Pugwash Study Group on Implementation
of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Conventions
This study group
is the latest in a succession of such groups to have been convened
under the auspices of the Pugwash
Conferences on Science and World Affairs to study aspects of
chemical/biological-warfare (CBW) disarmament. Its membership includes
academic, defence and industrial scientists from around the world
as well as governmental officials involved in the formation and
implementation of public policy regarding CBW. The interest which
these participants have in common is the creation and effective
operation of an international regime for eliminating CBW weapons.
The series originates
in the 5th Pugwash Conference, held in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Canada,
during 24-29 August 1959. This was the first occasion since the
onset of the Cold War during which scientists knowledgeable in fields
from which CBW weapons derive participated in international conference,
coming from both East and West to consider and discuss CBW.
From the conference
and its follow-up activities emerged the Pugwash BW Study Group
(1964-69), from which in turn emerged the initial CBW project (1966-75)
of SIPRI, the Stockholm International
Peace Research Institute. Then came the work, extending throughout
the period from conclusion of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention
to the opening for signature of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention,
of the Pugwash CW Study Group. The present CBW study-group was established
immediately thereafter, seeking to promote both a strengthening
of the Biological Weapons Convention and a harmonious and effective
entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Over the years
some 700 people from nearly 50 countries have participated in these
groups. A detailed account of Pugwash
work on CBW is to be found in volume 866 (1998) of the Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Study Group is directed by HSP through a steering committee and
the good offices of the Pugwash international secretariat. Two-day
workshops are its main activity. There are usually two of these
each year, hosted by the national Pugwash groups of the Netherlands
is on a particular subject, chosen for its topicality and for the
benefit that could result from study-group attention to it. The
Secretary-General of Pugwash, advised by the steering committee,
invites the participation of individuals who have experience in
that subject. There are typically 30-60 participants from maybe
half that number of countries. Participants thereby become members
of the study group, if they are not members already. The proceedings
are private, and, as a further means for stimulating frank discussion,
the ground-rules preclude subsequent attribution of what is said
during a workshop to the participant who said it.
An account of
each workshop, setting out not a consensus summary but simply the
personal impressions of a participant, is subsequently produced
by HSP. These reports are later published in Pugwash
Newsletter and, for a wider readership, on this website.
PSGICC-31: Getting Ready for the Seventh BWC Review Conference in 2011, Geneva, Switzerland, 4-5 December 2010.
PSGICC-30: Preparing for the Seventh BWC Review Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 5-6 December 2009.
PSGICC-29: Moving Towards the Seventh BWC Review Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 29-30 November 2008.
PSGICC-28: The Second CWC Review and After, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5-6 April 2008.
PSGICC-27: Moving Forward after the Sixth BWC Review Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 8-9 December 2007.
PSGICC-26: 10 years of the OPCW: taking stock and looking forward, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 17-18 March 2007.
of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Conventions: Towards a Successful
Outcome for the Sixth Review Conference Geneva, Switzerland, 18-19
Implementation of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Conventions:
Achieving a Successful Outcome of the Second CWC Review, 13-14 May 2006.
Achieving a Successful Outcome of the Sixth BWC Review Conference,
Geneva, Switzerland, 3-4 December 2005.
PSGICC-22: Present Trends and Future Policy Choice, Oegstgeest,
the Netherlands, 16-17 April 2005.
The BWC New Process and the Sixth Review Conference, Geneva,
Switzerland, 4-5 December 2004.
The BWC Intersessional Process towards the Sixth Review Conference
and Beyond, Geneva, Switzerland, 8-9 November 2003
PSGICC-19: The First CWC Review
Conference and beyond, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands, 26-27 April
PSGICC-18: The resumption of the
Fifth Review Conference 2002 and beyond, Geneva, Switzerland,
9-10 November 2002
PSGICC-17: The impending First CWC
Review, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands, 15-16 June 2002
PSGICC-16: The Fifth BTWC Review
Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 24-25 November 2001
PSGICC-15: Approaching the CWC Review
Conference, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands, 23-24 June 2001
PSGICC-14: Key Issues for the Fifth
Review Conference 2001, Geneva, Switzerlands, 18-19 November
PSGICC-13: CWC and BWC experience
sharing, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands, 8-9 April 2000
PSGICC-12: The BWC Protocol: entering
the endgame, Geneva, 25-26 September 1999
PSGICC-11: Implications of CWC implementation
for the BWC Protocol negotiations, Noordwijk, 15-16 May 1999
PSGICC-10: The BWC Protocol negotiation:
unresolved issues, Geneva, 28-29 November 1998.
PSGICC-9: CWC implementation: balancing
confidentiality and transparency, Noordwijk, 15-17 May 1998.
PSGICC-8: Strengthening the Biological
Weapons Convention, Geneva, 20-21 September 1998
PSGICC-7: The CWC at entry into force,
Noordwijk, 6-8 June 1997
PSGICC-6: The Chemical Weapons Convention
in its North-South context, Noordwijk, 11-13 October 1996
PSGICC-5: Strengthening the Biological
Weapons Convention, Geneva, 21-22 September 1996
PSGICC-4: Strengthening the Biological
Weapons Convention, Geneva, 2-3 December 1995
PSGICC-3: The Schedules and the General
Purpose Criterion of the CWC, Noordwijk, 19-21 May 1995
PSGICC-2: Law enforcement, domestic
riot control, and the Chemical Weapons Convention, The Hague
& Noordwijk, 27-29 May 1994
PSGICC-1: Relationships between the
scientific community and the CBW Conventions, Geneva, 8-9 May