds., The Nature of Political Theory

   Levine, A. (1993) The General Will: Rousseau, Marx and Communism

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 262-271

 

@ Kant and Marx

   (For Rawls see '~ Rawls and Marx')

   Adler, M. (1925) Kant und der Marxismus

   Kamenka, E. (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, also available online

   Kamenka, E. (1969) Marxism and Ethics

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 2, ch. on 'Kantians in the Marxian movement'

   Levine, A. (1978) 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8, pp. 256-268

   Howard, D. (1981) 'The politics of modernism: from Marx to Kant', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8(4)

   Hoffman, P. (1982) The Anatomy of Idealism: Passivity and Activity in Kant, Hegel and Marx

   Howard, D. (1985) From Marx to Kant

   McCarthy, G. (1985) 'Development of the concept and method of critique in Kant, Hegel, and Marx', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 30(1)

   Kain, P.J. (1986) 'The young Marx and Kantian ethics', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 31(4)

   Kain, P.J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, chs. 1-2

   Nielsen, K. (1989) Marxism and the Moral Point of View: Morality, Ideology and Historical Materialism, chs. 11-12

   Booth, W.J. (1993) 'The limits of autonomy: Karl Marx's Kant critique' in R. Beiner and W.J. Booth (eds) Kant and Political Philosophy: The Contemporary Legacy

   Woei Lien Chong (1999). 'Combining Marx with Kant: the philosophical anthropology of Li Zehou', Philosophy East and West 49(2)

   Karatani, K. (2003) Transcritique: On Kant and Marx

   Negt, O. (2003) Kant und Marx: Ein Epochengesprach

 

@ Kant and Marxists

   Lukacs, Georg [1923] 'Reification and the consciousness of the proletariat', part 2 'The antinomies of bourgeois thought', in his History and Class Consciousness

   Adorno, T. [1959] Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, tr. 2001

   Adorno, T. [1963] Problems of Moral Philosophy, tr. 2000

   Bonefeld, Werner and Psychopedis, Kosmas (eds) (2005) Human Dignity: Social Autonomy and the Critique of Capitalism

   Adorno, T. [1969] 'Subject and object', in A. Arato E. Gebhardt (eds) The Essential Frankfurt School Reader 1982, also in H.W. Pickford (ed.) Critical Models: Interventions and Catchwords 2005

 

@ Humboldt (Wilhelm von) and Marx

   Humboldt, W. von [1792] The Limits of State Action [Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Grenzen der Wirksamkeit des Staates zu bestimmen] (previously translated under the title The Sphere and Duties of Government), also available online

   Geuss, R. (2001) History and Illusion in Politics, pp. 80ff.

   Chomsky, N. (1970) 'Notes on anarchism', in D. Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice

 

@ Romanticism and Marx

   Lukes, S. (1973) Individualism, ch. 10 'Self-development'

   Levin, M. (1974) 'Marxism and romanticism: Marx's debt to German conservatism', Political Studies 22(4)

   Löwy, M. (1987) 'The Romantic and the Marxist critique of modern civilization', Theory and Society 16(6)

   White, J.D. (1996) Karl Marx and the Intellectual Origins of Dialectical Materialism

   Löwy, M. and Satre, R. (2002) Romanticism Against the Tide of Modernity

 

@ Fichte and Marx

   Fichte [1792] Attempt at a Critique of all Revelation, CUP, 1978, see p. 73 (for idea of Entäusserung)

   Fichte [1794] Science of Knowledge, CUP, 1982, see p. 154 (for idea of Entäusserung)

   Garaudy, R. [1965] Karl Marx: The Evolution of his Thought, tr. 1967

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, pp. 300-2

   Mader, J. (1968) Fichte, Feuerbach, Marx (in German)

   Becker, F.J.E. (1972) Freiheit und Entfremdung bei Fichte, Marx und in der kritischen Theorie, University of Cologne dissertation

   Rockmore, T. (1980) Fichte, Marx and the German Philosophical Tradition

   Shen, Z. (1997) 'Johann Fichte and Karl Marx', Social Sciences in China 18(2)

 

@ Hegel and Marx: general

   (For more specific aspects see '~ Hegel: Marx's critiques of Hegel's philosophy as a whole', '~ Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right (1843)', '~ Method of Capital: Hegelian interpretations', '~ Logic of essence in Capital' and '~ Logic of the concept in Capital')

   (For alienation in Hegel vs. in Marx see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation and externalisation in Hegel')

   (See the Hegel's critics page of the Marxist Internet Archive for a collection of online appreciations and critiques of Hegel by Marxists)

   Engels, F. [1886] Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy

   Cooper, R. (1925) The Logical Influence of Hegel on Marx

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory

   Kojève, A. [1947] Introduction to the Reading of Hegel, tr. J.H. Nichols 1969

   Lukacs, Georg [1948] The Young Hegel: Studies in the Relations Between Dialectics and Economics, tr. 1975, esp. chapter on 'Work and the problem of teleology'

   Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Habermas, Jürgen [1968] Knowledge and Human Interests, ch. 2

   Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973

   Althusser, L. [1965] For Marx, tr. 1969

   Althusser, L. [1970] 'Marx's relation to Hegel' in his Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx 1972

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, ch. 6 'The standpoint of evaluation', also available online

   Boger, G. (1991) 'On the materialist appropriation of Hegel's dialectical method', Science and Socieety 55(1)

   Rosenthal, J. (1998) The Myth of Dialectics: Reinterpreting the Hegel-Marx Relation

   Burns, T. and Fraser, I. (eds) (2000) The Hegel-Marx Connection

   Fine, Robert (2001) 'The Marx-Hegel relationship: revisionist interpretations', Capital & Class 75

   Postone, Moishe (2003) 'Lukacs and the dialectical critique of capitalism', section 3, in R. Albritton and J. Simoulidis (eds) New Dialectics and Political Economy

   Cole, A. (2004) 'What Hegel's master/slave dialectic really means', Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 34(3)

   Levine, N. (2006) Divergent Paths: Hegel in Marxism and Engelsism

   Chitty, Andrew (2011) 'Hegel and Marx', in S. Houlgate and M. Baur (eds) A Companion to Hegel

 

@ Hegel: Marx's critiques of Hegel's philosophy as a whole

   (For Marx's critique of Hegel's political philosophy see , '~ Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right (1843)'

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, 'Critique of Hegel's dialectic'

   Marx and Engels [1844] The Holy Family. secs. on 'The mystery of speculative construction', 'Spirit and mass'

   Marx [1847] The Poverty of Philosophy, ch. 2 'The metaphysics of political economy', sec. 1 'The method'

   Marx [1873] Afterword to 1873 edition of Capital volume 1

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, chs. 4-6, available online

   McCarney, Joseph (1999) 'Hegel's legacy', Res Publica 5(2), reprinted in T. Burns and I. Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connection, 2000

   McCarney, Joseph (2009) '"The entire mystery": Marx's understanding of Hegel', in A. Chitty and M. McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosopy, also available online

 

@ Savigny (and the historical school of law): general

   (With thanks  to James Furner)

   Savigny, F.K. von (1802-03) Juristische Methodenlehre, (ed.) G. Wesenberg 1951 (Savigny's 1802-03 Marburg lecture notes)

   Savigny, F.K. von (1803) Abhandlung des Lehre vom Besitz, 2nd and subsequent editions as Das Recht des Besitzes, 7th (ed.) 1865, tr. E. Perry as Von Savigny's Treatise on Possession, or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law

   Hugo, G. (1809) Lehrbuch des Naturrechts als einer Philosophie des positiven Rechts, esp. introductory chapter on 'Juristische Anthropologie'

* Savigny, F.K. von (1814) Zum Beruf unser Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft, 3rd (ed.) 1840, tr. A. Hayward as On the Vocation of our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence 1831, extract in Lloyd, Introduction to Jurisprudence 1994

   Savigny, F.K. von (1815) 'Über den Zweck dieser Zeitschrift', Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft 1

   Savigny, F.K. von (1815-31) Geschichte des römischen Rechts im Mittelalter (Vol. 1 tr. E. Cathcart as The History of the Roman Law during the Middle Ages)

   Savigny, F.K. von (1840-49) System des heutigen Römischen Rechts, 8 vols. (Vol. 1 tr. W. Holloway as System of the Modern Roman Law, 1867; Vol. 2 tr. W. H. Rattigan as Jural Relations: or The Roman law of Persons as Subjects of Jural Relations, 1884) German, vol. 2 in English)

   Jhering, R. von (1852) Der Geist des Römischen Rechts, preface, tr.as 'The value of the Roman law to the modern world', Virginia Law Journal 4, pp. 453-464, 1880 law in Germany with Savignys' theory, and on Savigny's preoccupation with Roman jurists' method, summarised by Stein pp. 65-67)

   Kantorowicz, H. (1937) 'Savigny and the historical school of law', Law Quarterly Review 53, pp. 326-343

   Wieacker, F. (1952) Privatrechtsgeschichte der Neuzeit, 2nd ed.1967

   Allen, C.K. (1958) Law in the Making

   Jones, J. (1970) 'The historical school of law and codes', in his Historical Introduction to the Theory of Law

   Blühdorn, J. (1973) 'Natturrechtkritik und "Philosophie des Postiven Rechts" zur Begründung der Jurisprudenz als positiver Fachwissenshaft durch Gustav Hugo', Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 41, pp. 3-17

+ Pollack, E. (1979) Juripsrudence, section on Savigny

+ Stein, P. (1980) Legal Evolution: The Story of an Idea, ch. 3 'The German historical school of law'

+ Dias, R. (1985) Jurisprudence, section on Savigny

   Toews, J.E. (1989) 'The immanent genesis and transcendent goal of law: Savigny, Stahl and the ideology of the Christian German state', American Journal of Comparitive Law 37, pp. 139-169

   Whitman, J.Q. (1990) The Legacy of Roman Law in the German Romantic Era

+ Curzon, L.B. (1998) 'Savigny, the Volksgeist and historical jurisprudence', Student Law Review 23, pp. 54-56

 

@ Savigny on possession

   Savigny, F.K. von (1803) Abhandlung des Lehre vom Besitz, 2nd and subsequent editions as Das Recht des Besitzes, 7th (ed.) 1865, tr. E. Perry as Von Savigny's Treatise on Possession, or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law

   Brutti, M. (1976-77) 'L'intuizione della proprietà nel systema dui Savigny', Quaderni Fiorentini 5-6(1), pp. 41-103

   Kiefner, H. (1997) Ideal wird, was Natur war. Abhandlungen zur Privatrechtsgeschichte des späten 18. und des 19. Jahrhunderts

 

@ Savigny and Hegel

   (See 'A Hegel bibliography: 'Savigny and Hegel')

 

@ Savigny and the Young Hegelians

   (See also '~ Law in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   (For Gans and Savigny see '~ Gans')

   Ruge, A. [1841] 'Zur Characteristik Savignys', in his Zur neuesten Geschichte des Deutschen Geistes

   Toews, J.E. (1981) Hegelianism: The Path Toward Dialectical Humanism, 1805-1841, pp. 60-63, 109-111, 121ff., 244-247

 

@ Savigny and Marx, @ Niebuhr and Marx, Marx on the @ history of law

   (See also '~ Law in the early political writings')

   Marx [wr. Apr-Aug 1842] 'Philosophical manifesto of the Historical Law School', CW1 pp. 203-210

   Marx [Oct 1842] 'Debates on the law on theft of wood', CW1 pp. 224-263 (see section on customary right)

   Marx [wr. Jan 1844] Contribution to a Critique Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction

   Marx, Grundrisse, 'Precapitalist forms of production'

   Marx, Ethnographical Notebooks

   Vigouroux, C. (1965) 'Karl Marx et la législation forestière rhenane de 1842', Revue d'histoire économique et sociale 43

   Jaeger, H. (1967) 'Savigny et Marx', Archives de Philosophie du Droit 12, pp. 65-89

   Landau, P. (1973) 'Karl Marx und die Rechtsgeschichte', Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 41 formations')

   Kelley, D.R. (1978) 'The metaphysics of law: an essay on the very young Marx', American Historical Review 83

   Paul, W. (1978-79) 'Marx versus Savigny', Anales de la Catedra Francisco Suarez 18-19, pp. 271-320

   Levine, N. (1987) 'The German historical school of law and the origins of historical materialism', Journal of the History of Ideas 48

   Paul, W. (1974) Marxistische Rechtstheorie als Kritik des Rechts, section on wood theft article

 

@ Stahl

   Stahl, F.J. (1830-1837) Die Philosophie des Rechts nach geschichtlicher Ansicht, 3 vols.

   Stahl, F.J. [18??] 'Hegels Naturrecht und Philosophie des Geistes', in M. Riedel (ed.) Materialien zu Hegels Rechtsphilosophie 1975

   Wiegand, C. (1981) Über Friedrich Julius Stahl (1801-1862): Recht, Staat, Kirche

   Füssl (1988) Professor in der Politik: Friedrich Julius Stahl (1802-1861)

   Toews, J.E. (1989) 'The immanent genesis and transcendent goal of law: Savigny, Stahl and the ideology of the Christian German state', American Journal of Comparitive Law 37 (see part 3, 'Savigny and Stahl')

+ Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory, ch. 2 'The transcendent sovereign and the political theology of restoration' (esp. last section)

   Drucker, P.F. (2002) 'Friedrich Julius Stahl: his conservative theory of the state', Society 39(5)

 

@ Gans

   (Including Gans-Savigny relation)

   Gans, E. [1839] 'Über die Grundlage des Besitzes, eine Duplik', in H. Schröder (ed.) Eduard Gans: Philosophische Schriften

   Schröder, H. (1971) Eduard Gans: Philosophische Schriften

   Braun, J. (1981) 'Der Besitzrechtsstreit zwischen F. C. von Savigny und Eduard Gans - Idee und Wirklichkeit einer juristischen Kontroverse', Quaderni Fiorentini 9, reprinted in Braun's Judentum, Jurisprudenz und Philosophie 1997

   Waszek, N. (ed.) (1991) Eduard Gans (1979-1839): Hegelianer-Jude-Europäer. Texte und Documente

   Hoffheimer, M.H. (1995) Eduard Gans and the Hegelian Philosophy of Law

+ Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory, pp. 164-178

   Breckman, W. (2001) 'Eduard Gans and the crisis of Hegelianism', Journal of the History of Ideas 62(3)

   Bienenstock, M. Vormärz

   Rückert, J. (2002) 'Thibaut-Savigny-Gans: Der Streit zwischen "historischer" und "philosophischer" Rechtsschule' in Eduard Gans (1797-1839): Politischer Professor zwischen Restauration und Vormärz

   Blänker, R. Göhler, G., and Waszek, N. (eds) (2002) Eduard Gans (1797-1839). Politischer Professor zwischen Restauration und Vormärz

 

@ Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx, @ utopian socialism and Marx

   (See also '~ Utopianism and Marx')

   (See also A political philosophy bibliography: 'socialism and communism')

   Engels, F. [1843] 'The progress of social reform on the continent', in Marx and Engels Collected Works vol. 3, also available online

   Engels, F.

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, ch. 7

   Rihs, C. (1978) L'école des jeunes-Hégéliens et les penseurs socialistes français

   Gregory, D. (1983) 'What Marx and Engels knew of French socialism', Historical Reflections 10(1), Spring 1983

   Lovell, D.W. (1992) 'Socialism, utopianism and the utopian socialists', History of European Ideas 14(2)

   Levitas, R. (2004) 'Beyond bourgeois right: freedom, equality and utopia in Marx and Morris', The European Legacy 9(5)

   Leopold, D. (2005) 'The structure of Marx and Engels' considered account of utopian socialism', History of Political Thought 26(3)

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 5

 

@ Saint-Simon and Marx

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 271-277 'Marx and Saint-Simon'

 

@ Fourier and Marx

   Engels, F. [1843] 'The progress of social reform on the continent'

   Hess, M. [1843] 'Socialism and communism', review of L. von Stein, Der Sozialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreich, 1842, in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri, 2004

   Beecher, Jonathan (2001) Charles Fourier: The Visionary and his World, ch. 14 'Work in harmony'

 

@ Utopianism in Marx

   (See also '~ Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx')

   Harris, A.L. (1950) 'Utopian elements in Marx's thought', Ethics 60

   Molnar, T.S. (1972) Utopia: The Perennial Heresy

   Altman, A. (1981) 'Is Marxism utopia?', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8(4)

   Geoghegan, Vincent (1987) 'Marxism and utopianism', Utopian Studies 1

   Webb, D. (2000) Marx, Marxism and Utopia

   Geoghegan, Vincent [1987] Utopianism and Marxism, 2nd ed. 2008

 

@ Young Hegelians: general

   (See also Ralph Dumain's Young Hegelians bibliography)

* Stepelevich, L.S. (ed.) (1983) The Young Hegelians (texts by the major members of the group)

   Löwith, K. [1941] From Hegel to Nietzsche

   Brazill, W.J. (1970) The Young Hegelians

   Massey, J.A. (1978) 'The Hegelians, the Pietists, and the nature of religion', Journal of Religion, pp. 108-129 political form)

   Toews, J.E. (1980) Hegelianism: the Path toward Dialectical Humanism, 1805‑1841

   Jaeschke, W. [1986] Reason in Religion: The Foundations of Hegel's Philosophy of Religion, tr. 1990

+ Toews, J.E. (1993) 'Transformations of Hegelianism, 1805-1846', in Beiser (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

 

@ Young Hegelians: politics

   Engels [1886] Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy

   Macintosh, R. (1903) Hegel and Hegelianism

   Stuke, H. (1963) Philosophie der Tat. Studien zur Verwirklichung der Philosophie bei den Junghegelianern und wahren Sozialisten

   Rambaldi, E. (1966) Le origini della sinistra hegeliania, Nuova Italia, Florence

   Cesa, C. (1972) Studi sulla sinistra hegeliana

   Sass, H.-M. (ed.) (1978) 'Feuerbach, Marx and the Left Hegelians', special issue of Philosophical Forum 8(2-4) some articles available online

   Massey, M.C. (1983) Christ Unmasked: The Meaning of the 'Life of Jesus' in German Politics

   Mah, H. (1987) The End of Philosophy, the Origin of 'Ideology': Karl Marx and the Crisis of the Young Hegelians

   Essbach, W. (1988) Fie Junghegelianer. Soziologie enier Intellecktuellengruppe, München

   Hellman, R.J. (1990) Berlin - The Red Room and White Beer: The 'Free' Hegelian Radicals in the 1840s

   Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory

   Moggach, D. (ed.) (2006) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School

 

@ Young Hegelians and Marx: general

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism Vol. 1, ch. 6

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution, part 2 ch. 1

   Hook, S. (1950) From Hegel to Marx, 2nd ed. 1962, chs. 1-4, 7-8

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, chs. 2-7

   McLellan, D. (1969) The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx

   Habermas, Jürgen [1985] The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, ch. 3

+ Nola, R. (1993) 'The Young Hegelians, Feuerbach and Marx', in R.C. Solomon and K.M. Higgins (eds) Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume 6: The Age of German Idealism

   Wood, A.W. (1993) 'Hegel and Marxism', in Beiser (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

   Brudney, D. (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy

 

@ Heine and Marx

   Marcuse, L. (1955) 'Heine and Marx', Germanic Review 30

   Reeves, N. (1973) 'Heine and the young Marx', Oxford German Studies 7

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, ch. 2

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 26-32

 

@ Strauss

   Strauss, D.F. [1835] The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, tr. George Eliot, (ed.) P. Hodgson 1994

   Strauss, D.F. [1837] In Defense of My Life of Jesus against the Hegelians, tr. M.C. Massey 1983

   Harris, H. (1973) David Friedrich Strauss and his Theology

 

@ Cieszkowski and Marx

   Cieszkowski, A. [1839] 'Prolegomena to historiosophy', chs. 1 and 2 in A. Liebich (ed.) Selected Writings of August Cieszkowski 1979, also in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, ch. 5

   Liebich, A. (1979) Between Ideology and Utopia: The Politics and Philosophy of August Cieszkowski, Boston

 

@ Bauer and Marx

   (For the relation to Bauer in the Doctoral Dissertation specifically, see '~ Doctoral Dissertation')

   (For Marx's '~ On the Jewish Question', see that)

* Bauer, B. [Oct 1841] The Trumpet of the Last Judgement over Hegel, the Atheist and Antichrist, tr. L. Stepelevich, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, 1989. Two excerpts in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Bauer, B. [spring 1842] Die gute Sache der Freiheit und meine eigene Angelegenheit [The good cause of freedom and my own affair], Scientia Verlag, Aalen, 1972

   Bauer, B. [early 1843] The Jewish Problem, tr. H. Lederer, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 1958. Also  published as 'The capacity of present-day Jews and Christians to become free', Philosophical Forum, 8(2)-4, 1978. Abridged as 'The Jewish question' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Bauer, B. [Oct 1843] Das Entdeckte Christenthum, translated as An English Edition of Bruno Bauer's 1843 Christianity Exposed ed. P. Trejo 2002

   Bauer, B. [1877] Christ and the Caesars: The Origin of Christianity from Romanized Greek Culture, tr. F.E. Schacht 1998

   Löwith, K. (1949) Meaning in History, Chicago University Press, Chicago

   Sass, H.-M. (ed.) (1968) Bruno Bauer: Feldzüge der reinen Kritik [Campaigns of pure criticism], Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main (a collection of Bauer's articles from 1841 to 1844)

   Barnikol, E. (1972) Bruno Bauer: Studien und Materialien, eds. P. Reimer and H.-M. Sass, van Gorcum, Essen

   Rosen, Z. (1977) Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx: The Influence of Bruno Bauer on Marx's Thought

   Sass, H.-M. (1978) 'Bruno Bauer's critical theory', Philosophical Forum 8

   Pepperle, I. (1978) Junghegelianische Geschichtsphilosophie und Kunsttheorie, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin derives from this a politically revolutionary doctrine of autonomy)

* Moggach, D. (1989) 'Absolute spirit and universal self-consciousness: Bruno Bauer's revolutionary subjectivism', Dialogue: Canadian Philosophy Review, 28(2), pp. 235-256

+ Stepelevich, L. (1989) 'Translator's introduction' to Bruno Bauer, The Trumpet of the Last Judgement over Hegel, the Atheist and Antichrist, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, 1989 although permeated by a cold-warrior tone)

   Moggach, D. (1992) 'Nation, Volk, Masse: left-Hegelian perspectives on the rise of nationalism', History of European Ideas 15(1-3), pp. 339-345

   Waser, R. (1994) Autonomie des Selbstbewußtseins. Eine Untersuchung zum Verhältniss von Bruno Bauer und Karl Marx (1835-1843)

   Moggach, D. (1996) 'Bruno Bauer's political critique, 1840-41', Owl of Minerva 27(2), pp. 137-154

   Leopold, D. (1999) 'The Hegelian antisemitism of Bruno Bauer', History of European Ideas 25(4)

   Moggach, D. (2002) The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer

+ Moggach, D. (2002) 'Bruno Bauer', Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, available online

   Moggach, D. (2006) 'Republican rigorism and emancipation in Bruno Bauer', in D. Moggach (ed.) The New Hegelians: Philosophy and Politics in the Hegelian School

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2, see pp. 163-180

 

@ Ruge and Marx

   Ruge, A. [1840] 'Zur Kritik des gegenwärtigen Staats- und Volkerrechts', in G.W.F. Hegel. Philosophie des Rechts, ed. H. Reichelt, 1972

   Ruge, A. [1842] 'Hegel's Philosophy of Right and the politics of our times' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians

   Marx [Aug 1844] 'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform'' [Aug 1844], CW3 pp. 189-210

   Walter, S. (1995) Demokratisches Denken zwischen Hegel und Marx: die politische Philosophie Arnold Ruges, Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf

   Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory, ch. 7

 

@ Feuerbach: links

   Feuerbach internet archive is the best source of online Feuerbach texts in English

   Ralph Dumain's Feuerbach bibliography has some items not included here

   Ludwig-Feuerbach-Gesellschaft (Ludwig Feuerbach Society) website has links and a bibliography of recent German-language literature on Feuerbach

   International Society of Feuerbach Researchers website has some online articles on Feuerbach

 

@ Feuerbach: texts

   Feuerbach, L. [1828] 'Über die Vernunft' (doctoral dissertation) in Werke Vol. 1, (ed.) E. Thies, Frankfurt, 1975

   Feuerbach, L. [1828] Letter to Hegel, 22 November 1828, in C. Butler (ed.) Hegel: The Letters

   Feuerbach, L. [1830] Thoughts on Death and Immortality, tr. J. Massey, 1980

   Feuerbach, L. (1833) Geschichte der neuen Philosophie von Bacon von Verulam bis Benedikt Spinoza (History of Modern Philosophy from Bacon to Spinoza)

   Feuerbach, L. [1835] '"Die Philosophie des Rechts nach Geschichtliche Ansicht"' (Review of J. Stahl, The Philosophy of Right in Historical Perspective, Vol. 2)

   Feuerbach. L. [1837] Darstellung, Entwicklung und Kritik der Leibnitz'schen Philosophie (Presentation, Development and Critique of Leibniz's Philosophy)

   Feuerbach, L. (1838) Pierre Bayle

   Feuerbach, L. [1838] 'Zur Kritik der Christlichen oder "positiven" Philosophie' (review of J. Sengler, On the Essence and Meaning of Speculative Philosophy and Theology in the Present Time)

   Feuerbach, L. [1838] '"Die Idee der Freiheit und der begriff des Gedankens, von. Dr. K. Bayer"' (review of K. Bayer, The Idea of Freedom and the Concept of Thought)

   Feuerbach, L. [1839] 'Philosophie und Christentum' (rejection of H. Leo's attack on Hegel as unChristian; his last text to defend Hegelianism) Hegelian philosophy)

   Feuerbach, L. [1839] 'Towards a critique of Hegel's philosophy' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983, also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1840] 'Dr. Karl Bayer, Betrachtungen über den Begriff des sittlichen Geistes und über das Wesen der Tugend', in Gesammelte Werke Vol. 9 (Review of K. Bayer, Considerations on the Concept of Ethical Spirit and the Essence of Virtue)

   Feuerbach, L. [1841] The Essence of Christianity, esp. prefaces and introduction; also available online, the German text of the introduction, part 1 'The essential nature of man' is also available online

   Feuerbach, L. [1841] 'On "The Beginning of Philosophy"' (review of J.F. Reiff, The Beginning of Philosophy), in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1841??] 'The necessity of a reform of philosophy', in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1842] 'Provisional theses for the reform of philosophy', first published 1843, in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians, also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1843] Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, tr. M. Vogel 1966, reprinted with introduction by T. Wartenberg 1986; also in also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972, Hanfi translation available online

   Feuerbach, L. [1844] The Essence of Faith According to Luther: A Supplement to the Essence of Christianity, tr. M. Cherno 1967

   Feuerbach, L. [1845] The Essence of Religion

   Feuerbach, L. [1845] 'The Essence of Christianity in relation to The Ego and its Own', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), 1978, also available online (Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own)

   Feuerbach, L. [1851] Lectures on the Essence of Religion, tr. R. Manheim 1967, also available online (extracts)

   Feuerbach, L. [18??] 'Basic principles of the philosophy of the future', in M. Friedman (ed.) The Worlds Of Existentialism: A Critical Reader, 1964

   Hanfi, Z. (ed.) (1972) The Fiery Brook: Selected Writings of Ludwig Feuerbach, tr. Z. Hanfi

 

@ Feuerbach's philosophy in general

   Chamberlain, W.B. (1941) Heaven Wasn't His Destination: The Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

   Althusser, L. [1960] 'Feuerbach's philosophical manifestoes', in his For Marx

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, ch. 4

* Kamenka, E. (1970) The Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

* Wartofsky, M. (1977) Feuerbach, esp. chs. 7,11

+ Massey, J.A. (1980) Introduction', to Feuerbach, Thoughts on Death and Immortality, University of California Press

   Toews, J.E. (1980) Hegelianism, ch. 10

+ Wartenberg, T. (1986) 'Introduction' to Ludwig Feuerbach, Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, ed. T. Wartenberg

   Wilson, C.A. (1989) Feuerbach and the Search for Otherness

   Philonenko, A. (1990) La jeunesse de Feuerbach. 1828-1841. Introduction à ses positions fondamentales, Vol. 1, Paris

   Johnston, L.W. (1995) Between Transcendence and Nihilism: Species-Ontology in the Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

 

@ Feuerbach and Hegel

   Feuerbach, L. [1828] Letter to Hegel, in Hegel: The Letters, tr. C. Butler and C. Seiler 1984, pp. 547-550

   Feuerbach, L. [1839] 'Towards a critique of Hegel's philosophy' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983, also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1841] The Essence of Christianity, ch. 23, also available online

   Feuerbach, L. [1843] 'Provisional theses for the reform of philosophy' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians, also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, L. [1843] Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, tr. M. Vogel, (ed.) T. Wartenberg 1986, also in Z. Hanfi (ed.) The Fiery Brook 1972, Hanfi translation available online (§§1-31 are on Hegel)

   Löwith, K. (1971) 'Mediation and immediacy in Hegel, Marx, and Feuerbach', in W.E. Steinkraus (ed.) New Studies in Hegel's Philosophy

   Wartofsky, M. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 6-7

   Williams, H.L. (1978) 'Feuerbach and Hegel', Idealistic Studies 8

   Dahlstrom, D. (1984) 'Marxist ideology and Feuerbach's critique of Hegel', Philosophical Forum 15

   Duquette, D. (1988) 'From disciple to antagonist: Feuerbach's critique of Hegel', Philosophy and Theology 3

 

@ Feuerbach and religion

   Glasse, J. (1972) 'Why did Feuerbach concern himself with Luther?', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 26

   Fiorenza, F.S. (1979) 'Feuerbach's interpretation of religion and Christianity', Philosophical Forum 11

   Wartofsky, M. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 8-10

   Dickey, L. (1993) 'Hegel on religion and philosophy', in Beiser (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

   Hipwell, V.B. (1993) 'Taking "things as they are": the basis of Ludwig Feuerbach's objection to the Christian religion', History of Political Thought 14(3)

   Thornton, S.P. (1996) 'Facing up to Feuerbach', International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 39(2)

   Van Harvey, A. (1996-97) 'The re-discovery of Ludwig Feuerbach', Free Inquiry 17(1)

   Van Harvey, A. (1997) Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion

 

@ Feuerbach's anthropology, species-being and anti-individualism in Feuerbach

   (See also '~ Feuerbach's political thought')

   Rotenstreich, N. (1972) 'Anthropology and sensibility', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 26

   Schmidt, A. (1973) Emanzipatorische Sinnlichkeit: Ludwig Feuerbachs anthropologischer Materialismus

   Massey, J.A. (1976) 'Feuerbach and religious individualism', Journal of Religion 54

   Wartofsky, M. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 11-12

   Christensen, K.R. (1985) 'Individuation and commonality in Feuerbach's "philosophy of man"', Interpretation 13(3)

   Braun, H.-J. et al. (eds) (1990) Ludwig Feuerbach und die Philosophie der Zukunft (Berlin)

 

@ Feuerbach's political thought, his humanism and civic humanism

   (For the Theses on Feuerbach, see '~ Praxis, Theses on Feuerbach',)

   Gordon, F.M. (1978) 'The contradictory nature of Feuerbachian humanism', Philosophical Forum 8

* Breckman, W. (1992) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and the political theology of restoration', History of Political Thought 13(3)

   Johnston, L.W. (1995) Between Transcendence and Nihilism: Species-Ontology in the Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

   Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 3 and pp. 196-220

 

@ Feuerbach and Marx

   (Including the 'true socialists')

   (For the Theses on Feuerbach, see '~ Theses on Feuerbach')

   Engels, F. [1888] Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, chs. 4-6

   Schuffenhauer, W. (1972) Feurbach und der junge Marx, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin

   Lukacs, Georg (1954) 'Zur philosophischen Entwicklung des jungen Marx', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 2(2), pp. 288ff.

   Rancières, J. [1965] 'The concept of critique and the critique of political economy', Theoretical Practice 1,2,6 (Jan 1971, Apr 1971, May 1972) economy in the 1844 manuscripts)

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 17, 20

   Gagern, M. (1971) 'The puzzling pattern of the Marxist critique of Feuerbach', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 11

   Sass, H.-M. (1983) 'The 'transition' from Feuerbach to Marx: a re-interpretation', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 26(2)

   Harvey, V.A. (1985) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and Karl Marx', in N. Smart et al. (eds) Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, sec. 8.2.1 'Inversion' (pp. 477-482)

* Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour, ch. 9, available online

   Breckman, W. (1992) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and the political theology of restoration', History of Political Thought 13(3)

   Andolfi, F. (2000) 'Feuerbach e i socialisti', La Societa degli Individui 9(3)

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2004) 'Religion and communism: Feuerbach, Marx and Bloch', The European Legacy 9(5)

   Wittmann, D. (2008) 'Les sources du concept d'aliénation', in E. Renault (ed.) Lire les Manuscrits de 1844

   Renault, E. (2011) 'Marx and Feuerbach on community and social relations' (unpublished)

 

@ Feuerbach and Stirner

   Feuerbach, L. [1845] 'The Essence of Christianity in relation to The Ego and its Own', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), 1978, also available online (Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own)

   Stirner, M. [1846??] 'Stirner's critics', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978, also available online (Stirner's response to the)

   Stepelevich, L.S. (1978) 'Max Stirner and Ludwig Feuerbach' Journal of the History of Ideas 39

   Gordon, F.M. (1978) 'The debate between Feuerbach and Stirner: an introduction', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), also available online

   Andolfi, F. (1996) 'Alle origini del dibattito su umanesimo e individualismo: la polemica tra Stirner e Feuerbach', Philo-Logica 5(9)

 

@ Stirner

   (The Egoist archive: Stirner collection is the best source of online resources on Stirner in English)

   (The lsr-projekt site has German-language texts of Stirner's main works)

   Stirner, M. [1842] 'Art and religion', in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians, also available online

   Stirner, M. [1844] The Ego and its Own, tr. S.T. Byington, ed. J.L. Walker 1907, or ed. S. Parker 1982, or ed. D. Leopold 1995; 1907 edition available online

   Stirner, M. [1846??] 'Stirner's critics', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978, also available online (Stirner's response to Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own)

   Stirner, M. Kleiner Schriften, Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, 1976

   Carer, P. (1911) 'Max Stirner, the predecessor of Nietzsche', The Monist 21

   Camus, A. [1951] The Rebel, section on Stirner (not included in Penguin Modern Classics edition)

   Arvon, H. (1954) Aux Sources de L'Existentialisme: Max Stirner

   McLellan, D. (1969) The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx, ch. 3 'Max Stirner', available online

   Carroll, J. (1974) Break-out from the Crystal Palace: The Anarcho-Psychological Critique; Stirner, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky

   Paterson, R.W.K. (1971) The Nihilistic Egoist: Max Stirner

   Clark, J.P. (1976) Max Stirner's Egoism

   Stepelevich, L.S. (1985) 'Stirner as Hegelian' Journal of the History of Ideas 46

   Thomson, E. (1991) Feuerbach, Marx and Stirner: An Investigation into Althusser

   Browning, G. (1999) 'Stirner's critique of Hegel: Geist and the egoistic exorcist', in his Hegel and the History of Political Philosophy

   De Ridder, W. (2008) 'Max Stirner, Hegel and the Young Hegelians: a reassessment', History of European Ideas 34(3)

 

@ Stirner and Marx

   (See also '~ German Ideology', '~ Critique of morality and humanism in Marx', '~ Fetishism and hypsotatisation')

   Lobkowicz, N. (1969) 'Karl Marx and Max Stirner' in F.J. Adelmann (ed.) Demythologizing Marxism

   Thomas, P. (1975) 'Karl Marx and Marx Stirner', Political Theory 3(2)

   Dematteis, PB. (1976) Individuality and the Social Organism: The Controversy between Max Stirner and Karl Marx

   Arvon, H. (1978) 'Concerning Marx's "epistemological break"', Philosophical Forum 8

   Thomas, P. (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists, ch. 3

   Ferguson, K. (1982) 'Saint Max revisited: a reconsideration of Max Stirner', Idealistic Studies 12(3)

   Derrida, J. (1994) Spectres of Marx, chs. 4-5

 

@ Hess and Marx

   (With thanks to James Furner)

   Hess, M. [1843] 'The philosophy of the act', in A. Fried and R. Saunders (eds) Socialist Thought: A Documentary History 1964, also available online

   Hess, M. [1843] 'Socialism and communism', review of L. von Stein, Der Sozialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreich, 1842, in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri, 2004

   Hess, M. [1843, published 1845] 'On the essence of money', in J. Kovesi, Values and Evaluations: Essays on Ethics and Ideology 1998, also available online

   Hess, M. [1844] 'On the socialist movement in Germany', in his Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850

   Hess, M. [1844] 'A communist credo: questions and answers', in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri, 2004

   Hess, M. [1845] 'The recent philosophers' in L. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Hess, M. (1921) Sozialistische Aufsätze 1841-1847, ed. T. Zlocisti

   Hess, M. (1961) Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850, 2nd ed. 1980

   Hess, M. (2004) The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri

* Lukacs, Georg [1926] 'Moses Hess and the problems of idealist dialectics', in his Political Writings 1919-1929, 1973, also available online

   Mielcke, K. (1931) Deutsche Fruhsozialismus. Gesellschaft und Geschichte in den Schriften Wilhelm Weitling und Moses Hess

   Goitein, I. (1931) Probleme der Gesellschaft und der Staates bei Moses Hess

   Hook, S. (1934) 'Karl Marx and Moses Hess', New International 1(5), also available online

   Cornu, A. (1934) Moses Hess et la Gauche Hegelienne

   Silberner, E. (1951) Moses Hess, An Annotated Bibliography

   Weiss, J. (1960) Moses Hess, Utopian Socialist

   Carlebach, J. (1973) 'The problem of Moses Hess's influence on the Young Marx', Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 18(1)

   Frei, B. (1977) 'Hess und Marx', in Im Schatten von Karl Marx. Moses Hess – Hundert Jahre nach seinem Tode

   Lange, E.M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit, pp. 96-105

   Avineri, A. (1981) The Making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State, ch. 3 'Moses Hess'

   Rosen, Z. (1983) Moses Hess und Karl Marx: Ein Beitrag zur Entstehung der Marxschen Theorie

   Avineri, S. (1985) Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism

   Stepelevich, L.S. (1989) 'Moses Hess: prophet of communism and zionism', Journal of the History of Philosophy 27 (3)

* Kovesi, J. (1998) 'Moses Hess, Marx and money', in his Values and Evaluations: Essays on Ethics and Ideology

   Koltun-Fromm, K. (2001) Moses Hess and Modern Jewish Identity

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution from Kant to Marx, ch. 3

   Bensussan, Gerard (2004) Moses Hess: la philosophie, le socialisme (1836-1845)

   Wittmann, D. (2008) 'Les sources du concept d'aliénation', in E. Renault (ed.) Lire les Manuscrits de 1844

   Renault, E. (2011) 'Marx and Feuerbach on community and social relations' (unpublished)

 

@ Proudhon and Marx

   (For a fuller bibliography on Proudhon see Dana Ward's Proudhon bibliography)

   Marx, K. (1847) The Poverty of Philosophy

   Proudhon, P.J. [1840] What is Property?

   Proudhon, P.J. [1846] The System of Economic Contradictions or the Philosophy of Poverty

   Jackson, J.H. (1957) Marx, Proudhon, and European Socialism

   Haubtmann, P. (1980) Le Philosophie Sociale de P.J. Proudhon

 

@ Marx's @ early development as a whole (1837-46)

   (Work not focusing on the Young Hegelians or on specific texts)

   (For development of Marx's specifically political views, see '~ Early political writings as a whole (1839-46)')

   Macmurray, J. (1935) 'The early development of Marx's thought' in J. Lewis, K. Polanyi and D. Kitchin (eds) Christianity and the Social Revolution development)

   Adams, H. (1940) Karl Marx in His Earlier Writings, 2nd ed. 1965

* Cornu, A. (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, PUF, Paris, Vol. 2

   Althusser, L. [1965] For Marx, chs. 1-2

   Garaudy, R. [1965] Karl Marx: The Evolution of his Thought, tr. 1967

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

   Dupré, L. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism, ch. 4 'Marx's critique of Hegel's philosophy of the state'

* McLellan, D. (1970) Marx before Marxism

   O'Malley, J. (1970) 'Introduction' to K. Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th (ed.) 1975, ch. 2

   Howard, D. (1972) The Development of the Marxian Dialectic

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Monz, H. et al. (1973), Der unbekannte junge Marx, Neue Studien zur Entwicklung des Marxschen Denkens 1835-1847

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1975) Critique of Earth

+ Colletti, L. (1975) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx: Early Writings, ed. Colletti

   van der Hoeven, J. (1976) Karl Marx: The Roots of his Thought

   Oizerman, T.I. [1977] The Making of the Marxist Philosophy

* Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, chs. 2-8

   Markus, G. (1980) 'Four forms of critical theory: some theses on Marx's intellectual development', Thesis Eleven 1

   Sherover-Marcuse, E. (1986) Emancipation and Consciousness : Dogmatic and Dialectical Perspectives in the Early Marx

   Cingoli, M. (2001) Il primo Marx, 1835-1841

 

@ Early political writings as a whole (1842-46)

   (For work on particular texts and topics see below)

   Gurvitch, G. (1948) 'La sociologie du jeune Marx', Cahiers Internationales de Sociologie 4, reprinted in his La Vocation actuelle de la sociologie 1950

   Voegelin, E. (1950) 'The formation of the Marxian revolutionary idea', Review of Politics 12(3)

   McCoy, C.N.R. (1954) 'The logical and the real in political theory: Plato, Aristotle and Marx', American Political Science Review 48

   Cornu, A. (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et leur oeuvre, Vol. 2 Du libéralisme démocratique au communisme

* Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   McLellan, D. (1970) Marx before Marxism, chs. 3-6

   Löwy, M. (1970) La theorie de la revolution chez le jeune Marx

+ O'Malley, J. (1970) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley, section 3

   Hunt, R.N. (1974) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels, Vol. 1: Marxism and Totalitarian Democracy,1818-1850

   Teeple, G. (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847

   Sherover-Marcuse, E. (1986) Emancipation and Consciousness: Dogmatic and Dialectical Perspectives in the Early Marx

   Berki, R.N. (1990) 'Through and through Hegel: Marx's road to communism', Political Studies 38

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, ch. 5

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing

 

@ State in the early political writings (1837-46)

   Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right

   On the Jewish Question, part 1

   The German Ideology [1845] ch. 1 'Feuerbach' in Collected Works Vol. 5: pp. 27-37, 41-49, 89-92, 76-81, 329-330 or (ed.) C.J Arthur, 1974: pp. 39-48, 48-57, 79-81, 82-86, 106-107

   McGovern, A.F. (1970) 'The young Marx on the state', Science & Society 34(4), reprinted in J. Cunningham Wood (ed.) Karl Marx's Economics: Critical Assessments, Volume 1, 1988 1842-46 political writings)

   Sayer, D. (1985) 'The critique of politics and political economy: capitalism, communism and the state in Marx's writings of the mid-1840s', Sociological Review 33(2)

 

@ Law in the early political writings (1837-46)

   (See also  '~ Law in Marx: general')

   (For Marx's critique of human rights see '~ Rights and Marx')

   (For relations to his law teachers see '~ Savigny and Marx', '~ Gans')

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1972) Critique of Heaven, ch. 3

   Guastini, R. (1972) ?? in G. Tarello (ed.) Materiali per una storia della cultura giuridica, Genoa, pp. 349-515

   Schefold, C. (1972) Die Rechtsphilosophie des jungen Marx von 1842

   Hirst, P.Q. (1972) 'Marx and Engels on law, crime and morality', Economy and Society 1(1) historical materialist (1845 on))

   Guastini, R. (1974) Marx dall filosofia del diritto alla scienza della società: il lessico giuridico marxismo, 1842-1851

   Paul, W. (1974) Marxistische Rechtstheorie als Kritik des Rechts

   Szabo, I. (1981) Karl Marx und das Recht (see chapters on early Marx)

   Chen, X. (1983) 'An inquiry into Marx's early views on philosophy of law and his early legal thinking', Social Sciences in China 4(2)

   Menet, E. (1987) 'Freiheit und Entfremdung: Zur Philosophie des Rechts bei Marx und Hegel' Studia-Philosophica Supp. 13

   Kain, P.J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, ch. 1 sec. 1

   Taiwo, O. (1996) Legal Naturalism: A Marxist Theory of Law, ch. 1

 

@ Letter to his father (1837)

   Kelley, D.R. (1978) 'The metaphysics of law: an essay on the very young Marx', American Historical Review 83

   Mah, H.E. (1986) 'Karl Marx in love: The enlightenment, romanticism and Hegelian theory in the young Marx', History of European Ideas 7(5)

 

@ Doctoral Dissertation (and preparatory notebooks) (1839-41): general

   (General commentaries and commentaries that focus on the materialism/idealism issue)

   Bailey, C. (1928) 'Karl Marx on Greek atomism', The Classical Quarterly 22, pp. 205-6

   Mins, H.F. (1948) 'Marx's doctoral dissertation', Science & Society 12(1)

   Mehring, F. (1955) 'La thèse de Karl Marx sur Democrite et Epicure' La Nouvelle Critique 61

   Cornu, A. (1955) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, Vol. 1, ch. 3

   Sannwald, R. (1957) Marx und die Antike

   Hillmann, G. (1966) Marx und Hegel

   Livergood, N. (1967) Activity in Marx's Philosophy, The Hague

   Gabaude, J.-M. (1970) Le Jeune Marx et le matérialisme antique

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1972) Critique of Heaven, chs. 4-9

   Sass, H.-M. (1978) 'The concept of revolution in Marx's dissertation (the non-Hegelian origin of Karl Marx's early concept of dialectics)', Philosophical Forum 8

   Baranovitch, L. (1978) 'Two appendices to a doctoral dissertation: some light on the origin of Karl Marx's dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the Young Hegelians', Philosophical Forum 8

   Lange, E. et al. (1983) Die Promotion von Karl Marx. Jena 1841. Eine Quellenedition

   Baranovitch, L. (1984) 'German idealism, Greek materialism and the young Marx', International Philosophical Quarterly, Sep. 1984

   Fenves, P. (1986) 'Marx's thesis on two Greek atomists and the post-Kantian interpretations', Journal of the History of Ideas, 47(3), Jul-Sep 1986

   Thomas, P. (1988) 'Nature and artifice in Marx', History of Political Thought 9(3)

   Murray, P. (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge, ch. 1

   Balaban, O. (1989) 'The hermeneutics of the young Marx: according to Marx's approach to the Philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus', Diogenes 37

   McCarthy, G.E. (1990) Marx and the Ancients

   Stanley, J.L. (1995) 'The Marxism of Marx's doctoral dissertation', Journal of the History of Philosophy 33(1)

   Schafer, P.M. (2003) 'The young Marx on Epicurus: dialectical atomism and human freedom', in D.R. Gordon (ed) Epicurus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance

 

@ Doctoral dissertation (and preparatory notebooks): political interpretations

   (These interpretations usually focus on notebook 6 of the preparatory Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy (on Aristotelianism and Platonism), on the parallel note on Hegelianism in the Doctoral Dissertation, and on the appendix to the Doctoral Dissertation (on Plutarch))

   Sass, H.M. (1978) 'The concept of revolution in Marx's dissertation', Philosophical Forum 8, c. pp. 141-142

   Baranovitch, L. (1978) 'Two appendices to a doctoral dissertation: some new light on the origin of Karl Marx's dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the Young Hegelians', Philosophical Forum 8, pp. 219-240

   Teeple, G. (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847, ch. 1

   Jeannot, T.M. (1994) 'After "The Darkness at Noon": a biographical study of Marxism as critical theory' International Journal of Social Economics, 21(2), pp. 81-102

   Breckman, W. (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory, ch. 7, section on the Doctoral Dissertation

   McIvor, M. (2008) 'The Young Marx and German Idealism: revisiting the Doctoral Dissertation', Journal of the History of Philosophy 46(3)

 

@ Rheinische Zeitung articles (1842-43)

   (And other contemporary political writings)

   (For the idea of law in these articles, see '~ Right and law in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   'Comments on the latest Prussian censorship' [Jan-Feb 1842], CW1 pp. 109-131

   'Debates on freedom of the press' [Apr 1842], CW1 pp. 132-181

   'Philosophical manifesto of the Historical Law School' [Apr-Aug 1842], CW1 pp. 203-210

   'The leading article in no. 179 of the Kölinische Zeitung' [Jul 1842], CW1 pp. 184-202

   'The divorce bill' [Dec 1842], CW1 pp. 307-310

   Letter to Ruge of 13 March 1843, CW1 pp. 398-400

   Pascal, R. (1942?) Karl Marx: His Apprenticeship to Politics

   Cornu, A. (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, PUF, Paris, Vol. 2, ch. 1

   Kamenka, E. (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, part 1 'The primitive ethic of Karl Marx', also available online

   Vigouroux, C. (1965) 'Karl Marx et la législation forestière rhenane de 1842', Revue d'histoire économique et sociale 43

   McGovern, A.F. (1969) 'Marx's first political writings: the Rheinsiche Zeitung, 1842-43', in F.J. Adelman (ed.) Demythologizing Marxism

   Draper, H. (1971) Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Vol. 1: State and Bureaucracy, chs. 1-2

   Howard, D. (1972) The Development of the Marxian Dialectic, ch. 2

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1975) Critique of Earth, chs. 2-3

   Lubasz, H. (1976) 'Marx's initial problematic: the problem of poverty', Political Studies 24(1)

   Lascoumes, Pierre and Zander, Hartwig (1984) Marx:  du "vol de bois" à la critique du droit.  Karl Marx à la"Gazette rhénane" naissance d'une méthode.  Edition critique de "Débats sur la loi relative au vol de bois" et "Justification du correspondant de la Moselle"

    Hardt, H. (2000) 'Communication is freedom: Karl Marx on press freedom and censorship', Javnost - The Public 7(4)

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution from Kant to Marx, pp. 237-275 'Fighting for freedom with pinpricks'

   Chitty, Andrew (2006) 'The basis of the state in the Marx of 1842', in D. Moggach (ed.) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School

 

@ Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State ('Kreuznach manuscript') (1843)

   (Including comparisons between Hegel and the early Marx on civil society)

   (For particular topics see '~ Modern state', '~ Separation of state and ~ civil society' and '~ Democracy in the early Marx')

   Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right [1843]

   Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction [1843-44]

   Adams, H. (1940) Karl Marx in His Earlier Writings, 2nd ed. 1965, ch. 4

   Hyppolite, J. [1947] 'The Hegelian conception of the state and its critique by Marx', in his Studies on Hegel and Marx

   Lapine, N. [1959] 'La première critique approfondie la philosophie de Hegel par Marx', Recherches internationales à la lumière du Marxisme', Cahier no. 19 (Originally published in Russian; Teeple 280: argues that CHPR mnarked Marx's passage from idealism to materialism)

   Dupré, L. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism, ch. 4 'Marx's critique of Hegel's philosophy of the state'

   Avineri, S. (1966) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right' in its systematic setting', Cahiers de l'Institut de Science Economique Appliqué, Série Philosophie - Sciences Sociales - Economie, August 1966, pp. 45-81 270: a comprehensive expositon of CHPR)

   Avineri, S. (1967) 'The Hegelian origins of Marx's political thought', Review of Metaphysics 21(1)

   Lefebvre, H. (1968) The Sociology of Marx, London, pp. 123 ff.

   Avineri, S. (1968) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought, ch. 1 ' Hegel's political philosophy reconsidered'

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, ch. 18 'Civil society'

* O'Malley, J. (1970) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley

   O'Malley, J. (1970) 'Methodology in Karl Marx', Review of Politics 32(2)

   Berki, R.N. (1971) 'Perspectives in the Marxian critique of Hegel's political philosophy', in Z.A. Pelczynski (ed.) Hegel's Political Philosophy

   Colletti, L. (1975) 'Introduction' to Marx, Early Writings, ed. L. Colletti

   Mikkelsen, J.M. (1981) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's Rechtphilosophie', Auslegung 8(3)

   Benhabib, S. (1981) 'The "logic" of civil society: a reconsideration of Hegel and Marx', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8 (2)

   Liebich, A. (1982) 'On the origins of a Marxist theory of bureaucracy in the Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right'', Political Theory 10(1)

   Wolff, M. [1984] 'Hegel's organicist theory of the state', in R. Pippin and O. Höffe (eds.) Hegel on Ethics and Politics 2004

   Campbell, D. (1985) 'Rationality, democracy, and freedom in Marxist critiques of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Inquiry 28(1)

* Duquette, D. (1989) 'Marx's idealist critique of Hegel's theory of society and politics', Review of Politics 51(2)

   Berki, R.N. (1990) 'Through and through Hegel: Marx's road to communism', Political Studies 38

   Jackson, M.W. (1990) 'Marx's "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right"', History of European Ideas

   Planinc, Z. (1991) 'Family and civil society in Hegel's Philosophy of Right', History of Political Thought, 12(2)

   Depew, D.J. (1992) 'The polis transfigured: Aristotle's Politics and Marx's Critique of Hegel's "Philosophy of Right"', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution from Kant to Marx, pp. 275-336 'The roads of exile'

   Cristi, R. (2006) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: a critique', in D. Moggach (ed.) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2

 

@ On the Jewish Question (1843)

   (Only discussions of On the Jewish Question as a whole here)

   (For particular topics see '~ Modern state', '~ Judaism and Marx', '~ Separation of state and ~ civil society', '~ French Revolution in Marx', '~ Rights and Marx', '~ Individual, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx', '~ Stateless democracy, withering away of the state')

   Bauer, B. [1843] 'the Jewish problem', in L.S. Stepelevich (ed.) The Young Hegelians: An Anthology, 1983

   Bauer, B. [1843] 'The capacity of the present-day jews and Christians to become free', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978

   Marx, On the Jewish Question [1843]

   Peled, Y. (1992) 'From theology to sociology: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx on the question of Jewish emancipation', History of Political Thought 13(3), also available online

   Kouvelakis, S. (2005) 'The Marxian critique of citizenship: for a rereading of On the Jewish Question', South Atlantic Quarterly 104(4)

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 3

 

@ Separation of state and @ civil society

   (See also '~ Modern state')

   (For overcoming of this see '~ Stateless democracy, withering away of the state')

   (For this in relation to individual's identity as private/public person, see '~ Individual, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx')

   On the Jewish Question [1843], part 1

   'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform'' [Aug 1844], CW3 pp. 189-210

   Löwith, K. (1967) From Hegel to Nietzsche pt. 2 ch. 1 'The problem of bourgeois society'

   Thomas, P. (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists, RKP, pp. 56-64

   Wood, E.M. (1981) 'The separation of the economic and the political in capitalism', New Left Review 127, revised as ch. 1 of her Democracy Against Capitalism

 

@ French Revolution in Marx

   On the Jewish Question

   Furet, F. [1986] Marx and the French Revolution, tr. 1988

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, pp. 337-352 'Conclusion: self-criticism of the revolution'

 

@ Democracy in the early Marx

   (See also '~ Post-revolutionary democracy', '~ Stateless democracy')

   Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right [1843], two passages on democracy (Colletti (ed.) Early Writings pp. 87-90, 185-91; Marx and Engels Collected Works Vol. 5 pp. 29-32, 115-21; Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right ed. J. O'Malley pp. 29-33, 115-121)

   'Letters to Ruge from the Franco-German Yearbook' [Mar-Sep 1843], CW3 pp. 133-146, see first letter

   'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform'' [Aug 1844], CW3 pp. 189-210

   Hunt, R.N. (1974) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels, Vol. 1: Marxism and Totalitarian Democracy,1818-1850

   Fischer, N. (1981) 'Marx's early concept of democracy and the ethical bases of socialism', in J.P. Burke et als. (eds) Marxism and the Good Society

   Luc, L.-P. (1982) 'Le concept de democratie dans la critique du droit politique Hegelien', Philosophiques 9

   Campbell, D. (1985) 'Rationality, democracy, and freedom in Marxist critiques of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Inquiry 28

   Kouvelakis, S. (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, pp. 275-336 'Fighting for freedom with pinpricks'

   Pogrebinschi, T. (2007) 'Democracy against law: A Marxian standpoint', paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, availableon line

 

@ Politics and the political in Marx

   Arendt, Hannah (1958) The Human Condition, section on 'Action'

   Arendt, A. (1963) On Revolution, chapter on 'The Lost Revolutionary Tradition'

   Megill, A. (2001) Karl Marx: The Burden of Reason. Why Marx Rejected Politics and the Market

 

@ Judaism and Marx

   On the Jewish Question [1843], esp. part 2

   The Holy Family [1844], 'The Jewish Question no. 3', in CW4 106-124

   Avineri, S. (1964) 'Marx and Jewish emancipation', Journal of the History of Ideas 25(3)

   Wistrich, R.S. (1976) Revolutionary Jews: From Marx to Trotsky

   Carlebach, J. (1978) Karl Marx and the Radical Critique of Judaism

   Hirsch, H. (1980) Marx und Moses: Karl Marx zur 'Judenfrage' und zu Juden

   Wolfson, M. (1982) Marx: Economist, Philosopher, Jew Trotsky

   Blanchard, W.H. (1984) 'Karl Marx and the Jewish question', Political Psychology 5(3)

   Maidan, M. (1987) 'Marx on the Jewish question: a meta-critical analysis', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 33(1)

   Fischman, D. (1989) 'The Jewish question', Polity 21(4)

   Fischman, D. (1991) Political Discourse in Exile: Karl Marx and the Jewish Question

   Rose, P.L. (1992) German Question / Jewish Question: Revolutionary Anti-Semitism from Kant to Wagner

   Peled, Y. (1992) 'From theology to sociology: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx on the question of Jewish emancipation', History of Political Thought 13(3) be privatised)

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2, see pp. 163-180

 

@ Religion: Marx's critique

   (For Judaism see '~ Judaism and Marx')

   (See also '~ Money, capital and God', '~Religious and mythological themes in Marx's thought')

   MacIntyre, A. (1955) Marxism: An Interpetation, revised as Marxism and Christianity, 1968, 2nd ed. 1995

   Wackenheim, C. (1963) La faillite de la religion d'après Karl Marx

   Lobkowicz, N. (1964) 'Marx's attitude towards religion', Review of Politics 26(3), reprinted in Lobkowicz (ed.) Marx and the Western World 1967

   Aptheker, H. (1968) Marxism and Christianity

   Post, W. (1969) Kritik der Religion bei Karl Marx

   Gollwitzer, H. (1970) The Christian Faith and the Marxist Criticism of Religion

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Schuller, P.M. (1974) 'Karl Marx's atheism', Science & Society 39

   Clarkson, K.L. and Hawkin, D.J. (1978) 'Karl Marx on religion: the influence of Bruno Bauer and Ludwig Feuerbach on his thought and its implications for the Christian-Marxist dialogue', Scottish Journal of Theology 31-555)

   Ling, T. (1980) Karl Marx and Religion: In Europe and India

   Woznicki, A.N. (1981) 'Marx on religious alienation', Dialectics and Humanism 8

   Oniang'o, C. (1982) 'A theory of religion, ideology and utopia in Marx', Philosophy and Social Action 8

   Dupre, L. (1984) 'Religion as alienation, ideology, and utopia in Marx', Logos 5

   Cloeren, H.J. (1987) 'Marx on religion: a new perspective', International Studies in Philosophy 19

   McLellan, D. (1987) Marxism and Religion: A Description and Assessment of the Marxist Critique of Christianity

   Raines, J. (ed.) (2002) Marx on Religion (an anthology)

 

@ Marxist sociology of religion

   McKown, D.B. (1975) The Classical Marxist Critiques of Religion: Marx, Engels, Lenin, Kautsky

   Goldstein, W.S. (2005) 'Religion and Marxism', special issue of Critical Sociology 31(1-2)

   Goldstein, W.S. (ed.) (2009) Marx, Critical Theory, and Religion: A Critique of Rational Choice

 

@ Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought

   (See also '~ Alienation/estrangement: sources for Marx's concept in religious thinkers')

   (See also '~ Money, capital and God', '~Religion: Marx's critique')

   (For the themes of idolatry and fetishism, see '~ Fetishism and idolatry')

   (For Judaic themes see '~ Judaism and Marx')

   Weil, S. [1933-38] 'On the contradictions of Marxism', in her Oppression and Liberty

   Lewis, J., Polanyi, K. and Kitchin, D.K. (eds) (1935) Christianity and the Social Revolution

   Löwith, K. [1941] From Hegel to Nietzsche

   Weil, S. [1943] 'Is there a Marxist doctrine?', in her Oppression and Liberty

   Löwith, K. (1949) Meaning in History: The Theological Implications of the Philosophy of History

   Jacobson, N.P. (1949) 'Marxism and religious naturalism', Journal of Religion 29(2)

   Tillich, P. (1952) Protestantische Vision

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972

   Parsons, H.L. (1964) 'The prophetic mission of Karl Marx', Journal of Religion 44(1)

   O'Neill, J. (1966) 'Marxism and mythology', Ethics 77(1)

   Aptheker, H. (1968) Marxism and Christianity

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Gilman, S. and Saeger, R. (1973) 'Marx and the religious: the Gnostic perspective', Philosophy Today 17

   van Leeuwen, A.T. (1975) Critique of Earth

   Sorel, G. (1976) Essays in Socialism and Philosophy

   Wessell, L.P. jr. (1979) Karl Marx, Romantic Irony and the Proletariat

   Lash, N. (1981) A Matter of Hope: A Theologian's Reflections of the Thought of Karl Marx

   Wolfson, M. (1982) Marx: Economist, Philosopher, Jew: Steps in the Development of a Doctrine

   Allen, R.T. (1993) 'Flew, Marx and Gnosticism', Philosophy 68(263)

   Jeannot, T.M. (1990) Marx's use of religious metaphors', International Philosophical Quarterly 30(2)

   Kovel, J. (1994) 'Marxism and spirituality' in A. Calari (ed.) Marxism in the Postmodern Age

   Barner-Barry, C. and Hody, C. (1994) 'Soviet Marxism-Leninism as mythology', Political Psychology 15(4)

   Brentlinger, J. (2000) 'Revolutionizing spirituality: reflections on Marxism and religion', Science & Society 64(2)

   Goldstein, W.S. (2001) 'Messianism and Marxism: Walter Benjamin and Ernst Bloch's dialectical theories of secularization', Critical Sociology 27(2)

   Collier, A. (2001) Christianity and Marxism: A Philosophical Contribution to their Reconciliation

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2002) 'Let the dead bury their dead": Marx, Derrida and Bloch', Contemporary Political Theory 1(1)

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2004) 'Religion and communism: Feuerbach, Marx and Bloch', The European Legacy 9(5)

 

@ 3. @ SPECIES-BEING AND ALIENATION (1844)

 

@ Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and @ Notes on James Mill: general

   Marx (1844) Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

   Marx (1844) Notes on James Mill

   Marx (1844-47) 'Exzerpte und Notizen: Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847', in MEGA 4(3), 1998

   Marcuse, Herbert [1932] 'The foundation of historical materialism', in his Studies in Critical Philosophy, 1972

   Lukacs, Georg (1954) 'Zur philosophischen Entwicklung des jungen Marx', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 2(2), pp. 288ff.

   Maguire, J. (1972) Marx's Paris Writings: An Analysis

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th ed. 1975

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online

 

@ Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Notes on James Mill: text-critical accounts and reception histories

   Evans, M. (1984) 'Karl Marx's first confrontation with political-economy - the 1844 manuscripts', Economy and Society 13(2), reprinted in A. Rattansi (ed.) Ideology, Method and Marx 1989

   Rojahn, J. (1985) 'Die Marxschen Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 in ner neuen Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe', Archive für Sozlalgeschichte 25

   Maidan, M. (1990) 'The Rezeptionsgeschichte of the Paris manuscripts', History of European Ideas 12

   Chattopadhyay, p. (2004) Review of 'Karl Marx - Exzerpte und Notizen: Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847', Historical Materialism 12(4)

 

@ Economic theory in the 1844 writings

   Mandel, E. (1971) The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx

   Oakley, A. (1984) Marx's Critique of Political Economy: Intellectual Sources and Evolution. Volume 1: 1844 to 1860

 

@ Human nature in Marx: general

   (See also more specific topics below)

   (See also '~ Feuerbach and Marx', '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality in Marx', '~ Aristotle and Marx', 'Kantian ethics and Marx', '~ Labour in Marx', '~ Labour theory of value and species-being')

   (For Marx's later views see '~ Critique of morality and humanism in later Marx')

   Hegel [1821] Philosophy of Right, section on the 'system of needs'

   Marx [1843] 'On the Jewish Question'

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

   Marx [1844] 'Notes on James Mill'

   Marx [1867] Capital Vol. 1 [1867], ch. 7

   Marx [1875] Critique of the Gotha Programme, secs. 1-2

   Engels, F. [1876] 'The part played by labour in the transition from ape to man', in Dialectics of Nature

   Venable, V. (1945) Human Nature: The Marxian View

   Strauss, Leo (1960) 'Seminar on Karl (not Groucho) Marx', available online

   Petrovic, G. (1967) 'Marx's concept of man' in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Cenury, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed.) Modern Interpretations of Marx 1981

   Fetscher, I. (1970) Hegel's Lehre vom Menschen

   Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 7-17

   Fetscher, I. [1973] 'Karl Marx on human nature' in J. Cunningham Wood ed., Karl Marx's Economics: Critical Assessments, Vol. 1

   Plamenatz, J. (1975) Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man, chs. 2-3

   McMurty, J. (1978) The Structure of Marx's World View

   Seve, L. (1978) Man in Marxist Theory

   Markus, G. (1978) Marxism and Anthropology: The Concept of Human Essence in the Philosophy of Marx

   Zoolalian, D.E. (1980) 'Marx, man, and methodology: some remarks on Marx's theory of human nature', Social Praxis 7

   Geras, N. (1983) Marx and Human Nature: Refutation of a Legend

   Bien, J. (1984) History, Revolution and Human Nature: Marx's Philosophical Anthropology

   Archibald, W.P. (1989) Marx and the Missing Link:'Human Nature'

+ Markovic, M. (1991) 'Human nature' in T. Bottomore (ed.) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought

   Sayers, S. (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

 

@ Species-being: general

   (For recognition-centred accounts of species being see '~ Recognition in Marx')

   Marx [1843] 'On the Jewish question'

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

   Marx [1844] 'Notes on James Mill'

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, ch. 23

* Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, chs. 11-12

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th (ed.) 1975

   Ilyenkov, E.V. [19??] 'The universal', in F.J. Adelmann (ed.) Philosophical Investigations in the USSR, 1975 (an alternative version of this article exists as ch. 11 of Dialectical Logic), available online

   Santilli, P. (1973) 'Marx on species-being and social essence', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 13

   Mahowald, M.B. (1973) 'Marx's Gemeinschaft: another interpretation', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33

   Parekh, Bhikhu (1975) 'Marx's theory of man' in B. Parekh (ed.) The Concept of Socialism

* Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 2 'The human essence', ch. 3 'Human production'

   Wartenberg, T. (1982) '"Species-being" and "human nature" in Marx', Human Studies 5

* Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity -creation')

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64, also available online

   Chitty, Andrew (1997) 'First person plural ontology and praxis', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97(1)

* Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 4 'Human emancipation'

 

@ Species-being as a normative ground, @ self-realisation, @ perfectionism and @ humanism in Marx, @ morality and normativity in the young Marx

   (Including accounts of species-being as in the process of becoming)

   (See also '~Critique of morality and humanism in the later Marx', '~ Species-being and alienation/estrangement in Marx's later writings', '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality in Marx'. Accounts of individual self-realisation in Marx are in this last)

   (See also '~ History as human self-realisation')

   (See also '~ Aristotle and Marx')

   (For Marx's later views see '~ Critique of morality and humanism in later Marx')

   Schaff, A. (1963) A Philosophy of Man

   Fromm, E. (ed.) (1965) Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium, especially articles by Schaff and Fritzhand

   Dupré, L. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism

* Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Parsons, H.L. (1971) Humanism and Marx's Thought

   Tran, V.-T. (1971) 'Note sur le concept de "Gattungswesen" dans la pensée de Karl Marx', Revue Philosophique de Louvain 69

   Wood, A.W. (1972) 'Marx's critical anthropology', Review of Metaphysics 26(1)

   Nasser, A.G. (1975) 'Marx's ethical anthropology', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35(4)

   Von Magnis, F. (1975) Normative Voraussetzungen im Denken des jungen Marx (1843-1848)

   Clarke, S. (1979) 'Socialist humanism and the critique of economism', History Workshop 8

* Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 2 'The human essence'

   Archard, D. (1988) 'The Marxist ethic of self-realization: individuality and community', in J.D.G. Evans (ed.) Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Problems, supplement to Philosophy vol. 22

   Goldstick, D. (1991) 'The 'humanism' and the humanism of Karl Marx', in The Question of Humanism: Challenges and Possibilities

   Wilde, L. (1994) 'Marx's concept of human essence and its radical critics', Studies in Marxism 1

   Wilde, L. (1998) Ethical Marxism and its Radical Critics

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing

   Evans, M. (2007) Self-realization: Politics and the Good Life in Modern Times, chs. 4-5

 

@ Species-being as self-creation, Marx and the @ posthuman and @ transhuman

   (Including poststructuralist versions of species-being)

   (See also '~ Postmodernism and Marx', '~ Modernism and Marx', '~ Freedom as an ideal')

   (The posthuman is the idea of a condition in which we are no longer human beings as we have understood the idea till now, the transhuman is the idea of the transition to this condition)

   Petrovic, G. (1967) 'Marx's concept of man' in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Cenury, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed.) Modern Interpretations of Marx 1981

   Kosik, K. [1967] Dialectics of the Concrete, sec. 4

* Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity

   Mulhall, S. (1993) 'Species-being, teleology and individuality. Part 1. Marx on species-being', Angelaki 3(1)

   Smith, C. (2000) Karl Marx and the Future of the Human, ch. 9 available online

   Smith, C. (2002) 'Karl Marx and human self-creation', available online

   Rikowski, G. (2003) 'Marx and the future of the human', Historical Materialism 11(2)

   Read, J. (2003) The Micro-Politics of Capital: Marx and the Prehistory of the Present, SUNY Press, pp. 76-98

   Dyer-Witheford, N. (2004) 'Species-being resurgent', Constellations 11(4)

* Dyer-Witheford, N. (2004) '1844/2004/2044: the return of species-being', Historical Materialism 12(4)

 

@ Species-being and @ consciousness

   Markus, G. (1975) 'The Marxian concept of consciousness', Philosophy and Social Criticism 13(1)

 

   Walliman, I. (1981) Estrangement: Marx's Conception of Human Nature and the Division of Labour

   Warminski, A. (1998) 'Hegel/Marx: consciousness and life' in S. Barnett (ed.) Hegel After Derrida

   O'Manique, J. (1994) "A Marxian view of the fundamentals of political development", Political Psychology 15(2)

 

@ Species-being: sources for the idea in thinkers other than Feuerbach

   (For Feuerbach see '~ Feuerbach's anthropology, ~ species-being and anti-individualism in Feuerbach')

   Fichte, J.G. [1796] Foundations of Natural Right [Grundlage des Naturrechts nach Prinzipien der Wissenschaftslehre] part 1, §§1-4

   Hess, M. [1845] 'On the socialist movement in Germany', in his Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850

   Hegel, G.W.F. [1807] Phenomenology of Spirit, §§172-4, introduction to ch. 5B (on ethical substance)

* Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 11 'The concept of the 'social relations of production'

* Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity -creation')

   McCarthy, G.E. (ed.) (1992) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity, articles by Miller, Gilbert

 

@ Species-being: critiques

   Ereshefsky, M. (2002-10) 'Species', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online

 

@ Labour in Marx

   (Thanks to Sean Sayers for suggestions for this and the following sections)

   (Including the rational or emancipatory or expressivist content of labour in Marx, and critiques of Marx as productivist)

   (Also labour in contemporary Marxist critical social theory)

   (See also '~ Praxis group', '~ Habermas's critique of Marx')

   (For the form of labour specific to capitalism, see '~ Abstract labour and concrete labour' , '~ Commodity and ~ value-form')

   (For the abolition of labour, see '~ Unalienated labour and the 'abolition of labour'')

   Engels, F. [1876] 'The part played by labour in the transition from ape to man', in Dialectics of Nature

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Marx's dialectic of labour', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3, slightly revised as ch. 10 of Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Taylor, C. (1975) Hegel, ch. 3, ch. 20 sec. 2

   Heller, A. [1978] Everyday Life (das Alltagsleben)

   Berki, R.N. (1979) 'On the nature and origins of Marx's concept of labour', Political Theory 7(1)

   Markus, G. [1980] 'Die Welt menschliche Objekte', in Arbeit, Handlung, Normativitität

   Lange, E.M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 3 'Human production'

Ware, R. (1982) 'Marx, the division of labor and human nature', Social Theory and Practice 8

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online

   Wildt, A. (1987) Die Anthropologie des frühen Marx

   Sayers, S. (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

   Moggach, D. (1994) 'Marx and German Idealism: labour and the transcendental synthesis', History of European Ideas 19(1-3)

   Sayers, S. (2003) 'Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Marx', Historical Materialism 11(1)

   Paolucci, P. (2005) 'Assumptions of the dialectical method: the centrality of labor for the human species, its history, and individuals', Critical Sociology 31(4)

   Sayers, S. (2005) 'Why work? Marx and human nature', Science & Society 69(4), also available online

   Dejours, C. (2006) 'Subjectivity, work, action', Critical Horizons 7(1)

   Sayers, S. (2007) 'The concept of labor: Marx and his critics', Science & Society 71(4)

   Dejours, C. and Deranty, J.-P. (2010) 'The centrality of work", Critical Horizons 11(2)

   Renault, E. (2011) "Comment Marx se réfère-t-il au travail et à la domination?", Actuel Marx 49

   Deranty, J.-P. (2008) 'Work and the precarisation of existence', European Journal of Social Theory 11(4)

 

@ Unalienated labour and the 'abolition of labour' in Marx

   (Including also debates about whether labour is transhistorical)

   (Also discussions of the 'realm of freedom' passage in Capital volume 3)

   (See also 'Fourier and Marx')

   (See also '~ Labour in Marcuse and the Frankfurt School')

   Grundrisse (Penguin), 'Fragment on machines', pp. 690-710

   Suchting, W.A. (1962) 'Marx and Hannah Arendt's "The Human Condition"', Ethics 73

   Marcuse, Herbert (1969) 'The realm of freedom and the realm of necessity, a reconsideration', Praxis 5

   Andrew, E. (1970) Work and freedom in Marcuse and Marx', Canadian Journal of Political Science 3(2)

   Marcuse, Herbert (1973) 'On the philosophical foundation of the concept of labour in economics', Telos 16

   Schoolman, M. (1973) 'Further reflections on work, alienation, and freedom in Marcuse and Marx', Canadian Journal of Political Science 6

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Marx's dialectic of labour', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3, slightly revised as ch. 10 of Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, pp. 323-5

   Berki, R.N. (1979) 'On the nature and origins of Marx's concept of labour', Political Theory 7(1)

   Bottomore, T. (1984) 'Socialism and the division of labour', in his Sociology and Socialism

   Klagge, J.C. (1986) 'Marx's realms of 'freedom' and 'necessity'' Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16

   Gray, J. (1986) 'Marxian freedom, individual liberty, and the end of alienation', Social Philosophy and Policy

* Maidan, M. (1989) 'Alienated labour and free activity in Marx's thought', Political Science 41(1)

   Beehler, R. (1989) 'Marx on freedom and necessity', Dialogue 28(4)

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

* Cohen, A. (1993) 'Marx: from the abolition of labour to the abolition of the abolition of labour', History of European Ideas 17(4)

   Beecher, Jonathan (2001) Charles Fourier: The Visionary and his World, pp. 294-6

   Sayers, S. (2006) 'Freedom and the "realm of necessity''', in D. Moggach (ed.) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School

   Zilbersheid, U. (2004) 'The vicissitudes of the idea of the abolition of labour in Marx's teachings - can the idea be revived?', Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory 35 (or: vol. 32 no. 1), available online

   Baum, M. (2007) 'Freedom in Marx', Radical Philosophy Review 10(2)

 

@ Labour in Marx: critiques

* Arendt, Hannah (1958) The Human Condition, chs. 3-4

   Suchting, W.A. (1962) 'Marx and Hannah Arendt's "The Human Condition"', Ethics 73

* Habermas, Jürgen [1967] 'Labour and interaction: remarks on Hegel's Jena Philosophy of Mind', in his Theory and Practice, tr. J. Viertel 1973

* Baudrillard, J. [1973] The Mirror of Production, tr. 1975

   Gorz, A. (1975) Critique of Economic Reason

   Lange, E.M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit

   Honneth, A. (1982) 'Work and instrumental action', New German Critique 26

   Gorz, A. (1985) Paths to Paradise   

   Kellner, D. (1989) Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond

   Gane, M. (1991) Baudrillard: Critical and Fatal Theory

 

@ Labour: histories of the idea

   Thompson, E.P. (1967) 'Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism', Past and Present 38

   Sewell, W.H. Jr. (1980) Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labour from the Old Regime to 1848

   Campbell, J. (1989) Joy in Work, German Work: The National Debate 1800-1945

 

@ Labour in Ruskin and Morris

   (Not specifically Marxist)

   Ruskin, J. [1853] The Nature of Gothi. A Chapter from the Stones of Venice, 1928, also available online

   Morris, W. [1884] Art and Socialism, 2004, also available online

   Morris, W. [1884?] 'Art under plutocracy', in A.L. Morton (ed.) Political Writings of William Morris, 1973

   Morris, W. [1892] ' Preface to The Nature of Gothic', in his News from Nowhere and Other Writings, ed. C. Wilmer, 1993, also available online

 

@ Labour: contemporary discussions

   Creegan, R.F. (1951) 'The category of work', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 11

   Kwsant, R.C. (1960) Philosophy of Labor

   Braverman, H. (1974) Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century

   Meakin, D. (1976) Man and Work

   Anthony, P.D. (1978) The Ideology of Work

   Wood, S. (ed.) (1982) The Degradation of Work?

   Thompson, P.B. (1983) The Nature of Work: An Introduction to Debates on the Labour Process

   Lazzarato, M. (1996) 'Immaterial labor', in P. Virno and M. Hardt (eds) Radical Thought in Italy: A Potential Politics

   Llorente, R. (2006) 'Analytical Marxism and the division of labor', Science & Society 70(2)

 

@ Needs in Marx

   (Including true and false needs)

   O'Malley, J. (1966) 'History and man's 'nature' in Marx', Review of Politics 28

   Heller, A. [1974] The Theory of Need in Marx, tr. 1976

   Lebowitz, M.A. (1979) 'Heller on Marx's concept of needs', Science & Society 43(3), pp. 349-355

   Stillman, P. (1983) 'Scarcity, sufficiency and abundance: Hegel and Marx on material needs and satisfactions', International Political Science Review 4(3)

   Heller, A. (1985) 'Can "true" and "false" needs be posited?', in Heller's The Power of Shame: A Rational Perspective

   Berry, C.J. (1987) 'Need and egoism in Marx's early writings', History of Political Thought 8(3), Winter 1987, reprinted in Cowling and Wilde (eds) Approaches to Marx

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64

   Hughes, J. (2000) Ecology and Historical Materialism, ch. 7 'Capitalism, socialism and the satisfaction of needs' to engage in intercourse with others)

   Fraser, I. (1998) Hegel and Marx: The Concept of Need

   Sayers, S. (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

 

@ Needs and desires (in general)

   Maslow, A.H. (1954) Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. 1970, ch. 4

   Bookchin, M. [1967] 'Desire and need', in Post-Scarcity Anarchism, 1971

   White, A.R. (1975) Modal Thinking, ch. on need

   Springborg, P. (1981) The Problem of Human Needs and the Critique of Civilisation

   Soper, K. (1981) On Human Needs

   Wiggins, D. (1986) 'Claims of need', in his Needs Values Truth

   Doyal, L. and Gough, I. (1991) A Theory of Human Needs

 

@ Alienation/estrangement in Marx's early writings: general

   (For contemporary use of the idea of alienation see RSOCSCIE: psycho-social theory)

   (For Entäusserung in particular see '~ Alienation/estrangement as collective self-subordination')

   (Translation: The headings and notes in this bibliography follow L. Colletti (ed.) Karl Marx: Early Writings and Marx and Engels, Collected Works in using 'alienation' for Marx's Entäusserung and 'estrangement' for his Entfremdung. Miller's translation of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit uses 'externalisation' for Entäusserung and 'alienation' for Entfremdung and some Marx translators follow this practice. See C.J. Arthur, Dialectics of Labour, appendix (available online) for discussions of the two German terms.)

   (For Entäusserung in particular see '~ Alienation/estrangement as collective self-subordination')

   On the Jewish Question [1843]

   Notes on James Mill [1844] (also known as Excerpt-notes of 1844 etc.)

   Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts [1844] (esp. sec. on 'alienated labour')

   Theses on Feuerbach

   Grundrisse p. 470

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution, part 2 ch. 1

   Popitz, H. (1953) Der entfremdete Mensch. Zeitkritik und Geschichtsphilosophie des Jungen Marx (Leopold 2007 92)

   Löwith, K. (1954) 'Man's self-alienation in the early writings of Marx', Social Research 21, reprinted in Löwith's Nature, History and Existentialism, and in Jessop and Malcolm-Brown (eds.) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, chs. 2-7, esp. ch. 3

   Bloch, E. [1962] 'Entfremdung, Verfremdung: alienation, estrangement', TDR: The Drama Review 15(1) 1970

   Rotenstreich, N. (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy, ch. 7

   Petrovic, G. (1967) 'Alienation and de-alienation', in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 20-22

   Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, ch. 4

   West, E.G. (1969) 'The political economy of alienation: Karl Marx and Adam Smith', Oxford Economic Papers 21(1)

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th ed. 1975 (with English translations of quotes from Marx), chs. 3, (4-7)

+ Giddens, A (1971) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory, ch. 1

   Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 18-24 (partly available online)

   Schacht, R. (1971) Alienation, ch. 3

   Maguire, J. (1972) Marx's Paris Writings: An Analysis

   Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy State and Utopia, pp. 246-250 'Meaningful work', pp. 250-253 'Workers' control', pp. 268-271 'Having a say over what affects you'

   Plamenatz, J. (1975) Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man, chs. 4-6

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism Vol. 1, ch. 6

   Agassi, J.B. (1978-79) 'Alienation from work: a conceptual analysis', Philosophical Forum 10

   Walliman, I. (1981) Estrangement: Marx's Conception of Human Nature and the Division of Labour

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, chs. 1-3

   Clarke, S. (1982) Marx, Marginalism and Modern Sociology: From Adam Smith to Max Weber

   Markus, G. (1982) 'Alienation and reification in Marx and Lukacs', Thesis Eleven 5/6

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, secs. 2.2, 2.3, ch. 9

   Gray, J. (1986) 'Marxian freedom, individual liberty, and the end of alienation', Social Philosophy and Policy

* Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, chs. 1-2, available online

   Churchich, N. (1990) Marxism and Alienation

+ Wolff, J. (1992) 'Playthings of alien forces: Karl Marx and the rejection of the market economy', Cogito 6(1), reprinted in N. Warburton, J. Pike and D. Matravers (eds.) Philosophy: Basic Readings, 1999

   Kymlicka, W. (2000) 'Alienation' in N. Warburton, J. Pike and D. Matravers (eds) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill

   Wendling, A. (2009) 'Karl Marx's concept of alienation', in her Karl Marx on Technology and Alienation

   Sayers , S. (2011) Marx and Alienation

 

@ Phenomenology of Spirit and Marx

   (For alienation in Hegel vs. in Marx, see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation in Hegel')

   (For early Marx's critique of Hegel in general see '~ Hegel and Marx')

   (For the later Marx on Hegel see '~ Method of Capital')

   Marx, K. [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, final section: 'Critique of Hegel's dialectic'

   Marx, 'Hegel's construction of the Phenomenology' [1844], Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 4, p. 665

   Harris, E. [1978] 'Marxist interpretations of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit', in M. Westphal (ed.) Method and Speculation in Hegel's Phenomenology 1982

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1983) 'Hegel's master/slave dialectic and a myth of Marxology', New Left Review 142, reworked as ch. 7 of Arthur's Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online draw on Hegel's master-servant dialectic)

 

@ Alienation/estrangement: sources for the concepts

   (This is mainly on sources in religious thinkers. For sources in Rousseau, Fichte and Feuerbach see '~ Rousseau and Marx', '~ Fichte and Marx', '~ Feuerbach and Marx'. For sources in Hegel see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation in Hegel')

   (See also '~ Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought')

   Tillich, P. (1953) Der Mensch im Christentum und im Marxismsus

   Rotenstreich, N. (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy, ch. 7

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 20-22

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th (ed.) 1975, ch. 1

   Schacht, R. (1971) Alienation, ch. 1

* Inwood, M. (1992) A Hegel Dictionary pp. 35-38

 

@ Alienation/estrangement as a psychological condition

   (E.g. as meaninglessness, as anomie, as a contemplative attitude, etc.)

   Braybrooke, D. (1958) 'Diagnosis and remedy in Marx's doctrine of alienation', Social Research

   Parsons, H.L. (1964) 'Value and mental health in the thought of Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24

   Lukes, S. (1967) 'Alienation and anomie', in P. Laslett and W. Runciman (eds) Philosophy, Politics and Society, also in A.W. Finifter (ed.) Alienation and the Social System 1972

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 1

   Bronfenbrenner, M. (1973) 'A harder look at alienation', Ethics 83

   Fischbach, F. (2009) Sans objet: capitalisme, subjectivité, aliénation

 

@ Psychoanalysis and Marx

   (See also '~ Marcuse')

   (For contemporary Freudo-Marxist work see RMODERNI: '~ psycho-social theory and ~ critical psychology)

   Fromm, E. (1961) 'Preface' to Marx's Concept of Man

   O'Neill, N. (19??) 'Marxism and psychology', in M. Shaw (ed.) Marxist Sociology Revisited

 

@ Alienation/estrangement as collective self-subordination, @ autonomisation and @ inversion in the early writings

   (This is the theme of humans' subordination to the system of their own activity)

   (See also '~ Freedom as an ideal in Marx')

   (For this theme in Grundrisse and Capital see '~ Capital as subject')

   The German Ideology, in Collected Works, Vol. 5, pp. 46-52, 77-81, 245-6

   Levine, A. (1978) 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8

+ Wolff, J. (1992) 'Playthings of alien forces: Karl Marx and the rejection of the market economy', Cogito 6(1), reprinted in N. Warburton (ed.) Philosophy: Basic Readings, 1999

   Schmitt, R. (1996) 'Marx's concept of alienation', Topoi, 15(2)

   Sensat, J. (1997) 'Marx's inverted world', Topoi 15(2)

   Holloway, J. (1997) 'A note on alienation', Historical Materialism 1(1)

   Sensat, J. (1997) 'Reification as dependence on extrinsic information', Synthese 109(3)

 

@ Exchange as source of alienation/estrangement

   Notes on James Mill

   Baudrillard, J [1976] Symbolic Exchange and Death, tr. 1993

   Land, N. (1992) The Thirst for Annihilation: Georges Bataille and Virulent Nihilism

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64

 

@ Alienation/estrangement in Marx's later writings

   (See next item, '~ Species-being and alienation/estrangement in Marx's later writings')

 

@ Species-being and @ alienation/estrangement in Marx's later writings, the '@ epistemological break' debate

   (See also '~ Species-being and alienation/estrangement in value theory')

   (For commentary focused on the ideas of inversion and collective self-subordination in the later Marx see '~ Capital as subject')

   Communist Manifesto, section 4

   Bell, D. (1959) 'The meaning of alienation', Thought

   Kamenka, E. (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, ch. 14 also available online

   Korsch, K. (1963) Karl Marx

   O'Neill, J. (1964) 'The concept of estrangement in the earlier and later writings of Karl Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, reprinted in Sociology as a Skin Trade 1972

* Althusser, L. [1965] For Marx, 'Introduction' [1965], 'Marxism and humanism' [1964], and 'On the young Marx' [1960] also available online (claims there is an epistemological break between the pre-1845-6 and the post-1845-6 Marx)

   Fetscher, I. (1967) 'The young and the old Marx' in N. Lobkowicz (ed.) Marx and the Western World

   Meszaros, I. (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th (ed.) 1975, ch. 8

   Kolakowski, L. (1971) 'Althusser's Marx' in R. Miliband and J. Saville (eds) Socialist Register 1971

   Lewis, J. (1972) 'The Althusser case', Marxism Today, Jan. 1972, pp. 23-28; Feb 1972, pp. 43-48

   Cornforth, M. (1973) 'Some comments on Louis Althusser's reply to John Lewis', Marxism Today, May 1973, pp. 139-47

   Evans, M. (1974) 'More Marx studies', Political Studies 22(2)

   Thomas, P. (1976) 'Marx and science', Political Studies 24(1)

   LeoGrande, W.M. (1977) 'An investigation into the "Young Marx" controversy', Science and Society 41(2)

   Hunt, E.K. (1978) 'A comment on William LeoGrande's approach to the "Young Marx"', Science and Society 42(1) measure reality)

   Balibar, E. (1978) 'From Bachelard to Althusser: the concept of "epistemological break"', Economy and Society 7(3) Bachelard's)

   Elliott, J.E. (1979) 'Continuity and change in the evolution of Marx's theory of alienation', History of Political Economy 11

   Hammen, O.J. (1980) 'A note on the alienation motif in Marx', Political Theory 8(2)

   Honneth, A. (1982) 'Labour and instrumental action: on the normative basis of critical theory', New German Critique, reprinted in C. Wright (ed.) The Fragmented World of the Social: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy 1994

   Geras, N. (1983) Marx and Human Nature: Refutation of a Legend

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, pp. 74-78, 100-107

   Christensen, K.R. (1987) 'Marx, human nature and the fetishism of concepts', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 34

   Cowling, M. (1989) 'The case for the two Marxes restated' in M. Cowling and L. Wilde (eds) Approaches to Marx

   Sayers, S. (1998) Marxism and Human Nature, ch 5 'Alienation and economic development'

   Cowling, M. (2006) 'Alienation in the older Marx', Contemporary Political Theory 5(3)

   Wendling, A. (2009) Karl Marx on Technology and Alienation

 

@ Species-being and @ alienation/estrangement in value theory

   (On the relationship between the concepts of value / abstract labour / capital / fetishism in Grundrisse and Capital and those of human essence / species-being /alienation in the early writings)

   (For species-being and alienation in Marx's later writings in general see '~ Species-being and alienation in Marx's later writings')

   (See also '~ Commodity and value-form')

   Marcuse, Herbert [1941] Reason and Revolution (New York,1967), pp. 280, 303-4

   Colletti, L. [1968] 'Bernstein and the Marxism of the Second International' in From Rousseau to Lenin, section on 'The Labour theory of value' and the following two sections

   Hartmann, K. (1970) Die Marxsche Theorie

   Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 25-28, also available online

   Geras, N. (1971) 'Essence and appearance: aspects of fetishism in Marx's Capital', New Left Review 65, also in Geras's Literature of Revolution, also (under the title 'Marx and the critique of political economy') in R. Blackburn (ed.) Ideology in Social Science

+ Perlman, F. (1973) 'Introduction' to I.I. Rubin, Essays on Marx's Theory of Value

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, OUP, pp. 172-173, 177-181, 262-287

   Hunt, E.K. (1982) 'Marx's concept of human nature and the labor theory of value', Review of Radical Political Economics 14(2)

   Smith, M.E.G. (1994) 'Alienation, exploitation and abstract labor a humanist defense of Marx's theory of value', Review of Radical Political Economics 26(1)

   Reichelt, H. (2005) 'Social reality as appearance: some notes on Marx's conception of reality', in K. Psychopedis and W. Bonefeld (eds) Human Dignity: Social Autonomy and the Critique of Capitalism

 

@ Alienation/estrangement-based and humanist accounts of the later Marx

Calvez, J.-Y. (1956) La Pensée de Karl Marx

   Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 25-31 (partly available online)

   Wilde, L. (1998) Ethical Marxism and its Radical Critics

   Holloway, J. (2002) Change the World Without Taking Power

 

@ Alienation/estrangement (and related concepts) in non-Marxist thinkers

   (For pre-Marxist thinkers see '~ Alienation/estrangement: sources of the concepts')

   (For Marxist thinkers see especially '~ Lukacs: reification', '~ Lefebvre', '~ Debord')

   Nietzsche, F. [1873] 'On truth and lies in a nonmoral sense'

   Simmel, G. [18??] The Philosophy of Money, tr. 1994

   Seeman, M. (1959) 'On the meaning of alienation', American Sociological Review 24(6)

 

@ Alienation/estrangement in recent social theory

   Haber, S. (2007) L'Aliénation. Vie sociale et expérience de la dépossession

   Haber, S. (2009) L'Homme dépossédé : une tradition critique de Marx à Honneth

   Fischbach, F. (2009) Sans objet: capitalisme, subjectivité, aliénation

 

@ Property, 'true property' and 'individual property' in Marx

   (Including the idea that alienated labour is the basis of private property)

   Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts [1844], section on 'private property and communism'

   Notes on James Mill [1844]

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, pp. 367-72

   Brenkert, G.G. (1979) 'Freedom and private property in Marx', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8, reprinted in M. Cohen et al. Marx, Justice and History 1980

   Stillman, P.G. (1980) 'Property, freedom and individuality in Hegel's and Marx's political thought', in J.R. Pennock (ed.) Property

   Clarke, S. (1982) Marx, Marginalism and Modern Sociology: From Adam Smith to Max Weber, pp. 45-49, PDF available via Google Books

Arthur, Christopher J. (2002) The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital, ch. 6

Sayers , S. (2011) Marx and Alienation, ch. 7 'Private property and communism'

 

@ Egoism, @ identity, @ subject and @ subjectivity in Marx

   (Marx's analysis of the social formation of individual identity, especially egoistic identity)

   (Individuation, identity, egoism/moralism split, public/private split, personification)

   (Including idea of individuals as 'bearers' or personifications of social relations of production)

   (And idea of real subsumption of human psychology)

   (For critiques of contemporary political constructivism based on these ideas in Marx, see A political philosophy bibliography: 'Marxist critiques of constructivism and humanism')

   (See also Ralph Dumain's 'Marx and the individual reconsidered' bibliography)

   (See also '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality in Marx')

   (See also '~ Anarchism and Marx')

   (See also '~ Separation of state and ~ civil society')

   (See also '~ Productive forces and social relations of production')

   (see also '~ Critique of morality and humanism in Marx')

   (See also '~ Fetishism, reification and personification', in that this goes hand in hand with personification)

   (For the idea of the sociality of consciousness, see A Hegel bibliography: 'Social accounts of selfhood')

   Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, tr. J. O'Malley, pp. 31-32, 77, 80, 107

   On the Jewish Question, part 1

   Notes on James Mill

   The German Ideology CW5, pp. 46-47, 60-61, 78-81, 213, 245-257, 439

   A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1971), pp. 95, 188-9

   Grundrisse, pp. 156-165, 239-247, 297, 459-465, 471-497, 541, 717-718

   Capital Vol. 3 (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1966), pp. 779; 818-824

   Theories of Surplus Value, Vol. 1 (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1969), pp. 170, 409

   Theories of Surplus Value, Vol. 3, (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1972), pp. 315, 514

   Fromm, E. (1932) 'Über Aufgabe und Methode einer Analytischen Sozialpsychologie', in C.L. Hirschfeld (ed.) Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, vol. 1

   Seve, L. [1969] Man in Marxist Theory

   O'Malley, J. (1970) Introduction' to K. Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley, sec. 5

   Sax, B.C. (1984) 'Marx's dialectic of identity: the interlocking languages of the individual and structures in the German Ideology', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 27(4), 289-318 Koutsogiannis: the dialectic between PFs and RPs is one between self-definition and a material structure)

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction

   Sayer, D. (1991) Capitalism and Modernity: An Excursus on Marx and Weber, esp. ch. 2 'Power and the subject'

   Read, J. (2003) The Micro-Politics of Capital: Marx and the Prehistory of the Present

   Rikowski, G. (2003) 'Alien life: Marx and the future of the human', Historical Materialism 11(2)

   Sayers, S. (2007) 'Individual and society in Marx and Hegel: beyond the communitarian critique of liberalism", Science & Society 71(1)

 

@ History in the early writings (1837-44)

   Popitz, H. (1953) Der entfremdete Mensch. Zeitkritik und Geschichtsphilosophie des Jungen Marx

   Adamson, W.L. (1981) 'Marx's four histories: an approach to his intellectual development', History and Theory 20(4 )

 

@ Habermas's critique of Marx

   (The basic claim is that Marx reduces praxis to poesis and eliminates recognition (or 'interaction'))

   (On the issue of the rational or emancipatory content of labour in general see '~ Labour as intrinsically emancipatory')

   (For the basic 'labour and interaction' distinction see that in RMODERNI: '~ Habermas')

   Habermas, Jürgen [1963] 'Between philosophy and science: Marxism as critique', in Theory and Practice, reprinted in Seidman (ed.)

   Habermas, Jürgen [1967] 'Labour and interaction: remarks on Hegel's Jena Philosophy of Mind', in his Theory and Practice, tr. J. Viertel 1973

   Habermas, Jürgen [1968] Knowledge and Human Interests, chs. 2-3

   Wellmer, A. (1969??) The Critical Theory of Society, ch. 2

   Habermas, Jürgen (1975) 'The place of philosophy in Marxism', Insurgent Sociologist 5(2), pp 41-48

   Sensat, J. Jr. (1979) Habermas and Marxism: An Appraisal

   Heller, A. (1982) 'Habermas and Marxism' in J.B. Thompson and D. Held (eds) Habermas: Critical Debates labour in Habermas, arguing that it leads to a loss of the concept of alienation)

   Giddens, A. (1982) 'Labour and interaction' in J.B. Thompson and D. Held (eds) Habermas: Critical Debates

   Habermas, Jürgen (1982) 'A reply to my critics' in J.B.Thompson and D. and Held (eds) Habermas: Critical Debates of labour in Marx, which is no longer viable)

   Habermas, Jürgen [1985] The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, tr. 1990., lecture 3 secs. 2-3 combined instrumental-rational and aesthetic elements and left out communication; the notion of labour lacks any normative content)

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination, ch. 6 'Habermas's critique of Marx'

   Toddington, S. (1993) Rationality, Social Action and Moral Judgement, c. pp. 122-3, 213-4, 225

   Moggach, D. (1994) 'Marx and German Idealism: labour and the transcendental synthesis', History of European Ideas 19(1-3)

   Doveton, D. (1994) 'Marx and Engels on democracy', History of Political Thought 15(4)

 

@ Ecology and Marx: general

   (Including the 'resurrection of nature')

   (For more specific topics, see '~ Anthropocentrism and mastery of nature', '~ Animals', and '~ Malthus and Marx')

   (For ecology and socialism see that topic in A political philosophy bibliography)

   (See also '~ Frankfurt School on nature and ecology')

   (See also '~ Materialism in Marx' and '~ Praxis, Theses on Feuerbach')

   Gorz, A. (1980) Ecology and Politics

   Lee , D.C. (1982) 'Toward a Marxian ecological ethic: a response to two critics', Environmental Ethics 4

   Bahro, R. (1982) Socialism and Survival

   Redclift, M.R. (1985) Marxism and the Environment: A View from the Periphery in Political Action and Social Identity

   Leff, E. [1986] Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality, tr. 1995, first essay

   Altvater, A. (1991) The Future of the Market, tr. 1993, ch. 5

   Grundmann, R. (1991) Marxism and Ecology

   Benton, T. (1993) Natural Relations: Ecology, Animal Rights and Social Justice

   Benton, T. et al. (1995) What on Earth is to be Done?: A Red-Green Dialogue

   Bookchin, M. (1995) Re-enchanting Humanity

   Benton, T. (ed.) (1996) The Greening of Marxism

   Sundarararjan, P.T.S. (1996) 'From Marxian ecology to ecological Marxism', Science & Society 60(3)

   Foster, J.B. (1999) Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature

   Hughes, J. (2000) Ecology and Historical Materialism

 

@ Anthropocentrism and the mastery of nature

   Leiss, W. (1972) The Domination of Nature

   Lee, D.C. (1980) 'On the Marxian view of the relationship between man and nature', Environmental Ethics 2, pp. 3-16

   Tolman, C. (1981) 'Karl Marx, alienation and the mastery of nature', Environmental Ethics 3, pp. 63-73

   Lee, D.C. (1982) 'Towards a Marxian ecological ethic: a response to two critics', Environmental Ethics 4, pp. 339-343

   Clark, J.P. (1989) 'Marx's inorganic body', Environmental Ethics 11

   Benton, T. (1989) 'Marxism and natural limits: an ecological critique and reconstruction', New Left Review 178

   Grundmann, R. (1991) 'The ecological challenge to Marxism', New Left Review 187

   Grundmann, R. (1991) Marxism and Ecology

   Benton, T. (1992) 'Ecology, socialism and the mastery of nature: a reply to Reiner Grundmann', New Left Review 194

   Soper, K. (1991) 'Greening Prometheus: Marxism and ecology', in P. Osborne (ed.) Socialism and the Limits of Liberalism

   Stanley, J.L. (1991) 'Marx, Engels and the administration of nature', History of Political Thought 9(3)

   Dickens, P. (1992) Society and Nature: Towards a Green Social Theory

   O'Neill, J. (1994) 'Humanism and nature', Radical Philosophy 66

   Dickens, P. (1996) Reconstructing Nature: Alienation, Emancipation and the Division of Labour

   Lee, K. (1996) 'Homo Faber: the ontological category of modernity', in I. Hampsher-Monk and J. Stanyer (eds) Contemporary Political Studies 1996: Proceedings of the Political Studies Association Conference, 1996, 3 volumes

   Hughes, J. (1999) The Ecological Implications of Historical Materialism, sec. 1.3 'Values, interests and the environment' (on anthropocentrism)

 

@ Animals

   Benton, T. (1988) 'Humanism = speciesism: Marx on humans and animals', Radical Philosophy, reprinted in Sayers and Osborne eds.

   Hughes, J. (1999) The Ecological Implications of Historical Materialism, sec. 6.3 'Animal needs, workers needs and human needs'

   Sanbonmatsu, J. (2007) 'The subject of freedom at the end of history: socialism beyond humanism', American Journal of Economics and Sociology 66(1)

 

@ Malthus and Marx

   (The idea of ecological limits, the ideology of Malthusianism)

   Grundrisse c. pp. 605-610

   Engels, F. [1844] Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy, in CW3, c. pp. 439-440

   Enzensberger, H.M. (1974) 'A critique of political ecology', New Left Review 84

   Matthews, W.H. (1976) 'The concept of outer limits' in his Outer Limits and Human Needs

   Walker, K.J. (1979) 'Ecological limits and Marxist thought', Politics 14(1)

   Hollander, S. (1984) 'Marx and Malthusianism: Marx's secular path of wages', American Economic Review 74(1)

   Benton, T. (1989) 'Marxism and natural limits: an ecological critique and reconstruction', New Left Review 178 there, not creating ab nihilo)

   Benton, T. (1991) 'The Malthusian challenge: ecology, natural limits and human emancipation', in P. Osborne (ed.) Socialism and the Limits of Liberalism

   Hughes, J. (1998??) The Ecological Implications of Historical Materialism, ch. 2 'Marxism and the green Malthusians'

 

@ Art in Marx

   Lenin, V.I., On Literature and Art, tr. 1970

   Lifshitz [1933] The Philosophy of Art of Karl Marx, tr. 1973

   Fischer, E. (1959) The Necessity of Art: A Marxist Approach

   Rader, M. (1967) 'Marx's interpretation of art and aesthetic value', British Journal of Aesthetics 7

   Arvon, H. (1973) Marxist Aesthetics

   Baxandall, L. and Morawski, S. (eds) (1974) Karl Marx / Frederick Engels on Literature and Art: A Selection of Writings

   Taylor, R. (1978) Art and the Enemy of the People

   Rose, M.A. (1984) Marx's Lost Aesthetic: Karl Marx and the Visual Arts

   Watson, B. (1998) Art, Class and Cleavage

   Sayers, S. (2003) 'Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Marx', Historical Materialism 11(1)

 

@ 4. @ MATERIALISM AND PRAXIS (MAINLY 1845-46)

 

@ Marx's view of @ philosophy, @ theory and practice

   (Including the idea of philosophy as a force for change in the early Marx (the relation between theory and practice) and his later critique of philosophy and metaphysics)

   (See also '~ Young Hegelians')

   Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy [1839], passage on philosophy becoming worldly, CW1 pp. 491-493

   Doctoral Dissertation [1841], two passages on philosophy, CW1 pp. 30-31, 84-86

   'The leading article in no. 179 of the Kölnische Zeitung' [Jun-Jul 1842], part 3, CW1 pp. 195-202

   Letters to Ruge from the Franco-German Yearbook [Mar-Sep 1843], CW3 pp. 133-146

   Lawrnce, C. (1949) 'Roots of the Marxist concept of practice', Science and Society13(3)

   Livergood, N. (1967) Activity in Marx's Philosophy, introductory remarks expounded in DD)

   Caton, H. (1972) 'Marx's sublation of philosophy into praxis', Review of Metaphysics 26(2)

   Kalin, M.G. (1979) 'Marx against metaphysics', Metaphilosophy 10

+ Callinicos, A. (1983) Marxism and Philosophy

 

@ Philosophy of Marx

   (Attempts to elucidate Marx's own philosophical standpoint)

   Rotenstreich, N. (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy

   Turner, D. (1968) On the Philosophy of Karl Marx

   Henry, M. [1976] Karl Marx: A Philosophy of Human Reality

   McBride, L.A. (1977) The Philosophy of Marx

   Balibar, E. [1993] The Philosophy of Marx, tr. 1995

   Rockmore, T. (2002) Marx after Marxism: The Philosophy of Karl Marx

 

@ Materialism in Marx, Marx's @ metaphysics and philosophy of nature

   (From the Doctoral Dissertation on)

   (Includes discussions on metaphysics of freedom vs. determinism in Marx; for this in relation to his theory of history see '~ Determinism, inevitability and agency in Marx's theory of history'; for freedom as a normative ideal in Marx see 'Freedom as an ideal')

   (For material exclusively on the Doctoral Dissertation see '~ Doctoral dissertation')

   (For praxis-based epistemology and ontology in Marx see '~ Praxis, Theses on Feuerbach')

   (For relation between ontological and historical materialism, see '~ Ontological and historical materialism')

   (For dialectics of nature in 20th century Marxism see '~ 20th century Marxism: materialism, dialectics of nature, and dialectical method')

   (For Marx's conception of science, see '~ Dialectical exposition and dialectical method in general, Marx's conception of science')

   (For ecologically oriented discussions see '~ Ecology and Marx: general')

   (For the concept of nature in ecological thought, see A political philosophy bibliography: 'Ecological political theory')

   Doctoral Dissertation [1841]

* The Holy Family [1844], ch. 6, sec. on 'Critical battle against French materialism'

* Theses on Feuerbach [1845] (in editions of The German Ideology)

   The German Ideology [1845-46], see index

   Engels [wr. 1873-86, pub. 1925] Dialectics of Nature, 'Introduction', 'Old Preface to Anti-Dühring', 'Dialectics'

   Engels, F.

   van Leeuwen, A. (1974) Critique of Earth, ch. 1

* Ruben, D.H. (1977) Marxism and Materialism: A Study in Marxist Theory of Knowledge

   McBride, L.A. (1977) The Philosophy of Marx, ch. 4

   Norman, R. and Sayers, S. (1980) Hegel, Marx and Dialectic: A Debate

   Smith, G. (1981) 'Sinful science: Marx's theory of freedom from thesis to theses', History of Political Thought 2

* Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, chs. 11-14

   Welty, G. (1983) 'Marx, Engels and dialectics', Political Studies 31

   Bender, F.L. (1983) 'Marx, materialism and the limits of philosophy', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 25(2)

   Levine, N. (1984) Dialogue within the Dialectic, ch. 3

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction, ch. 4 'Ideal superstructures'

* Kline, G.L. (1988) 'The myth of Marx's materialism', in H. Dahm et al. (eds) Philosophical Sovietology: The Pursuit of a Science, reprinted in S. Meikle (ed.) Marx 2002

   Bhaskar, R. (1989) Reclaiming Reality, ch. 7

   Mills, C.W. (1989) 'Is it immaterial that there's a 'material' in 'historical materialism'?', Inquiry 32(3)

   Stanley, J.L. (1997) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's philosophy of nature', Science & Society 61(4)

   Pomeroy, A.F. (2004) Marx and Whitehead: Process, Dialectics, and the Critique of Capitalism

   Holt, J. (2009) Karl Marx's Philosophy of Nature, Action and Society: A New Analysis

 

@ Theses on Feuerbach

   (For Marx's relation to Feuerbach in general see '~ Feuerbach's politics, Feuerbach and Marx')

   (For Habermas's critique of Marx's account of action see RMODERNI: Habermas's critique of Marx)

* Theses on Feuerbach [1845] (in editions of The German Ideology)

   Notes on Wagner, the beginning

   Rotenstreich, N. (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy

   Goldstick, D. (1978) 'Activism and scientism in the interpretation of Karl Marx's first and third Theses on Feuerbach', Philosophical Forum 8

   Baronovitch, L. (1978) 'Marx's Theses on Feuerbach: from real humanism to real possibility', Philosophical Forum 8

   Bloch, E. [1968] 'Changing the world: Marx's theses on Feuerbach', in his On Karl Marx

   Suchting, W. (1979) 'Marx's Theses on Feuerbach: a new translation and notes towards a commentary', in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy. Vol. 2: Materialism

   Giles-Peters, A. (1985) 'Objectless activity: Marx's 'Theses on Feuerbach'', Inquiry 28

   Labica, G. (1987) Karl Marx, les Thèses sur Feuerbach

   Thomson, E. (1994) 'The sparks that dazzle rather than illuminate: a new look at Marx's "Theses on Feuerbach"', Nature, Society, and Thought 7(3)

   MacIntyre, A. (1994) 'The Theses on Feuerbach: a road not taken', in C. Gould (ed.) Artifacts, Representations and Social Practice

 

@ Praxis and activity in Marx: general

   (Including praxis-based, pragmatist and anti-realist interpretations of Marx's ontology and epistemology)

   (See also '~ 20th century Marxism: praxis-based epistemology and ontology')

   Schmidt, A. [196??] The Concept of Nature in Marx, tr. 1971

   Kolakowski, L. (196??) Toward a Marxist Humanism

   Livergood, N. (1967) Activity in Marx's Philosophy

   Seidel, H. (1966) 'Vom praktischen und theoretischen Verhältnis der Menschen zur Wirklichkeit', Deutsche Zietshrift für Philosophie, 14th year, issue 10

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, ch. 17 'Feuerbach'

   Sanchez Vasquez, A. (1967) The Philosophy of Praxis, tr. 1977

   Kolakowski, L. (1969) 'Karl Marx and the classical definition of truth', in his Marxism and Beyond

   Henry, M. [1976] Karl Marx: A Philosophy of Human Reality

   Chakravarti, S. (1976) 'Praxis and nature', Dialectics and Humanism 3

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism Vol. 1, ch. 16 'Recapitulation and philosophical commentary'

   McMurty, J. (1978) The Structure of Marx's World View

   Hoffman, P. (1982) The Anatomy of Idealism: Passivity and Activity in Kant, Hegel and Marx

   Leff, E. [1986] Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality, tr. 1995, first essay

   Kitching, G. (1988) Karl Marx and the Philosophy of Praxis

 

@ Praxis and activity in Marx's theory of history 

   Marx [1847] The Poverty of Philosophy, ch. 2 , fifth observation (passage on 'men as both the authors and the actors of their own drama')

   Krieger, L. (1960) 'The uses of Marx for history', Political Science Quarterly 75

   Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity -creation')

 

@ Epistemology of Marx

   Hudson, R. (1982) 'Marx's empiricism', Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12

   Farr, J. (1983) 'Marx no empiricist', Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13

   Little, D. (1986) The Scientific Marx

   Murray, P. (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge

 

@ Language and Marx

   (Marx's theory of language)

   (With thanks to Tim Carter)

   Volosinov, V.N. [1929] Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, tr. 1973

   Rossi-Landi, F. [19??] Language as Work and Trade: A Semiotic Homology for Linguistics and Economics, tr. 1983

   Lecercle, J.-J. [19??] A Marxist Philosophy of Language, tr. 2004

   Read, R. (2000) 'Wittgenstein and Marx on "philosophical language"', Essays in Philosophy 1(2) , also available online

 

@ Literary theory and Marx

   (Marx and the theory of reading and writing; rhetoric and narrative in Marx)

   White, H.V. (1975) Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe, ch. 'Marx'

   Rose, M.A. (1978) Reading the Young Marx and Engels: Poetry, Parody, and the Censor

   Cook, D.J. (1982) 'Marx's critique of philosophical language', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 42(4)

   Kemble, T.M. (1995) Reading Marx Writing

 

@ 5. @ HISTORY AND IDEOLOGY (MAINLY 1845-48)

   (See also '~History in the early writings (1837-44)')

 

@ Theory of history ('historical materialism'): texts

   (For the development of Marx's theory of history see '~ History in the early political writings (1837-44)')

* Marx and Engels [1845-46] The German Ideology, ch. 1 'Feuerbach'

   Marx [1846] 'Letter to Annenkov', 28 Dec 1846

* Marx and Engels [1848] The Communist Manifesto

   Marx [1852] The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Marx's historical method applied to 19C France)

   Marx, 'The British rule in India', 'The future results of the British rule in India', in D. Fernbach (ed.) Surveys from Exile

   Marx [1857] Introduction to Grundrisse, last section

   Marx [1857-58] Grundrisse, section on 'Precapitalist economic formations'

* Marx [1859] Preface to Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

   Marx [1873] Afterword (or Postface) to 2nd edition of Capital volume 1

   Engels [1890] 'Letter to J. Bloch', 21 Sep 1890

   Engels [1890] 'Letter to C. Schmidt', 27 Oct 1890

 

@ The German Ideology

   (See also '~ Stirner and Marx')

   Browning, G.K. (1993) 'The German Ideology: the theory of history and the history of a theory', History of Political Thought 14(3)

   Pagel, U. (2009) Der beunruhigte Marx. Zur Rezeption Max Stirners in der „Deutschen Ideologie" in B. Bouvier et al (eds) Was bleibt? Karl Marx heute, also available online

   Bluhm, H. (ed.) (2010) Die Deutsche Ideologie

   Carver, T. (2010) 'The German Ideology never took place', History of Political Thought 31(1)

 

@ Theory of history: introductions

   Prinz, A.M. (1969) 'Background and ulterior motive of Marx's "Preface" of 1859', Journal of the History of Ideas 30

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism Vol. 1, ch. 14

   Ball, T. (1991) 'History: irony and critique' in Carver ed. The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Rigby, S.H. (1987) Marxism and History: A Critical Introduction, 2nd ed. 1998

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, ch. 8 'Reason in history', also available online

   Blackledge, P. (2006) Reflections on the Marxist Theory of History

 

@ Theory of history: method

   Sayer, D. (1975) 'Method and dogma in historical materialism', Sociological Review 23(4)

   Markus, G. (1990) 'Marxism and theories of culture', Thesis Eleven 25

   Fracchia, J. (1991) 'Marx's Aufhebung of philosophy and the foundations of a materialist science of history', History and Theory 30(2)

 

@ Theory of history: fuller discussions

   (On historical individuation process, see '~ Individual, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx')

   (See also '~ Recognition in Marxist historiography')

   Plekhanov, G.V. [1895] The Development of the Monist View of History

   Plekhanov, G.V. [1897] 'The materialist conception of history'

   Plekhanov, G.V. [1908] Fundamental Problems of Marxism

   Labriola, A. [1896] Essays on the Materialist Conception of History

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History

   Rader, M. (1979) Marx's Interpretation of History

   McLellan, G. (1981) Marxism and the Methodologies of History

   Larrain, J. (1986) A Reconstruction of Historical Materialism

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction

   Wood, E.M. (1995) Democracy Against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism

 

@ Theory of history: class-struggle based interpretations

   (See also '~ Praxis and activity as the basis of Marx's theory of history')

   Thompson, E. (1966) The Making of the English Working Class

   Wood, E.M. (1995) Democracy Against Capitalism

 

@ Teleology in Marx's theory of history, history as human self-realisation

   (For history as the development of freedom see '~ Modernism in Marx')

   (See also '~ Species-being as a normative ground')

   (See also '~ Communism as emergent of out of capitalism')

   Adorno, T. [1964-65] History and Freedom: Lectures 1964-65, tr. 2001

   Tucker, R.C. (1968) 'Marx and the end of history', Diogenes 16(64)

   LeoGrande, W.M. (1977) 'An investigation into the "Young Marx" controversy', Science and Society 41(2)

   Hunt, E.K. (1978) 'A comment on William LeoGrande's approach to the "Young Marx"', Science and Society 42(1)

   Chitty, Andrew (1994) 'Marx, moral consciousness and history', in C. Bertram and A. Chitty (eds) Has History Ended?

 

@ Determinism, @ inevitability and @ agency in Marx's theory of history

   (Development of the forces of production vs. class struggle as the engine of history. Also the 'economist vs. voluntarist' debate about the degree to which revolutionary action is possible autonomously of economic conditions)

   Kant [1784] 'Idea for a universal history from a cosmopolitan point of view', in his Political Writings or On History

   Plekhanov, G. [1898] 'The role of the individual in history'

   Timpanaro, S. [1970] 'Engels, materialism and "free will"' in his On Materialism

   Novack, G. (1972) 'The Marxist theory of history and the individual', in Novack's Understanding History: Marxist Essays

   Shaw, W.H. (1979) 'The handmill gives you the feudal lord': Marx's technological determinism', History and Theory 18

   Sherman, H. (1981) 'Marx and determinism', Journal of Economic Issues 15(1)

   Bien, J. (1984) History, Revolution and Human Nature: Marx's Philosophical Anthropology

   Callinicos, A. (1987) Making History: Agency, Structure and Change in Social Theory

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1988) 'Historical inevitability and human agency in Marxism, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A 407(1832), reprinted in his History Labour and Freedom

   Shaw, W.H. (1988) 'Plekhanov on the role of the individual in history', Studies in East European Thought (formerly Studies in Soviet Thought) 35(3)

   Bimber, B. (1990) 'Karl Marx and the three faces of technological determinism', Social Studies of Science 20(2)

   Ferraro, J. (1992) Freedom and Determination in History According to Marx and Engels

   Milonakis, D. (1997) 'The dynamics of history: structure and agency in historical evolution', Science and Society 61(3)

   Holloway, J. (2002) Change the World without taking Power: The Meaning of Revolution Today, ch. 7

   Laibman, D. (2006) '"The end of history? The problem of agency and change in historical materialist theory', Science & Society 70(2)

 

@ Technological determinism in non-Marxists

   Winner, L. (1978) Autonomous Technology: Technics-Out-Of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought

   Winner, L. (1986) 'Do artefacts have politics?, in his The Whale and the Reactor

   Marx, L. and Smith, L.R. (eds) (1994) Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism

   Chandler, D. (1995) 'Technological or media determinism', available online

 

@ Historical and ontological materialism

   Engels [1883] 'Speech at the graveside of Karl Marx'

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Being, consciousness and roles: on the foundations of historical materialism' in C. Abramsky and B. Williams (eds) Essays in Honour of E.H. Carr

   Collier, A. (1979) 'Materialism and explanation in the human sciences', in Mepham and Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy Vol. 2

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1988) History, Labour and Freedom ch. 7 'On an argument for historical materialism'

   Blackburn, R.J. (1990) The Vampire of Reason, introduction

   Hughes, J. (1998??) The Ecological Implications of Historical Materialism, ch. 4 than on ontological materialism)

 

@ Pre-capitalist societies

   Marx [1857-58] Grundrisse, 'Precapitalist forms of production'

   Anderson, P. (19??) Lineages of the Absolute State, Appendix B 'The Asiatic mode of production'

   Wickham, C. (1985) 'The uniqueness of the East', Journal of Peasant Studies 12

   Ahmad, A. (1992) In Theory, chs. 5 and 6

   Melotti, U. (1997) Marx and the Third World

 

@ Social relations of production, and their effect on legal and political structures

   (Including the @ problem of legality: if RPs are property relations and property relations are legal relations then how can RPs explain the legal superstructure?)

   (Also the problem of social normativity: if RPs involve social norms and social norms are ideological then how can RPs explain ideology?)

   Godelier, M. [19??] Perspectives in Marxist Anthropology, tr. 1976

   Korsch, K. [1923] Marxism and Philosophy, NLB 1970, pp. 83-97 religion and philosophy)

   Plamenatz, J. (1954) German Marxism and Russian Communism, ch. 2, sec. 1 'The relations of production' they fetter production; pp. 24-26 says that they cannot be legal property relations because these are part of the superstructure; so what are they?)

   Plamenatz, J. (1963) Man and Society, Vol. 2, pp. 274-292

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1966-67) 'Beliefs and roles', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society ??, reprinted in J. Glover (ed.) The Philosophy of Mind 1976 duties, distinguishes occupying a role from playing it – exercising those rights)

   Plamenatz, J. (1970) Ideology, chs. 2 and 3

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1970) 'On some criticisms of historical materialism 1', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. Vol. 44 section 5 responds to Plamenatz 1954)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Being, consciousness and roles: on the foundations of historical materialism' in C. Abramsky and B. Williams (eds) Essays in Honour of E.H. Carr, secs. 2-5; slightly revised as History, Labour and Freedom ch. 3

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, chs. 2.1, 3, 8 legality)

+ Collins, H. (1982) Marxism and Law, pp. 77-85

   Godelier, M. (1982) 'The ideal in the real', in R. Samuel and G.S. Jones (eds) Culture, Ideology and Politics: Essays for Eric Hobsbawm

   Lukes, S. (1983) 'Can the base be distinguished from the superstructure?', in D. Miller and L. Siedentop (eds) The Nature of Political Theory shared social norms, so that Cohen does not solve the problem of social normativity – but seems to conflate 'constituted by' with 'brought about by')

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1983) 'Reply to four critics', Analyse und Kritik 5 secs. 10-12

   Miller, R.W. (1984) Analyzing Marx pp. 195-205 ambitions of owners - are essential to the nature of the RPs that Marx describes)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1984) 'Restricted and inclusive historical materialism', revised and expanded in Cohen's History Labour and Freedom 1988 of the superstructure as is needed for maintaining the economic structure)

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, pp. 243-258 class – e.g. Asiatic vs. feudal society) (p. 403 raises the problem of independent existence)

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction, chs. 2-3 presupposed for producing in a certain way. Makes PRs not PFs motor of history.)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1988) History, Labour and Freedom ch. 2 'Base and superstructure' (restates his solution to the problem of legality, addresses the problem of independent existence, and then in sec. 3 – which reproduces Cohen 1983 sec. 10 – forcefully points out the causal/constitutive confusion in Lukes 1983)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1989??) 'Collins on base and superstructure', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies ??

   Wood, E.M. (1995) Democracy Against Capitalism, ch. 2 'Rethinking base and superstructure' goods are produced, transferred, consumed)

+ Roberts, M. (1996) Analytical Marxism: A Critique, pp. 52-59

   Chitty, Andrew (1998) 'Recognition and social relations of production', Historical Materialism 2(1)

 

@ Social relations of production's effect on culture

   (See also '~ Ideology')

   Williams, R. (1973) 'Base and superstructure in Marxist cultural theory', New Left Review 82

 

@ Productive forces and their effect on social relations of production

   (See also '~ Social relations of production')

   (For idea of the modern form of labour as constitutive of capitalism see '~ Commodity and ~ value-form ')

   (See also '~ Egoism, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx')

   Marx ?? in The People's Paper 19 April 1856

   Stalin, J. [1938] 'Dialectical and historical materialism', in A History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolshevik). Short Course, tr. 1940

   Skolimowski, H. (1966) 'The structure of thinking in technology', in Mitcham, C. and MacKay, R. (eds) Philosophy and Technology, 1972 (J. Hughes: defines technological progress as increasing efficiency in producing objects to achieve an end – which end is given by the nature of the object)

   Jarvie, I.C. (1966) 'The social character of technological progress: comments on Skolimowski's paper', in Mitcham, C. and MacKay, R. (eds) Philosophy and Technology, 1972 (J. Hughes: modifies Skolimowski's view by saying that the 'end' of a product is determined socially, not by its nature)

   Balibar [1968] in Althusser, L. Reading Capital, pp. 226 ff.  (defines RPs in a similar way to Cohen)

   Thompson, E.P. (197??) The Poverty of Theory  (see quotes in Wood 1995)

   Lukacs, Georg (197??) The Ontology of Social Being

   Sayers, S. (1980) 'Forces of production and relations of production in socialist society', Radical Philosophy 24

   Sayers, S. (1984) 'Marxism and the dialectical method: a critique of G.A. Cohen', Radical Philosophy 36  (Argues that PFs and RPs are internally related, so PFs cannot be defined in a socio-neutral way)

   Larrain, J. (1986) A Reconstruction of Historical Materialism, pp. 71ff

   Mills, C.W. (1989) 'Is it immaterial that there's a "material" in "historical materialism"?', Inquiry 32 

   Wolf, E. Europe and the People without History, ch. 2  (J. Rosenberg)

 

@ Functionalist accounts of Marx's theory of historical change

   (Cohen and predecessors)

   (For Cohen on other topics see 'Analytical Marxism: ~ Cohen')

   Plekhanov, G. [19??] Fundamental Problems of Marxism, parts 6-14

   Plekhanov, G. [c.1910] Development of the Monist View of History

   Shaw, W. (197??) Marx's Theory of History

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, chs. 4,6,9,10

+ Cohen, Gerry A. (1983) 'Forces and relations of production', in B. Matthews (ed.) Marxism: A Hundred Years On, reprinted in J. Roemer (ed.) Analytical Marxism 1986

+ Cohen, Gerry A. (1989) 'Forces and relations of production', in Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

+ Roberts, M. (1996) Analytical Marxism: A Critique, chs. 3-5

 

@ Methodological individualist criticism of functionalist explanation in Marxism

   (And of 'teleological' thinking in general in Marxism)

   (The Cohen-Elster debate, revolving around the question of to what extent functional explanations in general need elaboration by specifying causal or intentional feedback-loop mechanisms to be valid/ satisfactory/ full)

   (For methodological individualist Marxism in general see '~ Rational choice Marxism')

   (For specific criticisms of Cohen's explanations of transitions, and rational choice alternatives, see '~ Rational choice approaches to the problem of transition between epochs')

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, ch. 9 'Functional explanation: in general' esp. secs. 1-4 (pp. 249-264), ch. 10 'Functional explanation: in Marxism' esp. secs. 4-5 (pp. 285-296)

   Cohen, M. et als. (eds) (1980) Marx, Justice and History, part 2, esp. piece by Buchanan

   Elster, J. (1980) 'Cohen on Marx's theory of history', Political Studies 28(1)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1980) 'Functional explanations: a reply to Elster', Political Studies 28(1)

   Elster, J. (1982) 'Marxism, functionalism and game theory: the case for methodological individualism', Theory and Society 11(4), reprinted in Callinicos (ed.) Marxist Theory, and in D. Matravers and J.E. Pike (eds) Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1982) 'Functional explanation, consequence explanation and Marxism', Inquiry 25

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1982) 'Reply to Elster on "Marxism, functionalism and game theory"', Theory and Society 11(4), reprinted in Callinicos (ed.) Marxist Theory

   Roemer, J. (1982) 'Methodological individualism and deductive Marxism', Theory and Society 11(4)

   Elster, J. (1983) Explaining Technical Change

   Halfpenny, P. (1983) 'A refutation of historical materialism?', Social Science Information 22(1), pp 61-87, reprinted in Marx's Theory of History: The Contemporary Debate, (ed.) P. Wetherly, 1992

+ Elster, J. (1983) Explaining Technical Change, pp. 64-68

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, ch. 2.4, ch. 5

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1986) 'Marxism and functional explanation'

   Elster, J. (1986) 'Further thoughts on Marxism, functionalism and game theory', in J. Roemer (ed.) Analytical Marxism

   Carling, A. (1991) Social Division, ch. 1

 

@ Rational choice approaches to the problem of transition between epochs

   (Esp. transition to capitalism)

   (See also '~ Rational choice Marxism: general')

   (For transition to socialism see '~ Rational choice approaches to class action and class consciousness')

   The German Ideology, ch. 1

   Communist Manifesto

   Capital Vol. 1, chs. 26-33

   Brenner, R. (1976) 'Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Europe', Past and Present 70, reprinted in Aston, T.H. and Philpin, C.H.E. (eds) The Brenner Debate, 1985

   Brenner, R. (1977) 'The origins of capitalist development: a critique of neo-Smithian Marxism', New Left Review 104, reprinted in Aston, T.H. and Philpin, C.H.E. (eds) The Brenner Debate, 1985

   Cohen, G. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, ch. 10 secs. 4-5 (pp. 285-296)

   Levine, A. and Wright, E.O. (1980) 'Rationality and class struggle', New Left Review 123, reprinted in Callinicos, A. (ed.) Marxist Theory, 1989; substantially revised as ch. 2 of E.O. Wright, A. Levine and E. Sober Reconstructing Marxism 1992

   Nielsen, K. (1983) 'On taking historical materialism seriously', Dialogue 22(2)

   Cohen, J. (1982) Review of Cohen: Karl Marx's Theory of History, Journal of Philosophy

   Brenner, R. (1982) 'The agrarian roots of European capitalism', Past and Present 97, reprinted in Aston, T.H. and Philpin, C.H.E. (eds) The Brenner Debate 1985

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1983) 'Reply to four critics', Analyse und Kritik 5

   Elster, J. (1984) 'Historical materialism and economic backwardness', in Ball, T. and Farr, J. (eds) After Marx

   Wood, E.M. (1984) 'Marxism and the course of history', New Left Review 147

   Van Parijs, P. (1984) 'Marxism's central puzzle', in Ball, T. and Farr, J. (eds) After Marx, earlier version published in German in Analyse und Kritik 4, 1982

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, ch. 5

   Brenner, R. (1985) 'Marx's two theories of transition to capitalism (part one)', Acts du Colloque Marx, Paris

   Brenner, R. (1986) 'The social basis of economic development', in Analytical Marxism, (ed.) J. Roemer

   Buchanan, A.E. (1987) 'Marx, morality and history: an assessment of recent analytical work on Marx', Ethics 98, part 1

   Cohen, Gerry A. and Kymlicka, W. (1988) 'Human nature and social change in the Marxist conception of history', Journal of Philosophy 85, reprinted in History Labour and Freedom, ch. 5

+ Cohen, Gerry A. (1988) 'Forces and relations of production', in Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Brenner, R. (1989) 'Bourgeois revolution and the transition to capitalism', in The First Modern Society, (eds) A.L. Beier et als.

   Carling, A. (1991) Social Division, chs. 2-3

   Roberts, M. (1996) Analytical Marxism: A Critique, ch. 4

 

@ International and intranational competition in Marx's theory of history

   (Darwinian elaborations of Cohen)

   Semenov, Y.I. [19??] 'The theory of socio-economic formations and world history' in Gellner, E. (ed.) Soviet and Western Anthropology, 1980

   Gellner, E. (1980) 'A Russian Marxist philosophy of history' in Gellner, E. (ed.) Soviet and Western Anthropology

   Torrance, J. (1985) 'Reproduction and development: a case for a Darwinian mechanism in Marx's theory of history', Political Studies 33

   Roemer, J. (1988) Free to Lose, ch. 8 'Historical materialism'

   Carling, A. (1988) 'Liberty, equality, community' New Left Review 171

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1988) 'Forces and relations of production', in Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Bertram, C. (1990) 'International competition in historical materialism', New Left Review 182

   Carling, A. (1991) Social Division, ch. 3

   Casal, P. (1994) 'On societal and global historical materialism', in Bertram, C. and Chitty, Andrew (eds) Has History Ended? Fukuyama, Marx and Modernity

 

@ Weakened versions of historical materialism

   Miller, R.W. (1981) 'Productive forces and the forces of change: a review of Gerald A. Cohen, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence', Philosophical Review 90:1; revised and extended version, with references to Cohen excised, as ch. 4 of Miller's Analyzing Marx, 1984

   Wright, E.O., Levine, A. and Sober, E. (1992) Reconstructing Marxism, part 1

 

@ Ideology and 'false consciousness' in Marx

   (See also '~ Ideology since Marx', '~ Fetishism, reification and personification in Marx')

   (On the juridical illusion see '~ Law in Marx: general')

   Berki, R.N. (1973) 'The Marxian concept of bourgeois ideology: some aspects and perspectives', in R. Benewick et al. (eds) Knowledge and Belief in Politics

   Jakubowski, F. (1976) Ideology and Superstructure in Historical Materialism

   Seliger, M. (1977) The Marxist Conception of Ideology

   'On Ideology', Working Papers in Cultural Studies 10, Birmingham

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, pp. 289-293

   Mepham, J. (1972) 'The theory of ideology in Capital', Radical Philosophy 2, reprinted in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy Vol. 3

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method: Ideology, Science and Critique in Capital

   Mellos, K. (1980) 'The concept of ideology in Marx' Social Praxis 7(1-2), 5-19

* McCarney, Joseph (1980) The Real World of Ideology

   Eyerman, R. (1981) 'False consciousness and ideology in Marxist theory', Acta Sociologica 24, 43-56

   Parekh, Bhikhu (1982) Marx's Theory of Ideology

   Larrain, J. (1983) Marxism and Ideology, 2nd ed. 1991, esp. ch. 1

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction, ch. 4

   Nielsen, K. (1989) Marxism and the Moral Point of View: Morality, Ideology and Historical Materialism

   Pines, L.C. (1993) Ideology and False Consciousness: Marx and his Historical Progenitors

   McCarthy, E.D. (1994) 'The uncertain future of ideology: rereading Marx', Sociological Quarterly 35(3)

   Torrance, J. (1995) Karl Marx's Theory of Ideas

   Rosen, M. (1996) On Voluntary Servitude: False Consciousness and the Theory of Ideology

   Rosen, M. (2000) 'On voluntary servitude and the theory of ideology', Constellations 7(3)

   Heath, J. (2001) 'Problems in the theory of ideology', in T. McCarthy et al (eds) Pluralism and the Pragmatic Turn: The Transformation of Critical Theory

 

@ Ideology since Marx

   (See also '~ Althusser on ideology')

   Lukacs, Georg [1923] 'Class consciousness', secs. 1-4, in History and Class Consciousness

   Mannheim, K. [1929] Ideology and Utopia, ch. 2 sec. 1-5, abridged in Eagleton ed.

   Poulantzas, N. [1968] Political Power and Social Classes, tr. 1975, pp.195-210

+ Lichtheim, G. (1965) 'The concept of ideology', History and Theory 4, reprinted in G.H. Nadel ed. Studies in the Philosophy of History, also in Lichtheim's The Concept of Ideology and Other Essays

   Habermas, Jürgen [1968] 'Technology and science as 'ideology'', in Toward a Rational Society, reprinted in Seidman ed.

   Barth, H. (1976) Truth and Ideology

   Larrain, J. (1979) The Concept of Ideology

   Barthes, K. [1957] Mythologies, tr. 1972

   Carlsnaes, W. (1981) The Concept of Ideology and Political Analysis: A Critical Examination of its Usage by Marx, Lenin and Mannheim

+ Geuss, R. (1981) The Idea of a Critical Theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School, ch. 1

   Elster, J. (1982) 'Belief, bias and ideology', in Hollis and Lukes ed., reprinted in Eagleton (ed.) Ideology

   Thompson, J. (1984) Studies in the Theory of Ideology

   Roemer, J. (1985) 'Rationalising revolutionary ideology', Econometrica 53

   McLellan, D. (1986) Ideology

   Hall, S. (1986) 'The problem of ideology: Marxism without guarantees', Journal of Communication Inquiry 10(2)

   Thompson, J.B. (1990) Ideology and Modern Culture: Critical Social Theory in the Era of Mass Communication

   Barrett, M. (1991) The Politics of Truth: From Marx to Foucault

+ Eagleton, T. (1991) Ideology: An Introduction

   Eagleton, T. (ed.) (1994) Ideology

   Zizek, S. (ed.) (1994) Mapping Ideology

   Rosen, M. (1996) On Voluntary Servitude

 

@ Moral progress in historical materialism

   Roemer, J.F. (1982) A General Theory of Exploitation and Class, c. p.243, 271

   Gilbert, A. (1984) 'Marx's moral realism: eudaimonism and moral progress', in T. Ball and J. Farr (eds) After Marx

   Carling, A. (1986) 'Rational choice Marxism', New Left Review 186, reprinted in M. Cowling and L. Wilde (eds) Approaches to Marx

   Roemer, J. (1988) Free to Lose, ch. 8 'Historical materialism'

   Wood, E.M. (1989) 'Rational choice Marxism: is the game worth the candle?', New Left Review 177

   Roberts, M. (1997) 'Analytical Marxism: an ex-paradigm? The odyssey of G.A. Cohen', Radical Philosophy 82

 

@ Sociological materialism

   Wright, E.O. (1985) Classes

   Colletti, L. (1972) 'Marxism as a sociology' in his From Rousseau to Lenin

   Bottomore, T. (1975) 'Karl Marx: sociologist or Marxist?' in Sociology as Social Criticism

 

@ Marx's historiography (mainly of the 1848 revolutions and Paris Commune)

   The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte

   The Class Struggles in France, 1848 to 1850

   The Civil War in France

   Moss, B.H. (1985) 'Marx and Engels on French social democracy: historians or revolutionaries?', Journal of the History of Ideas 46

   Honneth, A. [1992] The Struggle for Recognition, trans. 1995, ch. 7, first section

   Cowling, M. and Martin, J. (2002) Marx's Eighteenth Brumaire: (Post)modern Interpretations

-   Lavin, C. (2005) "Postliberal agency in Marx's Brumaire", Rethinking Marxism 17(3)

 

@ Communist Manifesto

   Cowling, M. (1998) The Communist Manifesto: New Interpretations

 

@ International relations, @ colonialism and @ imperialism in Marx and Marxism

   (See also '~ International and intranational competition in Marx's theory of history')

   Marx, The Communist Manifesto, part 1 'Bourgeois and proletarians'

   Marx, 'The British rule in India', 'The future results of the British rule in India', in D. Fernbach (ed.) Surveys from Exile

   Marx, Capital volume 1, ch. 31 'Genesis of the industrial capitalist'

Marx, Letter to Vera Zasulich

   Marx, Karl Marx on Colonialism and Modernization, ed. S. Avineri 1969

   Marx, On Colonialism: Articles from the New York Tribune, and Other Writings 1972   

   Kautsky, K. [1914] 'Imperialism and the war', available online     

   Lenin, V.I. [1917] Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism

   Avineri, S. (1969) 'Marx and modernisation', Review of Politics 31(2)

   Berki, R.N. (1971) 'On Marxian thought and the problem of international relations', World Politics 24(1)

   Brewer, A. (1980) Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey, 2nd ed. 2002

   MacLean, J. (1988) 'Marxism and international relations:a strange case of mutual neglect', Millennium 17(2)

   Katz, S. (1990) 'The problems of Eurocentricism and evolutionism in Marx's writings on colonialism', Political Studies 38(4)

   Larrain, J. (1991) 'Classical political economists and Marx on colonialism and "backward" nations', World Development 19(2/3)

   Boucher, D. (1998) Political Theories of International Relations, From Thucydides to the Present, ch. 15 'Marx and the capitalist world system'

   Renton, D. (ed.) (2001) Marx on Globalisation.

   Hobden, S. and Wynne Jones, R. (2005) 'Marxist theories of international relations', in their The Globalization of World Politics, 3rd ed.

 

@ Soviet Union: Marxist analyses

   Marcuse, Herbert (1958) Soviet Marxism

   McCarney, Joseph (1991) 'The true realm of freedom: Marxist Philosophy after communism', New Left Review I/189

 

@ Time and temporality in Marx

   (See also 'Modernism in Marx')

   Thompson, Edward P. (1967) 'Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism', Past and Present 38(1)

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Osborne, Peter (2008) 'Marx and the philosophy of time', Radical Philosophy 147

   Bonefeld, Werner (2010) 'Abstract labour: against its nature and on its time', Capital and Class 34(2)

 

@ 6. @ CAPITAL

 

@ Capital: introductions

   Marx, Value Price and Profit, in editions of selected works

   Fine, B. (1975) Marx's Capital, 3rd ed. 1989

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, chs. 12-13

   Harvey, David (2009) Introduction to Marx's Capital

   Patnaik, P. et al (2011) Marx's Capital: An Introductory Reader

 

@ Grundrisse and the 1861-63 Manuscript

   (With thanks to Chris Arthur)

   (For commentaries on the 1857 Introduction, see '~ Method of Capital: general')

   (For capital in general see '~ Capital in general and many capitals')

   Nicolaus, M. (1968) 'The Unknown Marx', New Left Review 48

* Rosdolsky, R. [1968] The Making of Marx's 'Capital', tr. 1977

   Mandel, E. (1971) The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx

   McLellan, D. (1971) 'Introduction', in Karl Marx, Marx's Grundisse

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1972) 'Thoughts on the Grundrisse', Marxism Today 16(12)

   Nicolaus, M. (1973) 'Foreword' to Karl Marx Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft), Penguin and Vintage Books

   Dobb, M. (1973) 'Grundrisse', Marxism Today, 17(10)

   Vygodskii, V.S. [1973] The Story of a Great Discovery: How Karl Marx Wrote 'Capital', tr. 1974

   Tribe, K. (1974) 'Remarks on the theoretical significance of Marx's Grundrisse', Economy and Society 3(2)

   Postone, Moishe and Reinicke, H. (1974-75) 'On Nicolaus "Introduction" to the Grundrisse', Telos 22

   Piccone, P. (1975) 'Reading the Grundrisse: beyond "orthodox" Marxism', Theory and Society 2(2)

   Marquit, E. (1977-78) 'Nicolaus and Marx's method of scientific theory in the Grundrisse', Science & Society 41(4)

   Gould, C.C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality

   Mepham, J. (1978) 'The Grundrisse: Method or Metaphysics', Economy and Society 7(4)

   Oakley, A. (1984) Marx's Critique of Political Economy: Intellectual Sources and Evolution. Volume 1: 1844 to 1860

   Oakley, A. (1985) Marx's Critique of Political Economy: Intellectual Sources and Evolution. Volume 2: 1861 to 1863

   Meaney, M.E. (2002) Capital as Organic Unity: The Role of Hegel's Science of Logic in Marx's Grundrisse

   Musto, M. (ed.) (2008) Karl Marx's Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy 150 Years Later

 

@ General accounts of Marx's economics

   Marx [1865] Value Price and Profit (or else the excerpts from Capital in D. McLellan (ed.) Karl Marx: Selected Writings, from p.415 to p.470)

   Sweezy, P.M. (1942) The Theory of Capitalist Development, chs. 1-12

   Harvey, David (1982) The Limits to Capital

   Cunningham, J. (ed.) (1987) Karl Marx's Economics: Critical Assessments, 4 vols.

 

@ Historical vs. transhistorical categories in Capital

   Sayer, D. (1987) The Violence of Abstraction, ch. 6 'The historicity of concepts'

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method, ch. 4 'Some reflections on the 'General introduction' of 1857'

 

@ Science, scientific method and Marx

   (See also '~ Althusser')

   Blanchot, M. [1971] 'Marx's three voices', New Political Science 7(1)

   Thomas, P. (1976) 'Marx and science', Political Studies 24(1)

   McCarthy, G.E. (1988) Marx's Critique of Science and Positivism

 

@ Dialectical exposition and dialectical method in general

   (See also '~ Ideology in Marx')

   (See also '~ Critique and immanent critique in Marx')

   Engels, F. [1878] Anti-Dühring, introduction ch. 1, part 3 ch. 2 (these sections are reprinted as Engels' Socialism: Utopian and Scientific), part 1 chs. 12-13

   Lukacs, Georg [1923] 'What is orthodox Marxism?' in History and Class Consciousness

   Popper, K. (1940) 'What is dialectic?', Mind 49, reprinted in Popper's Conjectures and Refutations, 5th (ed.) 1989

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution, part 2 ch. 1 sec. 7 'The Marxian dialectic'

   Ilyenkov, E.V. [1974] Dialectical Logic

   Colletti, L. (1975) 'Marxism and the dialectic', New Left Review 93

   Norman, R. and Sayers, S. (1980) Hegel, Marx and Dialectic: A Debate

   Mepham, J. and Ruben, D.-H. (eds) (1979) Issues in Marxist Philosophy. Vol. 1: Dialectics and Method

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, part 5 'The dialectical method'

   McCarney, Joseph (1987) 'Hegel, Marx and dialectic', in D. Lamb (ed.) Hegel and Modern Philosophy

   Murray, P. (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge

   Wilde, L. (1991) 'Logic: dialectic and contradiction', in Carver ed.

   Paolucci, P. (2001) 'Assumptions of the dialectical method', Critical Sociology 27(3)

   Paolucci, P. (2003) 'The scientific method and the dialectical method', Historical Materialism 11(1)

 

@ Method of Capital : general

   (Also commentaries on the 1857 Introduction)

   (As the dialectical exposition of capitalist social relations)

   1857 Introduction to Grundrisse (section on 'The method of political economy')

   Marx, Letter to F. Lassalle, 22 Feb 1858 in Selected Corrspondence

   Capital Vol. 1 [1867], Prefaces and 1873 Afterword (or Postface)

   Notes on Wagner [1879-80] (This is translated, along with the 1857 Introduction, in T. Carver (ed.) Karl Marx: Texts on Method. It is also translated in A. Dragstedt (ed.) Value: Studies by Marx)

   Horkheimer, M. [1935] 'On the problem of truth', in A. Arato and E. Gebhardt (eds) The Essential Frankfurt School Reader

   Ilyenkov, E.V. [1960] Dialectics of Abstract and Concrete in Marx's Capital

   Carver, T. (1975) Marx: Texts on Method, commentary on the 1857 Introduction, pp. 88-158

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism Vol. 1, relevant chapters

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method, 2nd ed. 1983, ch. 4 esp. sec. 2

   Godelier, M. (1972) 'Structure and contradiction in Capital', in R. Blackburn (ed.) Ideology and Social Science

   Hall, S. (1974) 'Marx's notes on method: a "reading" of the "1857 Introduction", Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 6, reprinted in Cultural Studies 17(2), 2003

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1 The Founders, ch. 16

   Bubner, R. (1988) 'Logic and capital: on the method of a 'critique of political economy'', in his Essays in Hermeutics and Social Theory, tr. E. Matthews 1988

   Moseley, F. (ed.) (1993) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Campbell, M. (1993) 'Marx's concept of economic relations and the method of Capital', in Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Reuten, G. (1993) 'The difficult labour of a theory of value: metaphors and systematic dialectics at the beginning of Marx's Capital', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in 'Capital': A Re-examination

   Wouters, A. (1993) 'Marx's embryology of society', Philosophy of Social Science 23(2)

   Moseley, F. and Campbell, M. (eds) (1997) New Investigations of Marx's Method

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2002) The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital

   Albritton, R. and Simoulidis, J. (eds) (2003) New Dialectics and Political Economy

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2006) 'The inner totality of capitalism', Historical Materialism 14(3)

   Engelskirchen, H. (2011) Capital as a Social Kind: Definitions and Transformations in the Critique of Political Economy

 

@ Method of Capital: abstraction

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method, 2nd ed. 1983

   Ollman, Bertell (2003)  Dance of the Dialectic: Steps in Marx's Method, ch. 5 'Putting dialectics to work: the process of abstraction in Marx's method', available online

 

@ Method of Capital: @ logical vs. historical development and the idea of @ simple commodity production

   (For the labour allocation argument in simple commoidty production see '~ Labour theory of value: the 'labour allocation' argument')

   Grundrisse, 100-108 ('The method of political economy'), 459-61

   Engels, F. [1859] Review of Karl Marx: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, in editions of Marx and Engels' Selected Works

   Engels, F. [18??] Introduction to Capital Vol. 3

   Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 8 'Kant, Hegel and Marx'

   Pietilä, V. (1984) 'The logical, the historical and the forms of value', in S. Hänninen and L. Paldán (eds) Rethinking Marx

   Campbell, M. (1993) 'The commodity as necessary form of product' in R. Blackwell et al. (eds) Economics as Worldly Philosophy

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1996) 'Engels as interpreter of Marx's economics', in C.J. Arthur (ed.) Engels Today: A Centenary Appreciation

   Arthur, C. (1997) 'Against the logical-historical method: dialectical derivation vs. linear logic' in F. Moseley and M. Campbell (eds) New Investigations of Marx's Method

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1998) 'Engels, logic and history' in R. Bellofiore (ed.) Marxian Economics: A Reappraisal. Vol. 1, Essays on Volume III of Capital. Method, Value and Money

   Reuten, G. (2000) 'The interconnection of systematic dialectics and historical materialism', Historical Materliasm 7

   Murray, P. (2003) 'Things fall apart: historical and systematic dialectics and the critique of poltical economy', in R. Albritton and J. Simoulidis (eds) New Dialectics and Political Economy

 

@ Method of Capital: 'successive approximations' interpretations

   Grossman, H. [1929] The Law of Accumulation, tr. and abridged J. Banaji 1992

   Sweezy, P.M. (1942) The Theory of Capitalist Development, introduction

   Arthur, C. (1997) 'Against the logical-historical method: dialectical derivation vs. linear logic' in F. Moseley and M. Campbell (eds) New Investigations of Marx's Method

 

@ Method of Capital: @ Hegelian interpretations

   (The 'new dialectics' school or 'new Hegelian Marxism' and parallel German discussions)

   (For more specific topics under this head, see '~ Logic of essence in Capital, '~ Logic of the concept in Capital' and '~ Philosophy of Right and Capital')

   (For the logical derivation of capital from money see '~ Capital: the concept')

   (For discussions of value-form theory that do not specifically relate it to Hegel see '~ Commodity and value-form')

   Zeleny, J. [1968] The Logic of Marx, part 1

   Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 8 'Kant, Hegel and Marx'

   Backhaus, Hans-Georg (1974) 'Materialien zur Rekonstruktion der Marxschen Werttheorie', in Gesellschaft. Beiträge zur Marxschen Theorie

   Sekine, T. (1983) The Dialectic of Capital

   Albritton, R. (1986) A Japanese Reconstruction of Marxist Theory

   Murray, P. (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge, section on 'Hegel's absolute idealism ...'

   Uchida, H. (1988) Marx's Grundrisse and Hegel's Logic

   Reuten, G. and Williams, M. (1989) Value-Form and the State

   Brentel, H. (1999) Soziale Form und Ökonomische Objekt: Studien zum Gegenstands- und Methodenverständnis der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen

   Smith, T. (1990) 'The debate regarding dialectical logic in Marx's economic writings', International Philosophical Quarterly 30

   Smith, T. (1990) The Logic of Marx's Capital: Replies to Hegelian Criticisms, chapter 1 available online

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1991) Review article, Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 23/24

   Shamsavari, A. (1991) Dialectics and Social Theory: The Logic of Capital

   Lebowitz, M. (1992) Beyond 'Capital'

   Hunt, I. (1993) Analytical and Dialectical Materialism

   Smith, T. (1993) 'Marx's capital and Hegelian dialectical logic', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Shortall, F.C. (1994) The Incomplete Marx

   Fraser, I. (1997) 'Two of a kind: Hegel, Marx, dialectic and form', Capital & Class 61

   Backhaus, Hans-Georg (1997) Dialektik der Wertform

   Sekine, T. (1997) An Outline of the Dialectic of Capital

   Rosenthal, J. (1998) The Myth of Dialectics: Reinterpreting the Hegel-Marx Relation, chs. 11-16 Hegelian Marxism'

   Smith, T. (1998) 'Value theory and dialectics', Science & Society 62(3)

   Sekine, T. (1998) 'The dialectic of capital: an Unoist interpretation', Science & Society 62(3)

* Rosenthal, J. (1999) 'The escape from Hegel', Science & Society 63(3)

   Smith, T. (1999) 'The relevance of systematic dialectics to Marxian thought: a reply to Rosenthal', Historical Materialism 4, also available online

   Arthur, C. (1998) 'Systematic dialectic', Science & Society 62(3)

   Albritton, R. (1999) Dialectic and Deconstruction in Political Economy

   Meaney, M.E. (2002) Capital as Organic Unity: The Role of Hegel's Science of Logic in Marx's Grundrisse

   Reichelt, Helmut (2005) 'Social reality as appearance: some notes on Marx's conception of reality', in K. Psychopedis and W. Bonefeld (eds) Human Dignity: Social Autonomy and the Critique of Capitalism

   Reichelt, Helmut (2007) ‘Marx’s critique of economic categories: reflections on the problem of validity in the dialectical method of presentation in Capital’, Historical Materialism 15(4)

 

@ Homology thesis

   (The thesis that the sequence of catgories in Capital can be mapped on to the sequence in the Logic)

   Bubner, R. (1973) 'Logik und kapital' in his Dialektik und Wissenschaft

   Winfield, R. (1976) 'The logic of Marx's Capital', Telos 27

   Arthur, C. (1993) 'Hegel's Logic and Marx's Capital', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination, revised as 'Marx's Capital and Hegel's Logic', ch. 5 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2000) 'From the critique of Hegel to the critique of capital', in T. Burns and I. Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connection

 

@ Logic of essence in Capital

   Reichelt, H. (1970) Zur logischen Struktur des Kapitalsbegriff bei Karl Marx

   Banaji, J. (1979) 'From the commodity to capital: Hegel's dialectic in Marx's Capital', in D. Elson (ed.) Value

   Krahl, H.J. (1970) 'Bemerkungen zum Verhältnis von Kapital und Hegelscher Wesenslogik', in O. Negt (ed.) Aktualität und Folgen der Philosophie Hegels, also available online

   Krahl, H.J. (1971) 'Zur Wesenslogik der Marxschen Warenanalyse' in his Konstitution und Klassenkampf

   Winfield, R. (1976) 'The logic of Marx's Capital', Telos 27

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method: Ideology, Science and Critique in Capital

   Murray, P. (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge, ch. 13 'Marx's theory of value'

   Smith, T. (1990) The Logic of Marx's Capital: Replies to Hegelian Criticisms, chs. 1C, 3, pp. 65-67, 91-94

   Murray, P. (1993) 'The necessity of money: how Hegel helped Marx surpass Ricardo's theory of value', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Reichelt, H.(2007) 'Marx's critique of economic categories: reflections on the problem of validity in the dialectical method of presentation in Capital', Historical Materialism 15

 

@ Logic of the concept in Capital (and elsewhere in Marx)

   Arthur, C. (1998) 'The fluidity of capital and the logic of the concept', in C.J. Arthur and D. Reuten (eds) The Circulation of Capital: Essays on Volume Two of Marx's 'Capital'

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2000) 'From the critique of Hegel to the critique of capital', in T. Burns and I. Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connection

   Smith, T. (2001) 'Review of Hegel and History by Joe McCarney', Historical Materialism 9 (see also the exchange between Smith and Arthur in Historical Materialism 11(1), 2003)

 

@ Philosophy of Right and Capital

   O'Malley, J. (1976) 'Marx's 'Economics' and Hegel's Philosophy of Right: an essay on Marx's Hegelianism', Political Studies 24(1)

   Fine, Robert (2001) Political Investigations : Hegel, Marx, Arendt

   McNally, D. (2003) 'Beyond the false infinity of capital: dialectics and self-mediation in Marx's theory of freedom', in R. Albritton and J. Simoulidis (eds) New Dialectics and Political Economy

 

@ Use-value

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2003) 'The problem of use-value for a dialectic of capital', in R. Albritton and J. Simoulidis (eds) New Dialectics and Political Economy

 

@ Commodity and @ value-form, @ social forms and @ social ontology in Capital

   (The nature of the commodity-form and value-form, including the value/exchange-value distinction)

   (See also '~ Species-being and alienation/estrangement in value theory', '~ Abstract labour and concrete labour')

   (For quantitative aspects see '~ Labour theory of value')

   (For discussions of value-form theory that specifically relate it to Hegel see '~ Method of Capital: Hegelian interpretations')

   (For autonomisation of the value-form see '~ Capital as subject')

   Notes on James Mill, first part

   Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy ch. 1

   Capital Vol. 1 ch. 1

   Capital volume 1 (first edition), ch. 1 'The commodity' and appendix 'the value-form', in A. Dragstedt (ed.) Value: Studies by Marx (there is a better translation of the appendix in Capital & Class 4, 1978, which is reprinted, with a number of minor errors corrected, in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory)

   Letter to Kugelman, 11 July 1868

   Petry, F. (1916) De soziale Gehalt der Marxschen Werttheorie

* Rubin, I.I. [1928] Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, 1973, chs 1, 12, 14. See also the introduction by F. Perlman

   Sweezy, P.M. (1942) The Theory of Capitalist Development, ch. 2 'Qualitative value'

* Backhaus, Hans-Georg [1969] 'On the dialectics of the value-form', Thesis Eleven 1, 1980 (original publication: 'Zur Dialektic der Wertform', in A. Schmidt (ed.) Beitrage zur Marxistischen Erkenntnistheorie)

   Sohn-Rethel, A. [1970] Intellectual and Manual Labour: A Critique of Epistemology, written by 1951, tr. 1978, also available online

   Anton, A. (1974) 'Commodities and exchange: notes for an interpretation of Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34

   Sayer, D. (1979) Marx's Method, 2nd ed. 1983, ch. 2

   Elson, D. (ed.) (1979) Value: The Representation of Labour in Capitalism

   Eldred, M. and Hanlon, M. (1981) 'Reconstructing value‑form analysis', Capital & Class 13

   Reichelt, H. (1982) 'From the Frankfurt School to value-form analysis', Thesis Eleven 4(1)

   Williams, M. (ed.) (1988) Value, Social Form and the State

   Reuten, G. (1988) 'Value as social form' in M. Williams (ed.) Value, Social Form and the State

   Sayer, D. (1991) Capitalism and Modernity, ch. 2 'Mors immortalis'

   Moseley, F. (ed.) (1993) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

* Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Mohun, S. (ed.) (1994) Debates in Value Theory

   Mohun, S. (1994) 'Value, value-form and money' in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory

   Heinrich, M. (1999) Die Wissenschaft vom Wert: Die Marxsche Kritik der politischen Ökonomie zwischen wissenschaftlicher Revolution und klassischer Tradition

   Kliman, A. (2000) 'Marx's concept of intrinsic value', Historical Materialism 6

   Chitty, Andrew (2000) 'Social and physical form: Ilyenkov on the ideal and Marx on the value-form', in V. Oittinen ed., Evald Ilyenkov's Philosophy Revisited, Helsinki (secs. 1-2 of the article)

   Arthur, C. (2001) 'The spectral ontology of value', Radical Philosophy 107, also in A. Brown et al. (eds) Critical Realism and Marxism 2001, shorter version as 'The spectre of capital', ch. 8 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Bellofiore, R. and Taylor, N. (eds) (2004) The Constitution of Capital: Essays on Volume 1 of Capital

   Reichelt, H. (2005) 'Social reality as appearance: some notes on Marx's conception of reality', trans. Werner Bonefeld, in Werner Bonefeld & Kosmas Psychopedis (eds.), Human Dignity: Social Autonomy and the Critique of Capitalism

   Iber, C. (2005) Grundzüge der Marx'schen Kapitalismustheorie

   Reichelt, H. (2007) 'Marx's critique of economic categories: reflections on the problem of validity in the dialectical method of presentation in Capital', Historical Materialism 15(4)

   Anon (2010) 'Communisation and value-form theory', Endnotes 2, also available online

   Engelskirchen, H. (2011) Capital as a Social Kind: Definitions and Transformations in the Critique of Political Economy

 

@ Commodity and @ value-form: @ Postone's interpretation

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Starosta, G. (ed.) (2004) Symposium on Postone, Historical Materialism 12(3)

 

@ Abstract labour and concrete labour

   (See also '~ Commodity and value-form')

   (For the relationship between abstract labour and alienated labour see '~ Species-being and alienatio in value theory')

   Rubin, I.I. [1928] Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, 1973, chs 1, 12, 14

   Rubin, I.I. [1927] 'Abstract labour and value in Marx's system', Capital & Class 5, 1978, reprinted in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory 1994, also available online

   Colletti, L. [1968] 'Bernstein and the Marxism of the Second International' in From Rousseau to Lenin, section on 'The Labour theory of value' and the following two sections

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Marx's dialectic of labour', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3, slightly revised as ch. 10 of Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Gleicher, D. (1983) 'A historical approach to the question of abstract labour', Capital & Class 21, reprinted in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory 1994

   Arthur, C. (1978) 'Labour: Marx's concrete universal', Inquiry 21(1), 1978, revised as 'Dialectics and labour', in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy, Vol. 1 Dialectics and Method 1979

   Carver, T. (1980) 'Marx's two-fold character of labour', Inquiry 23

   Reuten, G. (1993) 'The difficult labour of a social theory of value: metaphors and systematic dialectics at the beginning of Marx's Capital' in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Likitkijsomboon, P. (1995) 'Marxian theories of value-form', Review of Radical Political Economics 27(2)

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Saad-Filho, A. (1997) 'Concrete and abstract labour in Marx's theory of value', Review of Political Economy 9(4)

   Murray, Patrick (2000) 'Marx's 'truly social' labour theory of value: part 1, abstract labour in Marxian value theory', Historical Materialism 6

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2001) 'Value, labour and negativity', Capital & Class 73, Spring 2001, revised as ch. 3 of his The new Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2002) The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital

   Bonefeld, Werner (2010) 'Abstract labour: against its nature and on its time', Capital & Class 34(2)

   Bonefeld, Werner (2011) 'Debating abstract labour’, Capital & Class 35

 

@ Abstract and concrete in Marx (in general)      

   Ilyenkov, E.V. [1960] Dialectics of Abstract and Concrete in Marx's Capital

   Arthur, C. (1978) 'Labour: Marx's concrete universal', Inquiry 21(1)

 

@ Abstraction as a feature of capitalism, @ real abstraction

   Osborne, Peter (2004) 'The reproach of abstraction', Radical Philosophy 127

   Toscano, A. (2008) 'The open secret of real abstraction', Rethinking Marxism 20(2)

   Toscano, A. (2008) 'The culture of abstraction', Theory, Culture and Society 25(4)

 

   Arthur, C. (1979) 'Dialectics and labour', in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy, Vol. 1 Dialectics and Method (revised version of Arthur 1978)

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1996) 'Engels as interpreter of Marx's economics', in C.J. Arthur (ed.) Engels Today: A Centenary Appreciation

   Arthur, C. (1997) 'Against the logical-historical method: dialectical derivation vs. linear logic' in F. Moseley and M. Campbell (eds) New Investigations of Marx's Method

   Arthur, C. (1998) 'The fluidity of capital and the logic of the concept', in C.J. Arthur and D. Reuten (eds) The Circulation of Capital: Essays on Volume Two of Marx's 'Capital'

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1999) 'Napoleoni on labour and exploitation', in M. Baldassari and R. Bellofiore (eds) Rivista di Politica Economica 4-5, April-May 1999, special issue: Classical and Marxian Political Economy: A Debate on Claudio Napoleoni's Views

   Arthur, C. (2000) 'Epitaph for the USSR: a clock without a spring', Critique 22-23, pp. 91-121

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2000) 'From the critique of Hegel to the critique of capital', in T. Burns and I. Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connection

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2001) 'Value, labour and negativity', Capital & Class 73, Spring 2001, revised as ch. 3 of his The new Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Arthur, Christopher J. (20026) 'The inner totality of capitalism', Historical Materialism 14 (3)

 

@ Labour theory of value (i.e. quantitative aspects of value and labour): general

   Sen, A. (1978) 'On the labour theory of value: some methodological issues', Cambridge Journal of Economics 2(2)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1979) 'The labour theory of value and the concept of exploitation', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8(4), reprinted in J. Cohen et al. (eds) Marx Justice and History 1980, and in I. Steedman (ed.) The Value Controversy, revised version in Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom 1988

   Wartofsky, M.W. (1983) 'Karl Marx and the outcome of Classical Marxism, or: is Marx's labor theory of value excess metaphysical baggage?', Journal of Philosophy 80(11)

   Fleetwood, S. (2001) 'What kind of theory is Marx's labour theory of value? A critical realist inquiry', Capital & Class 73

   DiQuattro , A. (2007) 'The labor theory of value and simple commodity production', Science & Society 71(4)

 

@ Labour theory of value: the '@ third thing' argument and Marx's critique of @ Bailey

   Capital Vol. 1, ch. 1 first few paragraphs

   Theories of Surplus Value, Vol. 3, Progress 1978, pp. 126-168

   Hegel [1817-30] Encylopaedia Logic, §111

   Bailey, S. (1825) A Critical Dissertation on the Nature, Measure and Causes of Value, also available online

   Böhm-Bawerk, E. von [1896] Karl Marx and the Close of his System, (ed.) P.M. Sweezy

   Hilferding, R. [1904] 'Böhm-Bawerk's criticism of Marx', in E. von Böhm-Bawerk Karl Marx and the Close of his System, (ed.) P.M. Sweezy

   Rubin, I.I. [1928] Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, Montreal 1973, pp. 109-110 (hints at a labour allocation argument behind the third thing argument)

   Rauner, R.M. (1961) Samuel Bailey and the Classical Theory of Value

   Moore, S. (1963) 'The metaphysical argument in Marx's labour theory of value', Etudes de Marxologie 7 (Cahiers de l'Institut de Science Economique Appliqué)

   Cutler, A., Hindess, B., Hirst, P. and Hussain, A. (1977) Marx's 'Capital' and Capitalism Today, Vol. 1 chs. 1-2

   Elson, D. (1979) 'The value theory of labour' in Elson (ed.) Value: The Representation of Labour in Capitalism

   Arthur, C. (1993) 'Hegel's Logic and Marx's Capital', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination (see the section on 'Exchange')

   Heinrich, M. (1999) Die Wissenschfat vom Wert, c. p. 200

   Kliman, A. (2000) 'Marx's concept of intrinsic value', Historical Materialism 6

 

@ Labour theory of value: the '@ labour allocation' argument

   (Argument that prices proportional to amounts of labour are a consequence of labour being allocated between different areas of production via market mechanisms)

   (Including versions of this argument that appeal to the idea of simple commodity production)

   Wage-Labour and Capital [1847]

   Value Price and Profit

   Letter to Kugelman, 11 July 1868

* Rubin, I.I. [1928] Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, 1973, introduction (by F. Perlman), ch. 17 'Value and social need'

   Sweezy, P.M. (1942) The Theory of Capitalist Development, ch. 3 'Quantitative value'

   Morishima, M. and Catephores, G. (1975) 'Is there a historical transformation problem?', The Economic Journal 85, 1975

   Sekine, T. (1980) 'The necessity of the law of value', Science & Society 44(3), pp. 289-304

   Weeks, J. (1981) Capital and Exploitation, chs. 1-2

   Rosenthal, J. (1998) The Myth of Dialectics: Reinterpreting the Hegel-Marx Relation, ch. 14 'The universal and the particular in the constitution of value'

   Rosenthal, J. (1999) 'The escape from Hegel', Science & Society 63(3), see section on 'A priori economics'

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2001) 'Value, labour and negativity', Capital & Class 73, Spring 2001, revised as ch. 3 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002, see last section

 

@ Labour theory of value: the '@ equalisation in exchange' argument

   (Argument that the amount of abstract labour represented by a commodity is measured only in exchange so that by definition prices correspond to amounts of abstract labour, associated with the 'Konstanz-Sydney group' - Eldred, Hanlon, Kleiber, Roth)

   Pilling, G. (1972) 'The law of value in Ricardo and Marx', Economy and Society 1(1)

   Eldred, M. and Hanlon, M. (1981) 'Reconstructing value‑form analysis', Capital & Class 13

   Gleicher, D. (1983) 'A historical approach to the question of abstract labour', Capital & Class 21, reprinted in S. Mohun (ed.) Debates in Value Theory 1994

   Eldred, M. (1984) 'A reply to Gleicher', Capital & Class 23

   Gleicher, D. (1985) 'Note: a rejoinder to Eldred', Capital & Class 24

 

@ Fetishism in Marx

   (For the juridical illusion, see '~ Law in Marx: general')

   (See also '~ Reification and personification in Marx'

   (See also '~ Critique of political economy in Marx')

   (See also '~ Ideology in Marx')

   (See also '~ Egoism')

   (For Lukacs on reification see '~ Lukacs: reification, alienation and rationalisation')

   'Debate on the law of thefts of wood', Marx and Engels, Collected Works vol. 1, esp. pp. 226, 262-3

   Grundrisse (Penguin), p. 687

   Capital volume 1, ch. 1 sec. 4 'The fetishism of commodities and its secret'

   Capital volume 2 (Penguin), p. 303

   Capital volume 3, ch. 48 'The trinity formula' (on fetishism of capital and land)

   Results of the Immediate Process of Production, in Capital Vol. 1 (Penguin) p. 1046

   Rubin, I.I. [1928] Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, 1973

   Korsch, K. (1963) Karl Marx, ch. on 'The fetishism of commodities'

   Lichtman, R. [1969??] Essays in Critical Social Theory, the essay on ideology

   Perlman, F. (1970) 'Essay on commodity fetishism', Telos 6

* Geras, N. (1971) 'Essence and appearance: aspects of fetishism in Marx's Capital', New Left Review 65, also in Geras Literature of Revolution, also (as 'Marx and the critique of political economy') in R. Blackburn (ed.) Ideology and Social Science

   Rovatti, P.A. (1972) 'Fetishism and the economic categories', Telos 14

   Rovatti, P.A. (1973) 'The critique of fetishism in Marx's Grundrisse', Telos 17

   Friedman, J. (1974) 'The place of fetishism and the problem of materialist interpretations', Critique of Anthropology 1

   Carver, T. (1975) 'Marx's commodity fetishism', Inquiry 18

   Steinvorth, U. (1976) 'Marx's analysis of commodity exchange', Inquiry 19

   Brewster, B. (1976) 'Fetishism in Capital and Reading Capital', Economy and Society 5(3)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, ch. 5 'Fetishism'

   Lange, E.M. (1978) 'Wertformanalyse, Geldkritik und die Konstruktion des Fetischismus bei Marx', Neue Hefte fur Philosophie 13

   Mepham, J. (1979) 'The theory of ideology in Capital', in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy, Vol. 3

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, relevant chapters

   Ripstein, A. (1987) 'Commodity fetishism', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17(4)

   Balabah, O. (1990) 'Self-consciousness and fetishism', Explorations in Knowledge 7(1)

   Derrida, J. (1994) Spectres of Marx, chs. 4-5

   Rosen, M. (1996) On Voluntary Servitude: False Consciousness and the Theory of Ideology, section on commodity fetishism

   Knafo, S. (2002) 'The fetishizing subject in Marx's Capital', Capital & Class 76

 

@ Reification and @ personification in Marx

   Dunayevskaya, R. 'Reification of people and the fetishism of commodities', in The Raya Dunayevskaya Collection

   Levine, A. (1978) 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8

   Markus, G. (1982) 'Alienation and reification in Marx and Lukacs', Thesis Eleven 5/6

+ Petrovic, G. (1983) 'Reification', in T. Bottomore (ed.) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought

   Burris, V. (1988) 'Reification: a Marxist perspective', California Sociologist 10(1), available online

 

@ Fetishism and hypostatisation

   Rotenstreich, N. (1980) 'Hypostasis and fetishmaking', Kant-Studien 71

   Christensen, K.R. (1987) 'Marx, human nature and the fetishism of concepts', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 34

 

@ Fetishism and idolatry

   Principe, M.A. (1996) 'Marx, natural religion, and capitalism', Dialogos 31:67

   Lowy, M. (1997) 'L'idolatrie du marché', Concordia: Internazionale Zeitschrift fur Philosophie 32

 

@ Fetishism: its effects on political agency

   (For this in Lukacs see '~ Lukacs')

   Levin, M. (1980) 'Marx and working class consciousness', History of Political Thought, 1(3), pp. 499-515

   Johnson, C. (1980) 'The problem of reformism and Marx's theory of fetishism', New Left Review 119

   Schwalbe, M.L. (1986) The Psychosocial Consequences of Natural and Alienated Labour

   Rosen, M. (1996) 'Essence and appearance', in his On Voluntary Servitude

   Dimoulis, D. and Milios, J. (2004) 'Commodity fetishism vs. capital fetishism: Marxist interpretations vis-à-vis Marx's analyses in Capital', Historical Materialism 12(3)

   Wayne, M. (2005) 'Fetishism and ideology: a reply to Dimoulis and Milios', Historical Materialism 13(3)

 

@ Contradictions of commodity production

   (Including the idea that it involves an unconscious sociality that becomes conscious in communism)

   (For idea that in commodity production sociality takes alien form see '~ Alienation/estrangement')

   Notes on James Mill

   Letter to Kugelman, 11 July 1868

   Capital vol. 1 ch. 1 (first edition) [1867], in Value: Studies by Marx 1976, p. 40

   Capital vol. 1 (Penguin), p. 209

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

 

@ Money: in Marx, Marxists and others

   Simmel, G. [1907] The Philosophy of Money

   Brunhoff, S. de (1976) Marx on Money

   Murray, P. (1993) 'The necessity of money: how Hegel helped Marx surpass Ricardo's theory of value', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Buchan, J. (1997) Frozen Desire: An Enquiry into the Meaning of Money

   Goodwin, B. (1986) 'The political philosophy of money', History of Political Thought 7

   Lapavitsas, C. (2000) 'Money and capitalism: the significance of commodity money', Review of Radical Political Economy 32(4)

   Heinrich , M. [2002] 'A thing with transcendental qualities: money as a social relationship in capitalism', MRZine 3 November 2006, available online

   Lapavitsas C. (2003) Social Foundations of Markets, Money and Credit

   Moseley, F. (ed.) (2005) Marx's Theory of Money: Modern Appraisals, introduction available online, full text available online

 

@ Capital: the concept

   Wage-labour and Capital, sec. 3, first two pages (Collected Works Vol. 9 pp. 211-2, Selected Works in Three Volumes Moscow 1969 Vol. 1 pp. 159-60, Selected Writings (ed.) D. McLellan p. 256)

   Capital volume 1 chs. 4-6

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, appendix 2 'some definitions'

   Mepham, J. (1978) 'From the Grundrisse to Capital' in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy Vol. 1 'Dialectics and Method'

 

@ Capital in general and many capitals

   (With thanks to Chris Arthur)

   Müller, M.. (1978) Auf dem Wege zum „Kapital". Zur Entwicklung des Kapitalbegriffs von Marx in den Jahren 1857–1863

   Heinrich, M. (1991) Die Wissenschaft vom Wert. Die Marxsche Kritik der politischen Ökonomie zwischen wissenschaftlicher Revolution und klassischer Tradition, 3rd ed. 2003

   Moseley, F. (1995) 'Capital in general and Marx's logical method: a response to Heinrich's Critique', Capital & Class 56

   Fineschi, R. (2001) Ripartire da Marx. Processo storico ed economia politica nella teoria del "capitale"

   Arthur, C. J. (2002) 'Capital in general and Marx's Capital', in M. Campbell and G. Reuten (eds) The Culmination of Capital

 

@ Transition from money to capital (C-M-C to M-C-M)

   Grundrisse (Penguin), pp. 258-75

   Urtext

   Capital volume 1 chs. 4-6

   Carver, T. (1976) 'Marx - and Hegel's Logic', Political Studies 26

   Mepham, J. (1978) 'From the Grundrisse to Capital' in J. Mepham and D.-H. Ruben (eds) Issues in Marxist Philosophy Vol. 1 'Dialectics and Method', section VII

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1996) 'Capital: a compulsive-neurotic subject', Proceedings of the Political Science Association Annual Conference 1996, reprinted as 'The infinity of capital', Studies in Marxism 5, 1998, revised as 'The infinity of capital', ch. 5 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

* Rosenthal, J. (1999) 'The escape from Hegel', Science & Society 63(3), section on 'Marx's Hegelian temptation'

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2002) 'Labour, value and negativity', in his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital

   Bidet, J. (2005) 'The dialectician's interpretation of capital', Historical Materialism 13(2)

 

@ Exploitation theory of profit, the 'fundamental Marxian theorem'

   (The exploitation theory of profit is the theory that profits are based on surplus labour. The 'fundamental Marxian theorem' is essentially the idea that profit is positive only when surplus labour is positive)

   (For exploitation in general see '~ Exploitation in Marx' and following sections)

   Morishima, M. (1973) Marx's Economics: A Dual Theory of Value and Growth

   Dmitiriev, V.K. (1974) Economic Essays on Value, Competition and Utility

   Steedman, I. (1977) Marx After Sraffa

   Roemer, J. (1981) Analytical Foundations of Marxian Economic Theory

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1999) 'Napoleoni on labour and exploitation', in M. Baldassari and R. Bellofiore (eds) Classical and Marxian Political Economy: A Debate on Claudio Napoleoni's Views, special issue of Rivista di Politica Economica 4-5, April-May 1999

 

@ Money, capital and God

   (See also '~ Fetishism, reification and person-thing inversion')

   Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 12

   Rosenthal, J. (1998) The Myth of Dialectics: Reinterpreting the Hegel-Marx Relation, pp. 53-59

   Deutschmann, C. (2001) 'The promise of absolute wealth: capitalism as a religion', Thesis Eleven 66(32)

 

@ Emergence and development of capitalism

   (Its 'laws of motion')

   Capital volume 1 chs. 26-32

   Capital volume 1, chs. 12,16

   The Communist Manifesto, part 1

   Gould, C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality, ch. 1 'The ontology of society'

   Lebowitz, M. (1992) Beyond 'Capital'

 

@ Capital as subject, @ inversion in the later works, @ spectres and possession in Marx

   (For this theme in the early works see '~ Alienation/estrangement as collective self-subordination')

   Colletti, L. [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 8 'Kant, Hegel and Marx'

   Gould, C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality, ch. 5 'The ontology of justice'

   Napoleoni, C. (1991) 'Value and exploitation: Marx's economic theory and beyond' in G.A. Caravale (ed.) Marx and Modern Economic Analysis

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1999) 'Napoleoni on labour and exploitation', in M. Baldassari and R. Bellofiore (eds) Classical and Marxian Political Economy: A Debate on Claudio Napoleoni's Views, special issue of Rivista di Politica Economica 4-5, April-May 1999

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Derrida, J. (1994) Spectres of Marx

   Bonefeld, Werner

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1996) 'Capital: a compulsive-neurotic subject', Proceedings of the Political Science Association Annual Conference 1996, reprinted as 'The infinity of capital', Studies in Marxism 5, 1998, revised as 'The infinity of capital', ch. 5 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Kliman, A. (2001) 'Marx's concept of intrinsic value', Historical Materialism 6

   Arthur, C. (2000) 'Epitaph for the USSR: a clock without a spring', Critique 22-23, pp. 91-121

   Arthur, C. (2001) 'The spectral ontology of value', Radical Philosophy 107, also in A. Brown et al. (eds) Critical Realism and Marxism 2001, shorter version as 'The spectre of capital', ch. 8 of his The New Dialectic and Marx's Capital 2002

   Knafo, S. (2002) 'The fetishising subject of Marx's Capital', Capital & Class 76

   Arthur, Christopher J. (2009) 'The possessive spirit of capital: subsumption/inversion/contradiction', in R. Bellofiore and R. Fineschi (eds) Re-reading Marx: New Perspectives after the Critical Edition

   Engelskirchen, H. (2011) Capital as a Social Kind: Definitions and Transformations in the Critique of Political Economy

 

@ Subsumption

   (For real subsumption of human psychology, see '~ Individual, ~ identity, ~ subject and subjectification in Marx')

   'Results of the immediate process of production' (printed as an appendix to the Penguin edition of Capital volume 1), pp. 1019-1038

   Murray, P. (1997) 'Redoubled empiricism: social form and formal causality in Marxian theory', in F. Moseley and M. Campbell (eds) New Investigations of Marx's Method

   Murray, P. (2004) 'The social and material transformation of production by capital: formal and real subsumption in Capital volume 1', in R. Bellofiore and N. Taylor (eds) The Constitution of Capital: Essays on Volume 1 of Capital

   Anon. (2010) 'The history of subsumption', Endnotes 2, also available online

 

@ Transformation problem: the Foley-Duménil interpretation

   (Also called the 'new solution' or 'new interpretation')

   Duménil, G. (1980) De la Valeur aux Prix de Production

   Foley, D. (1982) 'The value of money, the value of labour-power, and the Marxian transforamtion problem', Review of Radical Political Economics 14(2), pp. 37-47

   Lipietz, A. (1982) 'The so-called "transformation problem" revisited', Journal of Economic Theory 26, pp. 59-88

   Duménil, G. (1983-84) 'Beyond the transformation riddle: a labour theory of value', Science & Society 47(4)

   Duménil, G. (1984) 'The so-called "transformation problem"revisited: a brief comment', Journal of Economic Theory 33, pp. 34 – 348

   Foley, D. (1986) Understanding Capital

   Mohun, S. (1994) 'A re-(in)statement of the labour theory of value', Cambridge Journal of Economics 18

   Foley, D. (2000) 'Recent developments in the labour theory of value' Review of Radical Political Economics 32(1)

 

@ Transformation problem: the 'single system' approaches

   ('Simultaneous single system' and 'temporal single system' approaches)

   Ernst, J.R. (1982) 'Simultaneous valuation extirpated: a contribution to the critique of the neo-Ricardian concept of value', Review of Radical Political Economics 14(2)

   Lee, C.-O. (1993) 'Marx's labour theory of value revisited', Cambridge Journal of Economics 17(4)

   Moseley, F. (1993) 'Marx's logical method and the "transformation problem"', in F. Moseley (ed.) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination

   Freeman, A. and Carchedi, G. (eds) (1996) Marx and Non-equilibrium Economics

   Kliman, A.J. and McGlone, T. (1999) 'A temporal single-system interpretation of Marx's value theory', Review of Political Economy 1(1), pp. 33-59

   Freeman, A., Kliman, A. and Wells J. (eds) (2004) The New Value Controversy and the Foundations of Economics

 

@ Immiseration (the 'iron law of wages') and the industrial reserve army

   Marx, Capital volume 1, chs. 22, 25

   Baumol, W.J. (1983) 'Marx and the iron law of wages', American Economic Review 73(2)

   Hollander, S. (1984) 'Marx and Malthusianism: Marx's secular path of wages', American Economic Review 74(1)

 

@ Transformation problem: in general

   von Bortkiewicz, L. [1909] 'On the correction of Marx's fundamental theoretical construction in the third volume of Capital', in E. von Böhm-Bawerk Karl Marx and the Close of his System, (ed.) P.M. Sweezy

   Sweezy, P.M. (1942) The Theory of Capitalist Development, ch. 7 'The transformation of values into prices'

   Seton, F. (1957) 'The "transformation problem"', Review of Economic Studies 24, pp. 149-160

   Samuelson, P.A. (1971) 'Understanding the Marxian notion of exploitation: a summary of the so-called transformation problem between Marxian values and competitive prices', Journal of Economic Literature, 9(2), pp. 399-431

   Morishima, M. (1973) Marx's Economics: A Dual Theory of Value and Growth

   Steedman, I. (1977) Marx After Sraffa

   de Vroey, M. (1982) 'On the obsolescence of the Marxian theory of value: a critical review', Capital & Class 17

   Fine, B. (ed.) (1986) The Value Dimension: Marx vs. Ricardo vs. Sraffa

 

@ Crisis tendencies in capitalism

   Marx [1857-58] Grundisse, pp. 421-3, 746-50

   Marx [1861-63] Capital volume 3, part 3 'The Law of the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall'

   Grossmann, H. [1929] The Law of Accumulation and Breakdown of the Capitalist System

   Mattick, P. (1981) Economic Crisis and Crisis Theory, ch. 2 'Marx's crisis theory'

   Perelman, M. (1987) Marx's Crises Theory: Scarcity, Labor and Finance

   Clarke, S. (1994) Marx's Theory of Crisis

 

@ Critique of political economy and of capitalism in Marx

   (See also '~ Critique and immanent critique in Marx', '~ Fetishism, reification and personification in Marx')

   Marx, Letter to F. Lassalle, 22 Feb 1858 in Selected Corrspondence

   Korsch, Karl [1923] Marxism and Philosophy, NLB 1970, pp. 83-97

   Rancieres, Jacques [1965] 'The concept of critique and the critique of political economy', Theoretical Practice 1,2,6 (Jan 1971, Apr 1971, May 1972)

   Pilling, Geoffrey (1980) Marx's "Capital": Philosophy and Political Economy

   Bubner, R. (1988) 'Logic and capital: on the method of a 'critique of political economy'', in his Essays in Hermeutics and Social Theory, tr. E. Matthews 1988

   Backhaus, Hans-Georg [1963] 'Between philosophy and science: Marxian social economy as critical theory', in W. Bonefeld et al. (eds) Open Marxism: Vol. 1 Dialectics and History

   Backaus, H.-G. [19??] 'Some aspects of Marx's concept of critique in the context of his economic-philosophical theory', in Werner Bonefeld and Kosmas Pychopedis (eds) Human Dignity: Social Autonomy and the Critique of Capitalism 2005

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Chitty, Andrew (1997) 'The direction of contemporary capitalism and the practical relevance of theory', Review of International Political Economy 4(3)

   Bonefeld, Werner (2001) 'Kapital and its subtitle: a note on the meaning of critique', Capital and Class 25(3)

 

@ 7. @ STATE AND LAW

 

@ Marx's @ political thought as a whole

   Tucker, R.C. (1956) The Marxian Revolutionary Idea

   Avineri, S. (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Abramsky, C. (19??) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels

   Hunt, R.N. (1974) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels, 2 volumes (Teeple 278: detailed account of development of Marx's thought on politics, but assumes a transition from liberalism to communism in 1843)

   Maguire, J.M. (1978) Marx's Theory of Politics

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, chs. 5,9,14

   Thomas, P. (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists

   Cohen, J.L. (1982) Class and Civil Society: The Limits of Marxian Critical Theory

   Kain, P.J. (1993) Marx and Modern Political Theory

   Carvounas, D. (2002) Diverging Time: The Politics of Modernity in Kant, Hegel, and Marx

 

@ Modern state in Marx

   (Nature of the modern, or bourgeois, or capitalist state, its relation to the capitalist class)

   (For this in the early writings specifically see '~ State in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   (For the specific issue of the separation of the economic and the political in capitalism, see '~ Separation of state and ~ civil society')

   (See also '~ 20th century Marxism: the state', '~ Post-revolutionary democracy')

   The Communist Manifesto [1848], secs. 1-2 and 1872 Preface

   The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte [1852], secs. 4,7

* The Civil War in France [1871], part 3

   Critique of the Gotha Programme [1875]

   Engels [1873] 'On authority'

   Engels [1878] Anti-Dühring, part 1, chs. 10-11; part 2, ch. 4 'The force theory (conclusion)'

   Engels [1884] Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, sec. 9

   Lenin [1917] The State and Revolution, esp. chs. 1-3

   Moore, S.W. (1957) The Critique of Capitalist Democracy: An Introduction to the Theory of the State in Marx, Engels, and Lenin

* Miliband, R. (1965) 'Marx and the state', Socialist Register 2, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed.) Karl Marx 1973, also available online

   Macfarlane, L. (1975) 'Marxist critiques of the state', in B. Parekh (ed.) The Concept of Socialism

* Draper, H. (1977) Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Vol. 1: State and Bureaucracy, chs. 8, 11-15

   Poulantzas, N. (1978) 'Introduction: on the theory of the state', in his State, Power, Socialism

   Kolakowski, L. (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, Vol. 1: The Founders, chs. 5,9,14

   Holloway, J. and Picciotto, S. (eds) (1978) State and Capital: A Marxist Debate

   Hirsch, J. (1978) 'The state apparatus and social reproduction: elements of a theory of the bourgeois state', in J. Holloway and S. Piccioto (eds) State and Capital: A Marxist Debate

   Wells, D. (1981) Marx and the Modern State: An Analysis of Fetishism in Capitalist Society

   Duncan, G. (1982) 'The Marxist theory of the state', in G.H.R. Parkinson (ed.) Marx and Marxisms

   Kay, G. and Mott, J. (1982) Political Order and the Law of Labour, also available online

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, ch. 7

   Elster, J. (1986) An Introduction to Karl Marx, ch. 8 (alternative to the above)

 

@ Law in Marx: general

   (Including the juridical illusion)

   (For this in the early writings specifically see '~ Law in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   (See also '~ Natural law, ~ rule of law and Marx', '~ Pashukanis and the commodity-form account of law', '~ Stateless democracy, withering away of the state')

   (On social relations vs. right and law see '~ Productive forces and social relations of production')

   (For the 'Problem of legality', that is, of social relations of production presupposing law, see '~ Social relations of production')

   The German Ideology [1845-46], see index under 'law, juridical illusion'

   Capital Vol. 1 [1867], ch. 2 (first page)

   Critique of the Gotha Programme [1875], sec. 2

   Cerroni, U. (1962) Marx e il Diritto Moderno, tr. into German as Marx und das moderne recht 1974

   Cain, M. (1975) 'Main themes of Marx and Engels on law', British Journal of Law and Society 1

   Beirne, P. (1975) 'Marxism and the sociology of law: theory or practice?', British Journal of Law and Society 2

   Kinsey, R. (1978) 'Marxism and the law: preliminary analyses', British Journal of Law and Society 5

   Sumner, C. (1979) Reading Ideologies: An Investigation into the Marxist Theory of Ideology and Law, chs. 1,2,6

   Hirst, P. (1979) On Law and Ideology, chs. 2-3

   Cain, M. and Hunt, A. (eds) (1979) Marx and Engels on Law

   Phillips, P. (1980) Marx and Engels on Law and Laws (basically an anthology of quotes)

+ Harris, J. (1980) Legal Philosophies, pp. 251ff

   Szabo, I. (1981) Karl Marx und das Recht

   Kamenka, E. (1983) 'A Marxist Theory of Law?', Law in Context 1, reprinted in C. Varga (ed.) Marxian Legal Theory 1993

   Collins, H. (1982) Marxism and Law

   Cerroni, U. (1984) Marx und das moderne Recht

+ Lloyd, D. (1985) Lloyd's Introduction to Jurisprudence, 5th ed., ch. 11

   Kline, D.C. (1987) Dominion and Wealth. A Critical Analysis of Marx's Theory of Commercial Law

   Lohmann, G. (1991) Indifferenz und Gesellschaft. Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit Marx

   Maihofer, A. (1992) Das Recht bei Marx: Zur dialektischen Struktur von Gerechtigkeit, Menschenrechten und Recht

   Varga, C. (ed.) (1993) Marxian Legal Theory

   Fine, Robert (2002) Democracy and the Rule of Law: Marx's Critique of the Legal Form

   Engelskirchen, H. (2004) 'Value and contract formation', in J. Joseph and J.M. Roberts (eds) Realism, Discourse and Deconstruction, reprinted as ch. 5 of Engelskirchen's Capital as a Social Kind: Definitions and Transformations in the Critique of Political Economy, 2011

 

@ Natural law, @ rule of law, and Marx

   Bloch, E. [1961] Natural Law and Human Dignity, tr. 1987

   Maritain, J. (1964) Moral Philosophy, an Historical and Critical Survey of the Great Systems, section on Marx

   McBride, W. (1970) 'Marxism and natural law', American Journal of Jurisprudence 15

   Szabo, I. (1979) 'Marxismus und Naturrecht', Archiv für Rechts und Sozialphilosophie 65

   Wildt, A. (1986) 'Gerechtigkeit in Marx' Kapital', in E. Angehrn and G. Lohmann (eds) Ethik und Marx: Moralkritik und normative Grundlagen der Marx'schen Theorie

   Taiwo, O. (1996) Legal Naturalism: A Marxist Theory of Law

   Daly, J. (2000) Deals and Ideals: Two Concepts of Enlightenment

   Daly, J. (2000) 'Marx and justice', International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8(3)

 

@ Rights and Marx

   (See also '~ Liberalism and Marx')

   (For this in the early writings specifically see '~ Law and ~ rights in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   On the Jewish Question [1843], sec. 1

   Critique of the Gotha Programme [1875], sec. 1

   'The Jewish Question no. 3', in The Holy Family [1844], CW4 106-124

   Sichel, B.A. (1972) 'Karl Marx and the rights of man', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 32(3)

   Lukes, S. (1981) 'Can a Marxist believe in human rights?', Praxis International 4

   Green, M. (1983) 'Marx, utility and right', Political Theory 11(3)

   Wellmer, A. (1986) 'Naturrecht und praktische Vernunft. Zur aporetischen Entfaltung eines problems bei Kant, Hegel und Marx', in E. Angehrn and G. Lohmann (eds) Ethik und Marx: Moralkritik und normative Grundlagen der Marx'schen Theorie

* Lefort, C. [1980] 'Politics and human rights', in his The Political Forms of Modern Society 1986, also available online

   Waldron, J. (ed.) (1987) Nonsense Upon Stilts: Bentham, Burke and Marx on the Rights of Man, ch. 5 'Karl Marx's "On the Jewish Question"'

   Peffer, R. G. (1988) Marxism, Morality and Social Justice, ch 8

   Pierson, C. (1989) 'Marxism and rights', in M. Cowling and L. Wilde (eds) Approaches to Marx

   Badiou, A. [1993] Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, tr. 2002, first part

   Balibar, E. (1994) ''The rights of the man' and 'the rights of the citizen'', in his Masses, Classes, Ideas

   Baynes, K. (2000) 'Rights as critique and the critique of rights: Karl Marx, Wendy Brown, and the social function of rights', Political Theory 28(4)

   Zizek, S. (2004) 'Against human rights', New Left Review II/34

   Rancière, J. (2004) 'Who is the subject of the rights of man?', The South Atlantic Quarterly 103(2/3)

   Kouvelakis, S. (2005) 'The Marxian critique of citizenship: for a rereading of On the Jewish Question', South Atlantic Quarterly 104(4)

   Leopold, D. (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 150-163

   Stammers, N. (2009) Human Rights and Social Movements, chapter on Marx

   Boyd, C.M.J. (2009) 'Can a Marxist believe in human rights?', Critique 37(4)

 

@ Law, @ rights and socialism

   Thompson, E.P. (1975) Whigs and Hunters, pp. 258-269

   Campbell, T. (1983) The Left and Rights: A Conceptual Analysis of the Idea of Socialist Rights

   Merritt, A. (1980) 'The nature and function of law: a criticism of E.P. Thompson's Whigs and Hunters', British Journal of Law and Society 7

   Sypnowich, C. (1990) The Concept of Socialist Law

   Keat, R. (1982) 'Liberal rights and socialism', in K. Graham (ed.) Contemporary Political Philosophy: Radical Studies

   O'Hagan, T. (1984) The End of Law?

 

@ Crime

   Pearce, F. (1976) Crimes of the Powerful : Marxism, Crime and Deviance

   Hirst, P.Q. (1972) 'Marx and Engels on law, crime and morality', Economy and Society 1(1)

 

@ Pashukanis and the commodity-form account of law

* Pashukanis, Evgeny B. [1924] Law and Marxism

   Pashukanis, Evgeny B. (1980) Selected Writings on Marxism and Law, eds P. Beirne and R. Sharlet

   Le Baron, B. (1971) 'What is law - beyond scholasticism, Logique et Analyse 14

   Balbus, I.D. (1977) 'Commodity form and legal form; an essay on the "relative autonomy" of the law', Law and Society Review 11

   Corrigan, P. and Sayer, D. (1981) 'How the law rules: variations on some themes in Karl Marx', in B. Fryer et al. eds., Law, State and Society

   Warrington, R. (1983) 'Pashukanis and the commodity form theory', in D. Sugarman (ed.) Legality, Ideology and the State

   Reuten, G. and Williams, M. (1989) Value-Form and the State

   Ripstein, A. (1999) Equality, Responsibility, and the Law, ch.8 'Beyond corrective and retributive justice? Marx and Pashukanis on the "Narrow Horizons of Bourgeois Right"'

 

@ History of law

   (See '~ Savigny and Marx')

 

@ Anarchism and Marx

   (See also '~ Stirner and Marx')

   (See also '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality in Marx', '~ Stateless democracy, withering away of the state')

   See also the materials in the Conflict between Marx and Bakunin page in the marxists.org website

   Marx, K. [1873] 'Political indifferentism', in Karl Marx: The First International and After

   Bakunin [1873] Statism and Anarchy, section on 'Critique of Marxist Theory of the State', available online

   Marx, K. [1874-75] 'Conspectus of Bakunin's Statism and Anarchy', available online

   Engels, F. [1874] 'On authority', in collections of selected writings

   Maximov, G.P. (1964) The Political Philosophy of Bakunin

   Thomas, P. (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists

   Gouldner, A. (1982) 'Marx's last battle: Bakunin and the international', Theory and Society 11(6)

   Saltman, R.B. (1983) The Social and Political Thought of Michael Bakunin

   Barker, J.H. (1986) Individualism and Community: The State and Marx in Early Anarchism

   Sharkey, P. (tr.) (1981) The Poverty of Statism, essays by Fabbri and Rocker

   McLaughlin, P. (2001) 'On the fate of the state: Bakunin versus Marx', Labyrinth 3, available online

 

@ Nationalism and national identity in Marx

   Lenin, E.V. (1914) 'The right of nations to self-determination', Collected Works, Vol. 20

   Torr, D. (ed.) (1940) Marxism, Nationality and War

   Davis, H.B. (1967) Nationalism and Socialism: Marxist and Labor Theories of Nationalism to 1917

   Petrus, J.A. (1971) 'Marx and Engels on the national question', Journal of Politics 33(3)

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1983) 'Reconsidering historical materialism', in Pennock, J.R. and Chapman, J.W. (eds) Nomos XXVl: Marxism, reprinted in Callinicos, A. (ed.) Marxist Theory 1989, reprinted with a few changes in Cohen's History Labour and Freedom 1988

   Benner, E.L. (1988) 'Marx and Engels on nationalism and national identity: a reappraisal', Millennium 17(1)

   Avineri, S. (1991) 'Marxism and nationalism', Journal of Contemporary History 26(3/4)

   Szporluk, R. (1991) Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List

   Benner, E. (1995) Really Existing Nationalisms

   James, P. (1996) Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community, ch. 2

   Cocks, J. (1997) Touché! Marx on nations and nationalism, Socialism and Democracy 2, reprinted in B. Jessop and R. Wheatley (eds) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought, Second Series (vols. 5-8), 1999

 

@ 8. @ ETHICS AND CRITIQUE

   (See also '~ Species-being as a normative ground')

 

@ Morality and normativitity in Marx: general

   (Including the 'Marx and justice' problem: he criticises capitalism as unjust yet sees justice as ideology)

   (See also '~ 20th century Marxism: Morality and critique')

   (For immanent interpretations see '~ Critique and immanent critique in Marx')

   (For morality and normativitity in the young Marx see '~ Species-being as a normative ground')

   (For other specific issues see '~ Justice and Marx', '~ Critique of morality and humanism in later Marx', '~ Freedom as an ideal in Marx', '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality in Marx', '~ Species-being as a normative ground', '~ Critique of morality and humanism in later Marx')

   (For Marx on the egoism/moralism and public/private dichotomies: see '~ Individual, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx')

   Critique of the Gotha Programme [1875], secs. 1-2

   Rubel, M. (1948) 'Introduction à l'éthique marxienne', in his Pages choisis pour une éthique socialiste

* Kamenka, E. (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, also available online

   Hodges, D. (1962) 'Historical materialism in ethics', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

   Tucker, R. (1963) 'Marx and distributive justice', in C.J. Friedrich and J.W. Chapman (eds) Nomos Vl: Justice, reprinted as ch. 2 of Tucker's The Marxian Revolutionary Idea 1970

   Gregor, A.J. (1968) 'Marxism and ethics: a methodological inquiry', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 28(3)

   Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, ch. 4 'Is there a Marxian ethic', also available online

* Wood, A.W. (1972) 'The Marxian critique of justice', Philosophy and Public Affairs 1(3), reprinted in Cohen, Nagel and Scanlon (eds) Marx, Justice and History

   Collier, A. (1974), 'Scientific socialism and the question of socialist values', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7

   von Magnis, F. (1975) Normative Voraussetzungen im Denken des jungen Marx (1843-1848)

   Husami, Z. (1978) 'Marx on distributive justice', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8, reprinted in Cohen, Nagel and Scanlon (eds) Marx, Justice and History

   Cohen, M., Nagel, T. and Scanlon, T. (eds) (1980) Marx, Justice and History, pt 1

   Buchanan, A.E. (1981) 'The Marxian critique of justice and rights', in K. Nielsen and S.C. Patten (eds) Marx and Morality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy supp. vol. 7; revised and expanded as Marx and Justice, 1982, ch. 4

* Buchanan, A. (1982) Marx and Justice, ch. 2 'Marx's evaluative perspective'

* Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, chs. 9-10 'Marx on right and justice'

* Nielsen, K. and Patten, S.C. (eds) (1981) Marx and Morality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy supp. vol. 7

   Stojanovic, S. (1981) 'The ethical potential of Marx's thought', in T. Bottomore (ed.) Modern Interpretations of Marx

   Miller, R.W. (1983) 'Marx and morality', in Pennock, J.R. and Chapman, J.W. (eds) Nomos XXVl: Marxism

* Lukes, S. (1984) Marxism and Morality, chs. 1-4

   Van der Linden, H. (1984) 'Marx and morality: an impossible synthesis?' Theory and Society 13(1)

   Caplan, A.L. and Jennings, B. (eds) (1984) Darwin, Marx and Freud: Their Influence on Moral Theory, section on Marx

   Miller, R.W. (1984) Analyzing Marx: Morality, Power and History, chs. 1-2

   McCarthy, G. (1985) 'Marx's social ethics and critique of traditional morality', Studies in Soviet Thought 29(3)

* Geras, N. (1985) 'The controversy about Marx and justice', New Left Review 150, reprinted in Geras's Literature of Revolution 1986, also in A. Callinicos (ed.) Marxist Theory 1989

   Angehrn, E. and Lohmann, G. (eds) (1986) Ethik und Marx: Moral kritik und normative Grundlagen der Marxschen Theorie

   Nordahl, R. (1985) 'Marx on moral commentary: ideology and science', Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15

   Angehrn, E. and Lohmann, G. (eds) (1986) Ethik und Marx. Moralkritik und normative Grundlagen der Marxschen Theorie

   Elliott, J.E. (1986) 'On the possibility of Marx's moral critique of capitalism', Review of Social Economy 44(2)

   Soper, K. (1987) 'Marxism and morality', New Left Review 163

   Nielsen, K. (1987) 'Marxism and the moral point of view', American Philosophical Quarterly 24(4)

   Kain, P.J. (1988) Marx and Ethics

   Ryan, A. (1987) 'Justice, exploitation and the end of morality', in J.D.G. Evans (ed.) Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Problems

   Buchanan, A.E. (1987) 'Marx, morality and history: an assessment of recent analytical work on Marx', Ethics 98

   Nielsen, K. (1988) 'Marx on justice: the Tucker-Wood thesis revisited', University of Tornoto Law Journal 38

   Sayers, S. (1989) 'Analytical Marxism and morality', in Ware, T. and Nielsen, K. (eds) Analyzing Marxism: New Essays on Analytical Marxism, Canadian Journal of Philosophy supp. Vol. 15, reprinted in reprinted in Sayers' Marxism and Human Nature, ch. 7

   Nielsen, K. (1989) Marxism and the Moral Point of View: Morality, Ideology and Historical Materialism

   Peffer, R.G. (1990) Marxism, Morality and Social Justice

   McLellan, D. and Sayers, S. (eds) (1990) Socialism and Morality

   Edgley, R. (1990) 'Marxism, morality and Mr. Lukes', in D. McLellan and S. Sayers (eds) Socialism and Morality

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, pp. 170-174, also available online

+ Lukes, S. (1991) 'Morals' in T. Bottomore Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed.

   Reiman, J. (1991) 'Moral philosophy: the critique of capitalism and the problem of ideology', in T. Carver (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Geras, N. (1992) 'Bringing Marx to justice: an addendum and rejoinder', New Left Review 195

   Margolis, J. (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity

   Gilbert, A. (1992) 'Marx's moral realism: eudaimonism and moral progress', in G.E. McCarthy (ed.) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Churchich, N. (1994) Marxism and Morality: A Critical Examination of Marxist Ethics

   Sayers, S. (1994) 'Moral values and progress', New Left Review 204, pp. 67-85, reprinted in Sayers' Marxism and Human Nature ch. 8

   Wilde, L. (1998) Ethical Marxism and its Radical Critics

   Brudney, D. (2001) 'Justifying a conception of the good life: the problem of the 1844 Marx', Political Theory 29(3)

   Megill, A. (2001) Karl Marx: The Burden of Reason. Why Marx Rejected Politics and the Market

   Cannon, B. (2001) Rethinking the Normative Content of Critical Theory: Marx, Habermas and Beyond

   Sayers, S. (2007) 'Marxism and morality', published in Chinese in Qu Hongmei [Philosophical Researches, Beijing] 2007/9, also available online in English

   McCarney, Joseph (2007) 'An emancipatory science of society', in M. Seymour and M. Fritsch (eds) Reason and Emancipation: Essays on the Philosophy of Kai Nielsen

   Blackledge, P. (2008) 'Marxism and ethics', International Socialism 120, available online

   Henning, C. (2009)'Was bleibt von der Marx'schen Philosophie? Zu Marx' moralischem Perfektionismus' in B. Bouvier et al (eds) Was bleibt? Karl Marx heute, also available online

 

@ Critique and @ immanent critique in Marx

   (Including the practical role of his theory, also interpretations of Marx's critique as making explicit what is already implicitly present)

   (For the role of theory in the revolutionary party see '~ Revolutionary party')

   (For Marx's early view of philosophy as a critique of society and as a force for change see '~ Marx's view of ~ philosophy, ~ theory and practice')

   (On the equivalent ideas in Hegel see A Hegel bibliography: 'Normative stance', 'Rational is real', 'Ethics and reason')

   (On these ideas in 20th century Marxism and sociology see '~ Critical critical theory' and '~ Immanent critique and internal criticism')

   Marx [1843] 'Letters from the Franco-German yearbooks', third letter

   Tucker, R. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, chs. 5-6

   Lobkowicz, N. (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

   Howard, D. (1970) 'On Marx's critical theory', Telos 6

   Brazill, W.J. (1970) The Young Hegelians

   Colletti, L. (1972) 'Marxism: science or revolution?', in Blackburn (ed.) Ideology in Social Science

   Antonio, R.J. (1981) 'Immanent critique as the core of critical theory: its origins and developments in Hegel, Marx and contemporary thought', British Journal of Sociology 32(3)

   Bubner, R. (1982) 'Habermas's concept of critical theory', in J.B. Thompson and D. Held (eds) Habermas: Critical Debate

   Teeple, G. (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847, ch. 1, section on 'Critique and its development'

   Benhabib, S. (1984) 'The Marxian method of critique: normative presuppositions', Praxis International 3

   Benhabib, S. (1984) Critique, Norm, Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory

   Lohmann, G. (1986) 'Marx's Capital and the question of normative standards', Praxis International 6(3)

* McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, chs. 6-8, 10, also available online

   Farr, J. (1991) 'Science: realism, criticism, autonomy', in Carver (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Buchwalter, A. (1991) 'Hegel, Marx and the concept of immanent critique', Journal of the History of Philosophy2 9(2)

   Chitty, Andrew (1997) 'The direction of contemporary capitalism and the practical relevance of theory', Review of International Political Economy 4(3)

 

@ Justice and Marx: general

   (In capitalism and in communism)

   (I.e. distributive and commutative justice)

   (For the issue of whether Marx believes in justice at all see '~ Morality and normativitity in Marx', '~ Rawls and Marx')

   (For justice as a matter of the producer getting the equivalent of what they produce, see '~ Exploitation in Marx' and '~ Exploitation and self-ownership')

   (For the relation between Rawls and Marx see '~ Rawls and Marx')

   (For immanent critique see '~ Critique and immanent critique in Marx',)

   Dognin, P. (1967) 'Échange et "justice" commutative chez Marx', Archives de Philosophie du Droit 12, pp. 13-32

   McBride, W.L. (1975) 'The concept of justice in Marx, Engels, and others', Ethics 85

   DiQuattro, A. (1978) 'Alienation and justice in the market', American Political Science Review 72(3)

   Schedler, G. (1978) 'Justice in Marx, Engels, and Lenin', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 18(3)

   Wood, A.W. (1979) 'Marx on right and justice: a reply to Husami', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8

   Wood, A. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 9 'Marx on right and justice'

* Buchanan, A. (1982) Marx and Justice

   Levine, A. (1982) 'Toward a Marxian theory of justice', Politics and Society 11(3)

   Lukes, S. (1982) 'Marxism, morality and justice," in G. H. R. Parkinson (ed.) Marx and Marxisms

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1983) Review of Karl Marx by Alan Wood, Mind 92

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, part 1 section 4 'Freedom, exploitation and justice'

   Wood, A. (1986) 'Marx and equality', in Roemer, J. (ed.) Analytical Marxism

   Ryan, A. (1987) 'Justice, exploitation and the end of morality', in J.D.G. Evans (ed.) Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Problems

   Nielsen, K. (1988) 'Arguing about justice: Marxist immoralism and Marxist moralism', Philosophy and Public Affairs 17(3)

   Peffer, R. G. (1988) Marxism, Morality and Social Justice, ch 8

+ Kymlicka, W. (1989) Liberalism, Community and Culture, ch. 6

   Pruzan, E.R. (1989) The Concept of Justice in Marx

+ Kymlicka, W. (1990) Contemporary Political Philosophy, ch. 5

   McCarney, Joseph (1992) 'Marx and justice again', New Left Review I/195

   White, S. (1996) 'Needs, labour, and Marx's conception of justice', Political Studies 44

 

@ Needs principle

   ('From each according to his abilities to each according to his needs')

   German Ideology, CW5, p. 537 (attributed to Hess)

   Critique of the Gotha Programme, CW24, p. 87

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, part 1 section 4 'Freedom, exploitation and justice'

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1990) 'Marxism and contemporary political philosophy, or: why Nozick exercises some Marxists more than he does any egalitarian liberals', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, sup. vol. 16 'Canadian Philosophers'

   Brudney, D. (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy, ch. 5

 

@ Radical injustice, and justice as community

   (The idea that the wage-labour capital relation is unjust as such, regardless of the distribution of the product)

   The Holy Family ch. 6.3 (b) 'The Jewish Question no. 3' (passage on relative vs. absolute imperfections)

   1843 Introduction (passage on the class with radical chains)

   Gould, C.C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality, ch. 5 'The ontology of justice'

   Lyotard, J.-F. [1985] 'Judiciousness in dispute, or Kant after Marx', in The Lyotard Reader, pp. 353-7

   Shandro, A. (1989) 'A Marxist theory of justice?', Canadian Journal of Political Science 22(1)

   Daly, J. (2000) 'Marx and justice', International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8(3)

 

@ Exploitation in contemporary political philosophy

   Arneson, R.J. (1981) 'What's wrong with exploitation?', Ethics 91

   Steiner, H. (1984) 'A liberal theory of exploitation', Ethics 94

   Reeve, A. (ed.) (1987) Modern Theories of Exploitation

   Goodin, R.E. (1987) 'Exploiting a situation and exploiting a person', in Reeve (ed.) Modern Theories of Exploitation

   Steiner, H. (1987) 'Exploitation', in Reeve (ed.) Modern Theories of Exploitation

   Van Parijs, P. (1987) 'Exploitation and the libertarian challenge', in Reeve (ed.) Modern Theories of Exploitation

   Kymlicka, W. (1990) Contemporary Political Philosophy, pp. 171-183 (or 2nd edition 2002 pp. 177-187)

   Schwartz, J.K. (1995) 'What's wrong with exploitation?', Nous 29(2)

   Wood, A. (1995) 'Exploitation', Social Philosophy and Policy 12(2)

 

@ Exploitation in Marx

   (For exploitation as the explanation of profit, see '~ Exploitation theory of profit')

   (For Roemer's analysis see '~ Exploitation: Roemer-Wright accounts of exploitation and class'; for Cohen's see '~ Exploitation and self-ownership')

   Holstrom, N. (1977) 'Exploitation' Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7

   Buchanan, A.E. (1982) Marx and Justice, ch. 3 'Exploitation and alienation'

   Elster, J. (1985) Making Sense of Marx, part 1 section 4.3 'Is exploitation unjust?'

+ Buchanan, A.E. (1987) 'Marx, morality and history: an assessment of recent analytical work on Marx', Ethics 98, pp. 128-132

   DiQuattro, A. (1998) 'Liberal theory and the idea of communist justice', American Political Science Review 92(1)

   Wood, A. (2004) Karl Marx, 2nd ed., ch. 16 'Capitalist expolitation'

 

@ Exploitation and self-ownership (Nozick and Cohen)

   (Self-ownership is ownership of my own talents and labour, exploitation in this discussion is thought of as theft of part of the worker's labour-product)

   (For the idea of self-ownership in general see A political philosophy bibliography: 'Self-ownership and world-ownership')

   Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy State and Utopia, pp. 253-262 'Marxian exploitation'

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1979) 'The labour theory of value and the concept of exploitation', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8(4), reprinted in J. Cohen et al. (eds) Marx Justice and History 1980, revised version in Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom 1988

   Ryan, C.C. (1980) 'Socialist justice and the right to the labour product', Political Theory 8(4)

   Yuan-Kang, S. (1980) 'Nozick on Marx's labor theory of value and exploitation', Philosophical Forum 11

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1981) 'Freedom, justice and capitalism', New Left Review 126, also in his History Labour and Freedom

   Smith, A.A. (1982) 'Robert Nozick's critique of Marxian economics', Social Theory and Practice 8

   Reiman, J. (1987) 'Exploitation, force and the moral assessment of capitalism: thoughts on Roemer and Cohen', Philosophy and Public Affairs 16

   Buchanan, A.E. (1987) 'Marx, morality and history: an assessment of recent analytical work on Marx', Ethics 98, pp. 128-130

* Cohen, Gerry A. (1990) 'Marxism and contemporary political philosophy, or: why Nozick exercises some Marxists more than he does any egalitarian liberals', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, sup. vol. 16 'Canadian Philosophers'

   Christman, J. (1991) 'Self-ownership, equality, and the structure of property rights', Political Theory 19(1)

   Warren, P. (1994) 'Self-ownership, reciprocity, and exploitation, or why Marxists shouldn't be afraid of Robert Nozick', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24(1)

   Laycock, H. (1999) 'Exploitation via labour power in Marx', Journal of Ethics 3(2)

   Levy, N. (2002) 'Self-ownership: defending Marx against Cohen', Social Theory and Practice 28(1)

 

@ Exploitation: Roemer-Wright accounts of exploitation and class

   (Roemer: property-relations account of exploitation and class; Wright (earlier): domination account of class; Wright (later): property-relations account of class)

   Wright, E.O. (1978) Class, Crisis and the State

   Roemer, J.E. (1981) Analytical Foundations of Marxian Economic Theory

   Roemer, J.F. (1982) A General Theory of Exploitation and Class

   Roemer, J. F. (1982) 'Property relations vs. surplus value in Marxian exploitation', Philosophy and Public Affairs 11(4)

   Roemer, J. (1982) 'New directions in the Marxian theory of exploitation and class', Politics and Society 11(3), reprinted in J. Roemer (ed.) Analytical Marxism 1986

   Wright, E.O. (1982) 'The status of the political in the concept of class structure', Politics and Society 11(3)

   Elster, J. (1982) 'Roemer vs. Roemer', Politics and Society 11(3)

   Elster, J. (1983) 'Exploitation, freedom and justice', in J.R. Pennock and J.W. Chapman (eds) Nomos XXVl: Marxism

   Roemer, J. (1985) 'Should Marxists be interested in exploitation?', Philosophy and Public Affairs 14, abridged in Roemer 1986

   Wright, E.O. (1985) Classes, esp. ch. 3

   Buchanan, A.E. (1985) Ethics, Efficiency and the Market, pp. 121-122

   Carling, A. (1986) 'Rational choice Marxism', New Left Review 186, reprinted in M. Cowling and L. Wilde (eds)

   Carling, A. (1987) 'Exploitation, extortion and oppression' Political Studies 35

   Reiman, J. (1987) 'Exploitation, force and the moral assessment of capitalism: thoughts on Roemer and Cohen', Philosophy and Public Affairs 16

   Peffer, R. G. (1988) Marxism, Morality and Social Justice, ch 3 'Theories of freedom and exploitation'

   Roemer, J. (1988) Free to Lose

   Smith, T. (1989) 'Roemer on Marx's theory of exploitation: shortcomings of a non‑dialectical approach', Science & Society 53(3)

   Schwartz, J.K. (1995) 'In defence of exploitation', Economics and Philosophy 11(2)

 

@ Rawls and Marx

   (See also A political philosophy bibliography: 'Rawls: left critiques' and 'Rawls as a socialist')

   Rawls, J. (2001) Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, sec. 52 (pp. 176-9), also available online

   Miller, R.W. (1975) 'Rawls and Marxism', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3(2), reprinted in N. Daniels (ed.) Reading Rawls

   Schedler, G. (1979) 'Rawls, Marx, and the injustice of capitalism', Revolutionary World 33

   Peffer, R.G. (1990) Marxism, Morality and Social Justice ch. 8

   Rawls, J. (2007) Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy, pp. 351-371

   Wei, X. (2008) 'From principle to context: Marx versus Nozick and Rawls on distributive justice', Rethinking Marxism 20(3)

 

@ Individuality and @ community, @ particularity and @ universality in Marx

   (How Marx integrates individual freedom and self-realisation into his ideal of community, or how he combines universality and particularity, also the role of Sittlichkeit in Marx's thought.)

   (Inluding the idea of relating to each other 'as individuals')

   (See also '~ Species-being: general)

   (See also '~ Species-being as a normative ground')

   (See also '~ Anarchism and Marx')

   (See also '~ Communist consciousness')

   On the Jewish Question, last page of part 1

   Notes on James Mill, last page

   Tucker, R.C. [1961] Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972

   Schaff, A (1970) Marxism and the Human Individual

   Megill, K.A. (1970) 'The community in Marx's philosophy', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30

   Mitias, M. H. (1972) 'Marx and the human individual', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 12

   Mahowald, M.B. (1973) 'Marx's "Gemeinschaft": another interpretation', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1974) 'Marx's dialectic of labour', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3, slightly revised as ch. 10 of Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Vachet, A. (1975) 'La dialectique de l'individu et de la collectivité dans la pensee de Marx', Philosophiques 2 (April 1975, 23-53)

   Molina, V. (1977) 'Notes on Marx and the problem of individuality' in On Ideology, Working Papers in Cultural Studies 10, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Birmingham

   Cohen, Gerry A. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, pp. 129-33, 'Communism as the liberation of the content'

   Gould, C.C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality

   Miller, J. (1979) History and Human Existence, chs. 1 and 2

   Tucker, D.F.B. (1980) Marxism and Individualism

   Shaw, G.C. (1980) 'Socialist individualism', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 21

   Thomas, P. (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists, ch. 3

   Hook, S. (1983) 'Karl Marx versus the communist movement', Free Inquiry 3, reprinted as ch. 1 of Hook's Marxism and Beyond 1983

   McCarthy, G. (1985) 'Marx's social ethics and critique of traditional morality', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 29

* Lukes, S. (1984) Marxism and Morality

   Nordahl, R. (1987) 'Marx and utopia: a critique of the "orthodox" view', Canadian Journal of Political Science 20(4)

   Forbes, I. (1990) Marx and the New Individual

   Chitty, Andrew (1994) 'Marx, moral consciousness and history', in C. Bertram and A. Chitty (eds) Has History Ended?

   Sayers, S. (2007) 'Individual and society in Marx and Hegel: beyond the communitarian critique of liberalism', Science & Society 71(1)

   Chitty, Andrew (2009) 'Species-being and capital' in A. Chitty and M. McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy

 

@ Recognition in Marx

   (Including Hegel's master-servant relation and Marx, and recognition-centred accounts of species-being)

   (For the ideal of relating to each other 'as individuals' in Marx, see '~ Individuality and community, particularity and universality')

   (For Habermas on this see '~ Habermas's critique of Marx')

   (For Honneth on this see '~ Honneth and Marx')

   (See also '~ Communist consciousness', '~ Labour as intrinsically emancipatory', '~ Class struggle as moral struggle')

   Notes on James Mill, last section

   Habermas, Jürgen [1967] 'Labour and interaction: remarks on Hegel's Jena Philosophy of Mind', in his Theory and Practice, tr. J. Viertel 1973

   Meyer, T. (1973) Der Zweispalt in der Marxschen Emanzipationstheorie, ch. A2

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1983) 'Hegel's master/slave dialectic and a myth of Marxology', New Left Review 142, reworked as ch. 7 of Arthur's Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online

   Chitty, Andrew (1998) 'Recognition and social relations of production', Historical Materialism 2(1)

   Deranty, J.-P. and Renault, E. (2007) 'Politicizing Honneth's ethics of recognition', Thesis Eleven 88(1)

   Held, J.M. (2009) 'Marx via Feuerbach: species-being revisited', Idealistic Studies 39(1-3)

   Varul, M.Z. (2010) 'Reciprocity, recognition and labor value: Marx's incidental moral anthropology of capitalist market exchange', Journal of Social Philosophy 41(1)